Difference between revisions of "Unofficial Service Manual"

From Unofficial Zero Manual
Jump to: navigation, search
(move the 75-10 to the bottom of the section, since this tells the development story more clearly)
(transclude new component)
 
(197 intermediate revisions by 3 users not shown)
Line 6: Line 6:
  
 
; Coverage
 
; Coverage
: Unless otherwise stated, this manual refers to the shared [[S Platform]] and the 2013+ years in particular, as previous model years varied significantly and were produced in smaller numbers.
+
* S,DS,SR,DSR ''AKA'' [[SDS Platform]]/[[Gen2]]
:; [[X Platform]]
+
*: Unless otherwise stated, this manual refers to the shared [[SDS Platform]] and the 2013+ years ([[Gen2]]) in particular.
:: Coverage is reasonable, but progress here would benefit from volunteers invested in these models.
+
* FX,FXS ''AKA'' [[XMX Platform]]/[[Gen2]]
:; Pre-2013 models
+
*: Coverage is reasonable, but progress here would benefit from volunteers invested in these models.
:: Maintenance coverage to keep their powertrains running (battery, controller, and motor).
+
* Pre-2013 models ''AKA'' [[Gen1]]
:;[[FST Platform]]
+
*: Maintenance coverage to keep their powertrains running (battery, controller, and motor).
: The [[SRF Model]] bikes have only just started reaching customers in small numbers, and represents a very large shift in construction and powertrain details, so this may take some time.
+
*: These models varied significantly by year and were produced in smaller numbers.
:* See [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=8758 Unofficial Manual updates based on Zero's SRF] on the EMF forum for notes gathered so far.
+
* SR/F ''AKA'' [[FST Platform]]/[[Gen3]]
 +
*: The [[SRF Model]] bikes have only just started reaching customers in small numbers, and represents a very large shift in construction and powertrain details, so this may take some time.
 +
*: See [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=8758 Unofficial Manual updates based on Zero's SRF] on the EMF forum for notes gathered so far.
  
 
__TOC__
 
__TOC__
 +
 +
[[Category:Service Manual]]
  
 
=Platforms=
 
=Platforms=
 
Zero motorcycles benefit from some commonality around the powertrain. The [[#Motor|motor]], [[#Controller|controller]], [[#Battery_Management_System|BMS]] and [[#Main_Bike_Board|MBB]] are more or less shared across all models, along with handlebars and controls.
 
Zero motorcycles benefit from some commonality around the powertrain. The [[#Motor|motor]], [[#Controller|controller]], [[#Battery_Management_System|BMS]] and [[#Main_Bike_Board|MBB]] are more or less shared across all models, along with handlebars and controls.
==[[S Platform]]==
+
==[[SDS Platform]]<span id="S Platform"></span>==
{{:S Platform}}
+
{{:SDS Platform}}
  
==[[X Platform]]==
+
==[[XMX Platform]]<span id="X Platform"></span>==
{{:X Platform}}
+
{{:XMX Platform}}
  
 
==[[FST Platform]]==
 
==[[FST Platform]]==
Line 80: Line 84:
  
 
;Tools for Everyday Riding
 
;Tools for Everyday Riding
* Torx T45 for MY2015+ to remove the [[Unofficial Service Manual#Seat|seat]] for [[#Fuse_Block|fuse block]] access.
+
* Torx T45 for MY2015+ to remove the [[#Seat|seat]] for [[#Fuse_Block|fuse block]] access.
 
* 3mm allen key for [[#Tank_Plastics|tank plastics]] and [[#Headlamp|headlamp]] upper mount screws.
 
* 3mm allen key for [[#Tank_Plastics|tank plastics]] and [[#Headlamp|headlamp]] upper mount screws.
 
* 4mm allen key for [[#Headlamp|headlamp]] lower mount screws.
 
* 4mm allen key for [[#Headlamp|headlamp]] lower mount screws.
Line 87: Line 91:
 
* 10mm, 13mm wrench (or monkey wrench) for [[#Belt_Tension_Adjustment|belt tension adjustment]] and front brake calipers.
 
* 10mm, 13mm wrench (or monkey wrench) for [[#Belt_Tension_Adjustment|belt tension adjustment]] and front brake calipers.
  
==Consumables==
+
==[[Gen2/Consumables|Consumables]]==
 
+
{{:Gen2/Consumables}}
;Spare Parts for Everyday Riding
 
* 12V fuses (10A, 15A typically).
 
* Tire patch kit, suitable for tubed (pre-2015 DS or FX bikes) or tubeless tires (all others).
 
* Cable ties and electrical tape for wiring.
 
 
 
; Spare Parts for Travel
 
* [[#Belt|Belt]]
 
*: ~$90, only available from Zero.
 
*: Expect to eventually use it as replacement; avoids a delay waiting on delivery.
 
*: Tools for [[#Belt_Replacement|belt replacement]]: 27mm socket with breaker bar, 10mm hex key...
 
* [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Bussmann-Eaton/JJN-100/?qs=vco6xy%252beH1pHxfCrJKaBAA%3D%3D Eaton JJN-100 fuse] or size-matched 200V-rated fuses (30A will do in a pinch, being lower-spec)
 
*: Fixes the [[#Accessory_Charging_Port|accessory charging circuit]] which can be circumstantially blown without compromising the main boards.
 
  
 
==[[Pre-Ride Checklist]]==
 
==[[Pre-Ride Checklist]]==
 
{{:Pre-Ride Checklist}}
 
{{:Pre-Ride Checklist}}
  
==Fastener Maintenance==
+
==[[Fastener Maintenance]]==
Always check for loose or corroding bolts.
+
{{:Fastener Maintenance}}
 
 
Use blue Loctite threadlocker for non-conductive bolts.
 
 
 
TODO: recommend a corrosion inhibitor.
 
  
 
=Frame/Bodywork=
 
=Frame/Bodywork=
Line 117: Line 105:
 
{{:SDS Platform/Frame}}
 
{{:SDS Platform/Frame}}
  
===X Platform Frame===
+
===[[XMX_Platform/Frame|X Platform Frame]]===
{|
+
{{:XMX_Platform/Frame}}
| [[File:2012_zero-x_detail_frame_1680x1200_press cropped.png|link=http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/high-res-photos/photo.php?img=2012:2012_zero-x_detail_frame|none|thumb|2011-2012 X Platform Frame]]
 
| [[File:2013_zero-fx_detail_frame_978x355_feature_8084 cropped.png|link=http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/zero-fx/2013/features.php|none|thumb|2013 X Platform Frame]]
 
| [[File:2016_zero-fx_detail_frame_978x355_feature_15458 cropped.png|link=http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/zero-fx/2016/features.php|none|thumb|2014-2016 X Platform Frame]]
 
|}
 
: The 2013+ Zero frame for FX/FXS (and X/MX/XU) bikes is made of anodized aluminum, weighs 20lbs, and is a combination of cast parts and welded square tubing of 1-inch outer width.
 
: The frame fits two [[Zero_Aftermarket#OEM_Power_Pack_Module|power pack modules]], one [[#Long_Brick|long brick]] module (2017), or one module and an empty space for carrying small cargo.
 
: The FXP fleet model has a crash guard mount option like the SP/DSP models but is smaller and mounted lower.
 
  
;Paint matching
+
==Tail Subassembly==
: All models have the same anodized aluminum with a black finish/paint.
+
===[[SDS Platform/Tail Subassembly|S Platform Tail Subassembly]]===
: Some paint repair suggestions on this thread are worth examining: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6276 FX frame touch up]
+
{{:SDS Platform/Tail Subassembly}}
  
;Iterations by Year
+
===[[XMX Platform/Tail Subassembly|X Platform Tail Subassembly]]===
: Each year's frame from 2013 onward is incrementally improved and stronger than the prior year.
+
{{:XMX Platform/Tail Subassembly}}
: The 2014 frame changed up the way the side plastics bolt on and provides for the power tank via the carrier bracket.
 
: The 2015 frame included pre-drilled holes for the crash guards for fleet/police models.
 
: The 2016 frame seems to be a little more built-up and has additional members bracing the diagonals to the main beams behind the shoulder.
 
  
;Common Frame Components
+
==Tail Extension==
: The [[#Swingarm|Swingarm]] is at least superficially the same as on S Platform models for the same year/generation.
 
: The [[#Steering_Head|Steering head tube]] seems to be the same as on S Platform models for the same year/generation.
 
: Frontend geometry for FX may match DS/DSR, and FXS may match S/SR.
 
  
==Tail Subassembly==
+
===[[SDS Platform/Tail Extension|S Platform Tail Extension]]===
On the S Platform models, there is a separate aluminum assembly supporting the tail plastics (and top rack accessory) that bolts into the "horns" at the aft end of the frame just after the Sevcon controller.
+
{{:SDS Platform/Tail Extension}}
[[File:2015-zero-s-tail-subframe-uncovered.png|thumb|none|Zero S tail subframe with upper plastics removed]]
 
  
The X Platform tail is entirely of plastic; the top rack accessory connects in a different way (worth confirming to understand its dynamic loading limits).
+
===[[XMX Platform/Tail Extension|X Platform Tail Extension]]===
 +
{{:XMX Platform/Tail Extension}}
  
 
==[[Kickstand]]==
 
==[[Kickstand]]==
 
{{:Kickstand}}
 
{{:Kickstand}}
  
==Footpegs==
+
==[[Footpegs]]==
Zero footpegs are cast aluminum pieces, mounted on identical hinges so are interchangeable across models.
+
{{:Footpegs}}
 
 
;Mounting
 
: The mount bracket uses a custom clevis, secured with a retaining E-clip.
 
 
 
;Repair
 
: The footpegs' aluminum casting is relatively brittle, and the pegs tend to break rather than bend.
 
: See [[Footpeg Replacement]].
 
 
 
;Reference
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7851.30 "The pegs are the exact same part used by the Buell XB models (except for the Ulysses), and as the passenger pegs on the 1125R models. They are "sacrificial lambs" to protect the rest of the frame."]
 
  
===Rider Footpegs===
+
===[[Rider Footpegs]]===
{|
+
{{:Rider Footpegs}}
|
 
;Sport Footpegs
 
: Installed on S/SR/FXS models.
 
: Constructed as a cylindrical smooth-surfaced cast aluminum piece with a corrugated upper surface for some grip.
 
: They are spring-loaded.
 
: There is a feeler stud measuring M6X16 with a DIN 1587 M6 18-8 cap/acorn nut.
 
 
 
;Dual Sport Footpegs
 
: Installed on DS/DSR/FX models.
 
: Constructed as a mildly-cleated rough-finish cast aluminum piece with a wide flat surface mounted horizontally.
 
: They are spring-loaded.
 
: Because of their construction, these actually offer less legroom than the sport footpegs.
 
|[[File:footpeg-comparison.gif|thumb|left|S and DS footpegs compared]]
 
|}
 
  
 
====[[Rider Footpeg Removal]]====
 
====[[Rider Footpeg Removal]]====
 
{{:Rider Footpeg Removal}}
 
{{:Rider Footpeg Removal}}
  
===Passenger Footpegs===
+
===[[Passenger Footpegs]]===
: Passenger footpegs are identical to the sport footpegs, since passenger geometry requires reduced legroom and a forward foot angle on the rest.
+
{{:Passenger Footpegs}}
: They are not spring-loaded.
 
  
 
====[[Passenger Footpeg Removal]]====
 
====[[Passenger Footpeg Removal]]====
Line 192: Line 142:
  
 
==Seat==
 
==Seat==
===S Platform Seat===
+
===[[SDS Platform/Seat|S Platform Seat]]===
[[File:2013-zero-s-seat-pan.png|thumb|400px|Zero S Seat Pan]]
+
{{:SDS Platform/Seat}}
The S Platform seat is a proprietary design and fitment.
 
  
;Seat retaining features
+
===[[XMX Platform/Seat|X Platform Seat]]===
* A metal bracket with holes for retaining bolts that mount through the frame from the outside.
+
{{:XMX Platform/Seat}}
*: The bracket also serves to align the seat horizontally since the outer sides of the bracket must slide directly along the inside track of the frame.
 
*: [[File:2013-zero-s-seat-bracket.png|200px|Zero S Seat Bracket]][[File:2013-zero-s-seat-bracket-side.png|200px|Zero S Seat Bracket]]
 
*: The bracket's part number is 20-0508307 and when separately ordered has been observed to have slotted holes to join to the seat for some adjustability.
 
* In front and center, a pair of catches engages the frame's [[#Y-Shaped Underseat Frame|Y-shaped centerpiece]] under a pair of pins.
 
* In front on the lowest outside edge, a pair of tabs point downwards that should slide inside the frame rails.
 
*: Without some care, these easily wind up outside the frame, flexing the seat pan and scuffing the frame lightly with plastic debris.
 
 
 
;Under The Seat
 
:[[File:dsr-under-seat.JPG|300px|thumb|2016 DSR tail layout]]
 
* The large [[#Controller|controller]] dominates the space underneath the seat, on the lowest part of the tail structure.
 
*: There's no room around the controller for anything but its cabling and a conduit for tail lighting.
 
* In front, the 12V fuse block is the main item to access.
 
*: There are cables between the battery and the controller; the MBB and DC-DC converter are beneath these cables.
 
* Behind the [[#Controller|controller]] is the [[#Tail_Wiring|tail wiring]] area which has a little room for a tire patch kit or some tools.
 
*: Of course, storing tools for removing the seat there is counter-productive.
 
 
 
; Dimensions
 
* Seat
 
* Seat Bolts
 
*: M8 with 1.25mm thread, 50mm long with a round end for aligning the seat bracket with the frame.
 
*: With the top rack installed, the diameter of the hole around the head is slightly under 15mm, with a maximum offset of about 12mm.
 
* Seat Bracket Bolts to Seat Pan
 
 
 
===X Platform Seat===
 
The FX/FXS seat is closer to an offroad "plank" seat, allowing the rider to pick their position forward or back.
 
[[File:2013-and-2018-fx-seats.jpg|thumb|2013 and 2018 FX seats]]
 
[[File:2013-fx-seat.jpg|thumb|2013 FX seat]]
 
[[File:2018-fx-seat.jpg|thumb|2018 FX seat]]
 
 
 
;Variants
 
* 2010-2013 X seat
 
*: This seat offers additional height and free movement front to back.
 
*: "The 2013 seat is also known as the off-road seat. p/n 24-01596 - SEAT ROODIN RD-M1231-K BLACK. Taller riders tend to like it as well if their butts hit the bump of the contoured seat." per [https://www.facebook.com/groups/zmcowners/permalink/1767787513290449/?comment_id=1768533619882505&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R0%22%7D comment on Facebook]
 
* 2014-current X seat
 
*: Has a cutout / dip.
 
*: Tapers more at the back (pointy), and flows down the sides a bit more too. Basically it's more contoured to the bike.
 
* Corbin made a low seat for 2010-2012 X platform models.
 
 
 
Harlan at [[Hollywood Electrics]] reports that [https://www.facebook.com/groups/zmcowners/permalink/1384661314936406/?comment_id=1385815301487674&reply_comment_id=1385986874803850&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R4%22%7D the FX seat is an exact match] for the 2005-2007 Honda [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honda_CRF_series CRF-450].
 
  
 
===[[Seat Removal]]===
 
===[[Seat Removal]]===
Line 244: Line 154:
 
{{:Seat Install}}
 
{{:Seat Install}}
  
==Panel Material==
+
==[[Gen2/Bodywork Material|Panel Material]]==
Zero body panels are made from [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acrylonitrile_butadiene_styrene ABS plastic].
+
{{:Gen2/Bodywork Material}}
  
;2013-2016
+
==[[SDS Platform/Tank Plastics|Tank Plastics]]==
: The plastics' color is molded-in, and so it fades over time with sun exposure. On the other hand, they're relatively inexpensive to replace from Zero; ask your dealer.
+
{{:SDS Platform/Tank Plastics}}
: Some use [http://www.plexusplasticcleaner.com/about.html Plexus plastic cleaner] to keep them polished successfully.
 
: [http://owatrol.com/en/all-our-products/7932-polytrol.html POLYTROL Colour restorer] could help with [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6933.msg56801#msg56801 color restoration].
 
: [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retr0bright Retr0bright] solution developed for restoring 1980's yellowed ABS personal computer chassis material ''may'' be of use, unconfirmed.
 
;2017+
 
: The plastics as of this model year are painted rather than molded-in.
 
  
==Tank Plastics==
+
==[[SDS Platform/Tail Plastics|Tail Plastics]]==
[[File:tank-plastics-sp-left.png|thumb|2014 SP Tank Plastics (left)]]
+
{{:SDS Platform/Tail Plastics}}
[[File:tank-plastics-sp-right.png|thumb|2014 SP Tank Plastics (right)]]
 
The 2013+ [[#S-Platform Frame|S platform]] features a "tank" area cradled by the two front frame spars and covered by plastic bodywork.
 
: As delivered, it offers a storage compartment, but can also accommodate systems accessories like the OEM Power Tank battery upgrade or chargers.
 
: All of the bodywork for this area serve the same ergonomic functions of a traditional motorcycle's fuel tank, allowing grip for maneuvering.
 
: Most of this section covers the S platform bodywork, since the X platform's plastics are considerably simpler.
 
The [[#X-Platform Frame|X platform]] features a minimal set of plastic bodywork ahead of the seat which covers 12V circuitry and other cabling.
 
  
;Fasteners
+
===[[SDS Platform/Tail Plastics Removal|Tail Plastics Removal]]===
: Zero plastics all are fastened with blackened M5x15mm mushroom cap socket head bolts using a 3mm allen key wrench.
+
{{:SDS Platform/Tail Plastics Removal}}
: All have black plastic washers with 5mm inner diameter, 10mm outer diameter, roughly 1mm thick.
 
  
;Removal
+
==[[SDS Platform/Lower Plastics|Lower Plastics]]==
: See [[Tank Plastics Removal]]
+
{{:SDS Platform/Lower Plastics}}
  
;Construction
+
===[[SDS Platform/Lower Plastics Removal|Lower Plastics Removal]]===
: All variants of the tank plastics for have identical side pieces and a black centerpiece in soft plastic with a relatively rough finish.
+
{{:SDS Platform/Lower Plastics Removal}}
: The stock centerpiece for 2013-2016 models is a bin container with two drain holes for collected moisture, with a soft bin held together with a simple zipper that anchors via hook-and-loop patches at the bottom of the bin as well as a loop cord that hooks through the front helmet lock.
 
: The bin delivered per model year is different and varies in quality. 2013 seemed to have better construction than 2014-2015 years, and 2016 is somewhere between.
 
: As of 2017, the stock centerpiece is a locking storage container with a spring-loaded hinge at the front so it swings forward to open.
 
: The Power Tank and Charge Tank have tank plastic options which can be bought separately or selected for color customization. Both use a relatively flat surface for the centerpiece, and the Charge Tank has a J1772-sized inlet hold with built in waterproof cover with a spring-loaded hinge.
 
 
 
[[File:Zero Tank Plastics Dewelding.png|thumb|2014 SP plastics - dewelding]]
 
;Separating
 
: The join between the centerpiece and side pieces of a Zero tank plastic assembly is made by plastic weld using a soldering iron into soft hollow plastic pins on the centerpiece that melt and flatten around a lock washer onto holes in the side pieces.
 
: You can break these welds using a relatively careful use of a pair of pliers to basically grip hard and twist on them until they break.
 
:: It's a slightly frustrating process but pretty quick to achieve, in about an hour. A soldering iron or extremely narrowly-focused heat gun can help the process but try not to risk damaging the plastics from overheating.
 
: The original join process can be repeated for the new centerpiece.
 
: Also, this means that the plastic centerpiece you remove will not be re-joinable.
 
 
 
;Repair
 
: See [[Tank Plastics Repair]] for a way to re-join tank plastics that have been de-welded.
 
 
 
==Tail Plastics==
 
: '''Note:''' The author documented the reassembly; removal was inferred. Confirmation would be helpful.
 
 
 
===[[Tail Plastics Removal]]===
 
{{:Tail Plastics Removal}}
 
 
 
==Lower Plastics==
 
Lower plastics for the S-Platform involve two side pieces to direct air towards the motor, and one in front to cover the battery.
 
: There is some provision for guarding the battery compartment against an impact from the front wheel in the case of a collision.
 
[[File:2017-zero-s-battery-front.jpg|thumb|2017 Zero S Lower Front Plastics]]
 
;2012-2013
 
: Relatively angular and have their own bolt mount pattern.
 
;2014+
 
: Lower plastics have a sculpted re-design to deliver more airflow to the motor for cooling.
 
;2017+
 
: Single longbrick models (ZF6.5 and ZF7.2) have lower plastics with a latch and swinging hinge to access the storage area behind the half-size battery compartment.
 
 
 
===[[Lower Plastics Removal]]===
 
{{:Lower Plastics Removal}}
 
  
 
=Steering=
 
=Steering=
  
==Ignition==
+
==[[Ignition Lock]]<span id="Ignition"></span>==
The ignition is mounted on the tripe clamp top in the center between the steering head and the dash.
+
{{:Ignition Lock}}
 
 
The [[#Ignition_Switch|ignition wiring]] connects to a [http://www.zadi.com ZADI] motorcycle lock with a steering lock feature and parking light enable (although the parking light enable is not connected on the Zero).
 
 
 
;Key Blanks
 
: Key blanks can typically be ordered from a dealer.
 
: Key blanks appear to be available generically as [http://www.mrlock.com/jma-zadi-motorcycle-key-blanks/jma-key-blank-zadi-zd23rcp-za-9-p1 JMA ZA9P1 FOR ZADI ZD23RCP].
 
: In USA, calling them "Triumph" keys may help a locksmith find the right blank.
 
 
 
;Maintenance
 
Occasional lock lubrication is recommended, and inspection of the wires for startup enable on the underside of the lock for reliability.
 
 
 
;Troubleshooting
 
: See [[#Faulty Ignition Switch|the faulty ignition switch troubleshooting guide]] for issues with this.
 
 
 
==Lock==
 
The lock for the tank bag (2013-2016) or tank compartment (2017+) and possibly a helmet is keyed the same as the [[#Ignition|ignition]].
 
 
 
The tank bag lock (2013-2016) is mounted to the frame by two (M5?) bolts under the steering head, very difficult to access without taking much of the frontend apart (as it should be, for theft deterrence).
 
 
 
==Mirrors==
 
{|
 
|[[File:mirror-side-2012-ds.png|thumb|2012-2014 Mirrors (side) on a DS]]
 
|[[File:mirror-side-2016-dsr.png|thumb|2015+ mirrors (side) on a DSR]]
 
|}
 
;Design
 
: Pre-2015 Zeros use an angular mirror with a ball mount joint that allows rotating the mirrors 360 degrees.
 
:: Many riders turn the mirrors upside down for a little wider visibility around the shoulder/arms.
 
: 2015+ Zeros use a mirror stalk with an inboard ball mount with about 30 degrees of freedom from the stalk.
 
 
 
;Mount
 
: Zero mirrors are mounted from the handlebars with Yamaha/Ducati-style bolt fitting.
 
: The bolt/thread specification is M10x1.25, left-hand-threaded on the right side and standard right-hand-threaded on the left side.
 
 
 
;Maintenance
 
: (pre-2015) Check that the set screw holding mirror position holds it firmly.
 
: Use a corrosion inhibitor or thread-locker for the set screws and the mount threading since these are weather-exposed.
 
 
 
See [[Common_Modifications#Third-Party_Mirrors|Third-Party Mirrors]] for workable/tested replacements.
 
 
 
==Handlebars==
 
Both S and DS style handlebars are standard through bars that are 1 1/8" (28mm) through the middle section and 7/8" (22mm) in the outer section.
 
===Handlebar Clamps===
 
: The handlebar clamps are 2" by 1 1/8" (28mm) for the entire line of models, clamped with M10 cap screw bolts (35mm length; possibly 50mm?).
 
  
===Handlebar Switch Assemblies===
+
==[[SDS Platform/Tank Lock|Tank Lock]]<span id="Lock"></span>==
: The switch assemblies are fastened with TT20 (1/4 inch) tamper-resistant Torx bolts through the underside.
+
{{:SDS Platform/Tank Lock}}
  
===Handgrips===
+
==[[Mirrors]]==
Handgrips have a Zero logo on them but otherwise are reasonably good stock grips for the 7/8" (22mm) handlebar width at the end of the bars.
+
{{:Mirrors}}
  
===Bar Ends===
+
==[[Handlebar]]<span id="Handlebars"></span>==
For 2014+ models, any bar end accessories that match the 14mm inner diameter will fit.
+
{{:Handlebar}}
: [[File:2016_end_plugs.png|thumb|2014+ stock bar end plugs]]
 
: The stock bar ends are round plastic bumpers held in by plastic threads, so can be removed with a little twisting and pulling.
 
  
;2013 models
+
==[[Front Brake Lever|Brake Lever]]==
: Bar ends are covered by the grip so are not easily changed without changing the grips.
+
{{:Front Brake Lever}}
: Zero did offer heated grips for these models but dropped them after changing the bars in 2014.
 
  
==Brake Lever==
+
==[[Gen2/Triple Clamp|Triple Clamp]]==
Zero motorcycles have a right-hand lever for the front brake, as is common for motorcycle designs.
+
{{:Gen2/Triple Clamp}}
  
;Primary adjustment
+
==[[Gen2/Steering Head|Steering Head]]==
: The brake lever has a dial for adjusting the lever position relative to pad pressure and rider finger reach; set it however lets you operate it comfortably and safely.
+
{{:Gen2/Steering Head}}
  
;Micro-Switch and Set Screw
+
===[[Gen2/Steering Head Bearing|Steering Head Bearing]]===
: A set screw on the inside of the lever adjusts how a micro-switch is depressed.
+
{{:Gen2/Steering Head Bearing}}
: The micro-switch is what activates the rear brake light and the "braking regen" mode at the same time.
 
: Any adjustment or replacement of the brake lever should be followed by recalibrating this set screw to get the desired effect.
 
: Too much free play and the switch will activate when going over bumps and result in a slightly jerky ride.
 
: There is some guidance on how to adjust this: [[Common_Modifications#Brake_Lever_Regens_before_Pad_Contact|Brake Lever Regens before Pad Contact]].
 
: It seems like there's small difference in how this set screw is secured in stock lever compared to replacement lever (2016 SR), even though they look identical. I wasn't able to adjust this screw on stock lever, however replacement lever adjusts with no issues. You will need 7/64 SAE hex key to adjust.
 
: Use some light threadlock compound (Blue Loctite will do) to fix the set screw in the desired position if it seems to move too freely out of the desired range.
 
  
;Adjustment
+
==[[Gen2/Front Fender|Front Fender]]==
: See [[Front Brake Lever Adjustment]]
+
{{:Gen2/Front Fender}}
  
;Removal, Repair
+
===[[Gen2/Low Front Fender|Low Front Fender]]===
: See [[Front Brake Lever Replacement]]
+
{{:Gen2/Low Front Fender}}
  
==Triple Clamp==
+
===[[Gen2/High Front Fender|High Front Fender]]===
The [[wikipedia:Telescopic_fork#Triple_Tree|triple clamp tree]] attaches the fork tubes to the [[#Frame|frame]] via the [[#Steering_Head_Bearing|steering head bearing]].
+
{{:Gen2/High Front Fender}}
 
 
The design and fitment changed from MY 2013-2014 to MY 2015+, when the forks changed from FastAce to Showa.
 
 
 
;Upper Assembly
 
: This sits atop the [[#Steering_Head|steering head]], joining the forks at the top, and supports the [[#Handlebars|handlebars]], [[#Ignition|ignition switch]], [[#Dash|dash]], and [[#Headlamp|headlamp]].
 
 
 
;Lower Assembly
 
: This inserts upward through the [[#Steering_Head|steering head]] tube, joining the forks below the tube, and supports the [[#Headlamp|headlamp]] bracket and the high fender for DS/DSR/FX models.
 
 
 
The upper assembly and lower assembly join around/through the [[#Steering_Head|steering head]].
 
 
 
==Steering Head==
 
This is the tube in the head of the [[#Frame|frame]] that mounts the fork steerer tube.
 
 
 
For 2014+ S and X-platform Zeros, the inner diameter of the steering head is 55mm for a steering tube size of 1in (25.4mm).
 
 
 
;Steering head fastener stack (top to bottom)
 
# Steering Stem Thin Nut (M27⨉1.5mm, 8mm depth); apply a 41mm hex socket.
 
# Washer 41 - 27.5mm⌀, 2mm thickness (reportedly not present on 2018+ models)
 
# Steering Stem Lock Nut (M30⨉1.5mm)
 
# Bearing Lip Seal (55mm OD)
 
# [[#Steering_Head_Bearing|Steering Head Bearing]] (facing up)
 
# Lower Triple Clamp Assembly Tube
 
# [[#Steering_Head_Bearing|Steering Head Bearing]] (facing down)
 
# Bearing Lip Seal (55mm OD)
 
 
 
===Steering Head Bearing===
 
This is a [[wikipedia:Rolling-element_bearing#Tapered_roller|tapered roller bearing]] in the [[#Frame|frame]]'s [[wikipedia:Head_tube|steering head tube]].
 
 
 
Steering stickiness or wobble may indicate an inadequately greased steering head bearing or a worn bearing.
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Platform
 
!Years
 
!Dimensions
 
!Stock Model
 
!Part #
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|S,X
 
|2014-2018
 
|
 
: ID: 30mm
 
: OD: 55mm
 
: Width: 17mm
 
| Koyo SAC3055-1
 
| ZM20-06068
 
| Angular-contact caged ball bearings
 
|}
 
 
 
;Replacement
 
: See [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7717 Steering stem bearing replacement ('14-'17, all models)] described for a 2014FX.
 
 
 
;Reference
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6762 ZeroDS head bearing (2015)]
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7417 DSR 17 steering head bearings]
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7717 Steering stem bearing replacement ('14-'17, all models)]
 
 
 
==Front Fender==
 
The S/SR front fender is a colored or painted panel like the [[#Tank_Plastics|tank plastics]] that hugs the tire. The DS/DSR/FX/FXS front fender is an ABS plastic dual sport high fender.
 
 
 
; Sport Fender
 
: The S/SR front fender is a colored or painted panel like the [[#Tank_Plastics|tank plastics]] that hugs the (17") front tire.
 
: It bolts directly onto the FXS' lower forks around its tire even though the FXS comes with a dual sport fender.
 
: '''TODO:''' confirm fasteners and bolt pattern.
 
 
 
; Dual Sport Fender
 
: The dual sport fender attaches to the underside of the front fork triple tree.
 
: This fender also fits a S/SR model.
 
: 4 holes in a rectangular shape 58mm (2.3in) wide and 50mm (1.95in) front to back (center to center).
 
: The bolts are M5x15mm button head socket screw for a 3mm Allen key.
 
: A Honda or Yamaha dual sport fender should fit this pattern without modification.
 
  
 
=Wheels=
 
=Wheels=
 
==Wheel Maintenance==
 
==Wheel Maintenance==
===Check Tire Pressure===
+
===[[Tire Pressure Check]]===
Maintain minimum pressure per the manual.
+
{{:Tire Pressure Check}}
  
;General guidelines
+
==[[Gen2/Front Wheel|Front Wheel]]==
: Higher tire pressures help stability and reduce rolling resistance with a passenger or a lot of luggage, but lower pressures help on rougher/gravel surfaces.
+
{{:Gen2/Front Wheel}}
: Official recommendations are for "cold" tires, which means when they haven't been ridden in a few hours.
 
: As tires warm up from riding, pressure increases due to the interior air heating from friction and mechanical work on the tire by the road against the wheel.
 
: Excessive tire pressure can make the tire too sensitive to sharp debris or potholes, and increases the risk of a puncture. 45psi is where this definitely becomes a concern; modulate depending on your riding, and definitely use much lower pressures for offroading.
 
  
==Front Wheel==
 
 
===[[Front Wheel Removal]]===
 
===[[Front Wheel Removal]]===
 
{{:Front Wheel Removal}}
 
{{:Front Wheel Removal}}
Line 489: Line 224:
 
See [[Stock Tires]].
 
See [[Stock Tires]].
  
===Front Bearings===
+
===[[Gen2/Front Bearings|Front Bearings]]===
The front bearings are the same size as the [[#Rear_Bearings|rear bearings]] (see table there for sizing), although the front has only two bearings instead of 3 for the rear.
+
{{:Gen2/Front Bearings}}
 
 
;TODO
 
: Spacer specs
 
  
 
===[[Front Bearing Replacement]]===
 
===[[Front Bearing Replacement]]===
 
{{:Front Bearing Replacement}}
 
{{:Front Bearing Replacement}}
==Rear Wheel==
+
 
 +
==[[Gen2/Rear Wheel|Rear Wheel]]==
 +
{{:Gen2/Rear Wheel}}
 +
 
 
===Rear Tire===
 
===Rear Tire===
 
See [[Stock Tires]].
 
See [[Stock Tires]].
Line 506: Line 241:
 
{{:Rear Wheel Install}}
 
{{:Rear Wheel Install}}
  
===Rear Bearings===
+
===[[Gen2/Rear Bearings|Rear Bearings]]===
The rear wheel contains 3 bearings and dust shields.
+
{{:Gen2/Rear Bearings}}
 
 
{{:Bearing Specifications}}
 
 
 
;References
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6692 Precision bearings & replacement].
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4967 Anyone know front wheel bearing size].
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5612 Ceramic bearings] for a 2014SR, with success reported for at least as long as the original bearings.  The author is going back to steel.
 
:; Per Terry Hershner:
 
:: The 2012-2014 wheel bearings are 6904 bearings which are bicycle sized bearings.
 
:: They lasted me about 20,000 miles per set.
 
:: Best is to use a 2015 wheel on the 2014 which will work but requires modification of the spacers.
 
:: I did it on my 2012. It now has 2015 wheels.
 
  
 
===[[Rear Bearings Replacement]]===
 
===[[Rear Bearings Replacement]]===
Line 525: Line 248:
  
 
=Suspension=
 
=Suspension=
==Front Suspension==
+
==Front Suspension<span id="Front Forks"></span>==
 
Zero's motorcycles all feature [[wikipedia:Telescopic_fork|telescoping fork]] front suspension.
 
Zero's motorcycles all feature [[wikipedia:Telescopic_fork|telescoping fork]] front suspension.
  
Line 542: Line 265:
 
{{:Fork Spring Rate Verification}}
 
{{:Fork Spring Rate Verification}}
  
==Rear Shock==
+
==[[Rear Shock]]==
 +
{{:Rear Shock}}
 +
 
 
===Rear Shock Mounting===
 
===Rear Shock Mounting===
 
The rear shock fastens to the [[#Swingarm|Swingarm]] by an M10 bolt.
 
The rear shock fastens to the [[#Swingarm|Swingarm]] by an M10 bolt.
Line 551: Line 276:
 
{{:Rear Shock Specifications}}
 
{{:Rear Shock Specifications}}
  
===Rear Shock Substitions===
+
===[[Gen2/Rear Shock Substitutions|Rear Shock Substitions]]===
{| class="wikitable"
+
{{:Gen2/Rear Shock Substitutions}}
|+Substitutions
 
!Years
 
!Models
 
!Worked?
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|rowspan="8"| 2013-2014
 
|rowspan="8"| S/SR
 
| Yes
 
|[https://www.jrishocks.com/shop/powersports/double-adjustable/ JRI Double-Adjustable Shocks] per [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6936 2014 SR shock absorber replacement by Doug S] with Harlan's help.
 
|-
 
| Yes (with machining)
 
|Wotefusi [https://www.amazon.com/Wotefusi-Motorcycle-Absorber-Replacement-Universal/dp/B01A8HWKNE/ref=sr_1_16?ie=UTF8&qid=1516726305&sr=8-16&keywords=260mm+shock] 260mm Central Air Shock Absorber Universal Fit - fits when mounted upside down.  Need to cut/grind down the bushing.
 
|-
 
| Yes (with machining)
 
|TDPRO 260mm 10.2 [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B01M0DE754/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o00_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1] Almost fits; the area on top of the spring is just slightly too large.  You can take a grinder and shave away some of the top to make it fit. [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7753.0]
 
|-
 
| NO
 
| The Yamaha R3 has the same length rear shock, but the spring is too wide.
 
|-
 
| NO
 
|Fastace Rear Shock BDA-51AR/58-AR has a weaker spring, and is rotated 90 degrees. [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B01B3Q2O8A/]
 
|-
 
| Mixed results - new orders may have all the kinks worked out.
 
| IKON 3610-ZERO-S Shock Absorber [https://www.ikonshocksusa.com/products/3610-zero-s-shock-absorber?variant=28622432206908] - The spring is too wide at the top, and to be installed, the sping must be compressed.  When Installation is complete, the spring is always compressed by at least a couple centimeters.
 
|-
 
|  Mixed results - Get dimensions from Wilber's dealer before ordering - theirs is ~279mm
 
| Wilbers Shock absorber Type 640 Road Part. No.: 640-1143-00 [https://www.wilbers-shop.de/en/Motorcycle/Zero-Motorcycles/Zero-S-Z1-M5/Shock-absorber-Type-640-Road.html?year=2014] Wilbers claims the shock fits "2011-2013 S M5" (which does not exist).  The M5 designation is buried in the VIN of the 2014 S; and may or may not be relevant.  This shock could be mislabeled for the DS.  Make sure to get full dimensions before ordering.
 
|-
 
| Yes - DO NOT BUY
 
| ZXTDR Rear Shock Absorber Suspension Sensa-Trac Load Adjusting for Dirt Pit Bike Motorcycle 1200LBS. [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B074J3X2P5/] This shock phyisically fits, but underperforms.  It feels like you're riding on a trampoline.  You get what you pay for.
 
|}
 
  
 
===[[Rear Shock Adjustment]]===
 
===[[Rear Shock Adjustment]]===
Line 591: Line 284:
 
=Final Drive=
 
=Final Drive=
  
==Swingarm==
+
==[[Gen2/Swingarm|Swingarm]]==
The swingarm is a dual-sided structure made in the same way as the [[#Frame|frame]]. It's very sturdily constructed for its light weight.
+
{{:Gen2/Swingarm}}
[[File:Onlift.jpeg|thumb|Swingarm]]
 
The front pivots on the axis of the [[#Motor|motor]] to minimize [[#Belt|belt]] strain with suspension travel.
 
 
 
It has fitments for the [[#Rear_Axle|rear axle]] including belt tension adjustment.
 
 
 
;Mounting
 
: The swingarm joins the frame at left and right pivot points.
 
: The each side pivot has a stack of (from outside inward):
 
:* A rubber cover
 
:* A bolt with a 10mm hex drive.
 
:* The bearing (6204; 6204RS for 2015+ models)
 
  
===Swingarm Tube===
+
===[[Gen2/Swingarm Tube|Swingarm Tube]]===
There is a hollow tube through the swingarm across the arms forming a join point for the [[#Rear_Shock|rear shock]] to the [[#Frame_Tube|frame tube]].
+
{{:Gen2/Swingarm Tube}}
[[File:2018-sr-swingarm-hole.png|thumb|Swingarm Tube with measurements]]
 
: Its shape is flattened on the rear side, presumably to clear the largest-diameter potential tire.
 
: It makes a reasonable storage tube ''if'' some padding or caps are used to secure the cargo there (like a charging cord).
 
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
===[[Gen2/Swingarm Bearings|Swingarm Bearings]]===
|+Measurements
+
{{:Gen2/Swingarm Bearings}}
|-
 
|Inner diameter||75mm||2.91"
 
|-
 
|Horizontal width to flat side||68mm||2.68"
 
|-
 
|Swingarm greatest width below tube||295mm||11.61"
 
|}
 
  
;References
+
===[[Gen2/Swingarm Removal|Swingarm Removal]]===
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=8163.msg68924#msg68924 Re: Through-frame security aperture size?]
+
{{:Gen2/Swingarm Removal}}
 
 
===Swingarm Bearings===
 
The swingarm bearings are generally the same as the [[#Rear_Bearings|wheel bearings]] (6204; 6204RS for 2015+ models).
 
 
 
===[[Swingarm Removal]]===
 
{{:Swingarm Removal}}
 
  
 
==[[Rear Axle]]==
 
==[[Rear Axle]]==
Line 636: Line 302:
 
{{:Drive Belt}}
 
{{:Drive Belt}}
  
==Sprocket==
+
===[[Drive Belt/Risks|Belt Risks]]===
 +
{{:Drive Belt/Risks}}
  
===[[Sprocket Specifications]]===
+
===[[Drive Belt/Specifications|Belt Specifications]]===
{{:Sprocket Specifications}}
+
{{:Drive Belt/Specifications}}
  
===Sprocket Wear On Belt===
+
===[[Drive Belt/Tension Check|Belt Tension Check]]===
Wear debris from the tire or the road can accumulate on sprocket teeth, putting pressure on the belt which can wear it out faster.
+
{{:Drive Belt/Tension Check}}
  
;Recommendation
+
===[[Gen2/Drive Belt Adjustment|Belt Adjustment]]===
: Keep the sprocket teeth clean to minimize wear on the belt.
+
{{:Gen2/Drive Belt Adjustment}}
: A non-abrasive brush should be effective.
 
  
===[[Front Sprocket Replacement|Front Sprocket Removal / Swap]]===
+
===[[Drive Belt/Wear|Belt Wear]]===
{{:Front Sprocket Replacement}}
+
{{:Drive Belt/Wear}}
  
=Brakes=
+
===[[Gen2/Drive Belt Replacement Procedure|Belt Replacement]]===
Zero motorcycles so far have had single-disc brakes for front and rear systems.
+
{{:Gen2/Drive Belt Replacement Procedure}}
  
It is only a question of time when Zero will add dual front disk brakes in the road bikes range. Single disk is not recommended for the kind of speeds/overall weight the new models are reaching.
+
==Sprocket==
  
;Rear Brake Spring (Suggestion)
+
===[[Sprocket Specifications]]===
* Remove the rear brake spring or replace it with a lighter spring.
+
{{:Sprocket Specifications}}
*: On most models, there is a spring suitable for a dirt bike that is over-designed for a street bike.
 
*: There is a kind of spring inside the brake pump, so the external one is just to keep the foot-pedal without rattling.
 
*: Test the rear brake after doing this.
 
  
==Brake Maintenance==
+
===[[Drive Belt/Wear From Sprocket Debris|Sprocket Wear On Belt]]===
* Check for pad wear or debris.
+
{{:Drive Belt/Wear From Sprocket Debris}}
*: Keep the pads and discs clean.
 
*: An occasional brushing of the disc holes is worth doing maybe once a year.
 
* Check hydraulic fluid level.
 
*: Make sure the brake fluid is in good shape and the type/specs you need.
 
*: If in doubt, replace with fresh fluid (not from an already opened bottle).
 
* Make sure the brake fluid reservoir is not over-filled (top).
 
*: There has to be some empty space, or your bike will be lightly "braked" and your disk/pads will deteriorate prematurely...and you will get less range.
 
  
==Brake Systems==
+
===[[Front Sprocket Replacement|Front Sprocket Removal / Swap]]===
{| class="wikitable"
+
{{:Front Sprocket Replacement}}
|+Brake Systems
 
!
 
!colspan="3"|Front
 
!colspan="3"|Rear
 
!
 
|-
 
!Year
 
!Manufacturer
 
!Rotor
 
!Caliper
 
!Manufacturer
 
!Rotor
 
!Caliper
 
!Notes
 
|-
 
|2013
 
|rowspan="2"|Nissin
 
|rowspan="2"|
 
: 313mm (listed) / 310mm (actual) ⌀
 
* floating
 
* matches KTM 450SMR
 
|rowspan="2"|
 
|Nissin
 
|221mm ⌀
 
* fixed
 
|
 
|relatively weak
 
[http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/shop/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=15_6&products_id=211 J Juan upgrade] available for rear brake.
 
|-
 
|2014
 
|rowspan="4"|J Juan
 
|rowspan="4"|240mm ⌀
 
|rowspan="4"|
 
: S: 34mm
 
: X: 30mm
 
|Same pad sizes as 2013.
 
|-
 
|2015
 
|rowspan="3"|J Juan
 
|rowspan="3"|
 
: 320mm ⌀
 
* non-floating
 
: M8x23mm shoulder screw fasteners
 
|rowspan="3"|
 
: S: 32/30mm
 
: X: 27mm
 
|Bosch Gen 9 ABS; New pad sizes.
 
|-
 
|2016
 
|rowspan="2"|Bosch Gen 9 ABS
 
|-
 
|2017
 
|}
 
  
==Brake Hydraulics==
+
=[[Gen2/Brakes|Brakes]]=
{| class="wikitable"
+
{{:Gen2/Brakes}}
!colspan="2"|Models
 
!colspan="3"|Front
 
|-
 
!Platform
 
!Years
 
!Caliper Piston Area
 
!MC Piston Area
 
!Hydraulic-Advantage Ratio
 
|-
 
|rowspan="3"|S
 
|2015
 
|rowspan="3"|1509 mm&sup2; (total)
 
|rowspan="3"|126 mm&sup2;
 
|rowspan="3"|11.9:1
 
|-
 
|2016
 
|-
 
|2017
 
|}
 
  
;[http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6631.msg52829#msg52829 Regarding Brake Upgrades:]
+
==[[Brake Maintenance]]==
: A 9.5mm-piston master cylinder  - like the Nissin 3/8 I put on my 'MX' bike - would give the SR a 21.1:1 ratio, or @ 78% more pad pressure than the OEM 12.7mm master cylinder.
+
{{:Brake Maintenance}}
: Any Brembo, Nissin, etc. 9.5mm / .375" master cylinder w/switch should drop right in and make a huge difference, and you won't have to touch anything else.
 
: On the rear, the 11mm master cylinder from the FX (Zero part# 25-06731) has 49mm M6 bolt spacing / rear reservoir hose / top output / clevis, and should give @ 19% more pad pressure than the SR 12mm master cylinder.
 
: This won't be a night-and-day difference like the front master cylinder change, but it should still be very noticeable.
 
  
==Rear Brake Actuator==
+
==[[Brake Systems]]==
The rear brake is manipulated by a dirt-bike style pedal around the right [[#Footpegs|footpeg]], a common motorcycle configuration.
+
{{:Brake Systems}}
: [[File:footpeg-comparison.gif|thumb|S and DS foot pedals compared]]
 
: The rear brake has its own master cylinder behind the rear footpeg on the right.
 
  
;Pedal Construction
+
==[[Brake Hydraulics]]==
: Cast aluminum with a powder coat finish.
+
{{:Brake Hydraulics}}
: On pre-2015 models, the pedal is made from a single piece.
 
: On 2015+ models, the pedal toe actuator is bolted on (M6X20-8.8) and may be replaced or have an S vs DS toe actuator swap.
 
  
;Rear Brake Lever/Pedal
+
==[[Gen2/Rear Brake Actuator|Rear Brake Actuator]]==
: The threaded rod from the brake lever to the master cylinder adjusts lever height.
+
{{:Gen2/Rear Brake Actuator}}
 
 
;Rear Brake Switch
 
: The rear brake switch is activated hydraulically by pressure in the rear brake system.
 
: The rear brake switch is built into top banjo bolt.
 
 
 
Ref. [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6618.msg52588#msg52588]
 
  
 
==ABS System==
 
==ABS System==
Line 782: Line 353:
 
===ABS Wheel Sensors===
 
===ABS Wheel Sensors===
  
==Brake Pads==
+
==[[Brake Pads]]==
 
+
{{:Brake Pads}}
;General Reading Material
 
: [http://www.bikebandit.com/blog/post/top-10-questions-about-motorcycle-brake-pads Top 10 Questions About Motorcycle Brake Pads]
 
: [http://www.bikebandit.com/blog/post/motorcycle-brake-pads-and-rotors-explained-by-galfer-usa Motorcycle Brake Pads & Rotors Explained, by Galfer USA]
 
: [http://powersports-blog.denniskirk.com/5573/powersports/motorcycle-brake-pads-sintered-vs-organic/ Sintered vs Organic Brake Pads]
 
 
 
;General Brake Pad Replacement Suggestions
 
: 2013+: Try to not use synthetics pads or "sintered", but organic or semi sintered ones.
 
:: Sintered are better for very aggressive riding/braking, but are generally noisier.
 
: 2012 and earlier: Keep the sintered pads
 
:: Brake pump is very weak on these models; you need all the braking power you can get in spite of noise.
 
: Sand the pads.
 
: Grease the back of the pads lightly with copper grease.
 
: Check caliper position.
 
: Check caliper springs, if any.
 
: Check the wheel for trueness.
 
: Sand the disk; it could have lightly crystalized.
 
: Make sure all the bolts in the system (including wheel) are properly tightened.
 
: After all of this has been preformed and before riding, clean everything exposed to dirt/grease with isopropyl alcohol
 
: When riding again, try to not brake very aggressively the firsts 20-30 miles.
 
 
 
===Brake Problems===
 
;Squeak
 
: Brake ''squeak'' (pad front against the disc) happens occasionally and is relatively quiet and noticeable but not anomalous.
 
;Squeal
 
: Brake ''squeal'' (pad back resonating against caliper cylinder) can be very loud and annoying. Squeal does not technically impact performance but it's very unpleasant and might cause the rider to hesitate before fully braking which is a safety issue.
 
;Solutions
 
* Clean the pads and/or discs for squeaking.
 
* Try a different brake pad (attractive if you want a different pad feel or performance in the first place).
 
* LocTite Disc Brake Quiet stick applicator for the backs of the pads.
 
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/zmcowners/permalink/1329769437092261/?comment_id=1334269306642274&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R%22%7D Chamfer the brake pads]
 
*: File the edges of the pad to put a 45 degree edge on them
 
*: You only need 1-2mm
 
  
===Brake Pad Fit===
+
===[[Brake Problems]]===
;Nissin (2013 on rear, and 2013/2014 front)
+
{{:Brake Problems}}
:  
 
;J Juan (2014+ on rear, 2015+ on front)
 
: [http://ecat.ferodoracing.com/motorcycle/brake-pads-and-shoes/FDB892 Front pad shape FDB892]
 
: [http://ecat.ferodoracing.com/motorcycle/brake-pads-and-shoes/FDB539 Rear pad shape FDB539]
 
  
Past forum threads of highly varying quality / ability to clarify:
+
===[[Brake Pad Fitment|Brake Pad Fit]]===
* This [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5650 forum discussion] starts with the 14FX and brings up lots of issues.
+
{{:Brake Pad Fitment}}
* Another forum thread on [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5829 brake pad alternatives to OEM/stock].
 
* One [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=3370.msg18646#msg18646 exhaustive listing from Burton] which unfortunately have the wrong EBC fitment numbers.
 
 
 
;EBC
 
:The [https://ebcbrakes.com/Assets/ecatalogues/EBC_2017_US_MC_Catalog/EBC_2017_US_MC_Catalog.html#p=220 EBC brake catalog] covers Zero models.
 
:However, it has always had the wrong shape recommendation for 2013-2014 models, and for the FX entirely! Double-check any recommendation.
 
: Their Carbon X pads can eliminate front brake squeal. [https://ebcbrakes.com/product/carbon-x-or-tt-brakes/ EBC Carbon X page]
 
;SBS
 
:offers a [http://uk.sbs.dk/business-areas/motorcycle.aspx brake search engine] which covers Zero models.
 
;Goldfren
 
:offers a good [http://www.goldfrenusa.com/includes/pdf/GOLDFREN_BrakePadsCrossReference.pdf cross reference] between brands.
 
 
 
;[http://moto.brembo.com/en/ Brembo]
 
: Brembo's [http://moto.brembo.com/en/ Motorcycle Brakes Configurator] has reasonably usable Zero model lookup.
 
: Their Carbon Ceramic pads are reported to resolve brake squeal issues.
 
 
 
;[[Brake Pad Lookup]]:
 
{{:Brake Pad Lookup}}
 
 
 
;References
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4099.0 Honda / Nissin front brake shoes; goodbye screech, hello stoppies]
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4715.0 2015 FX Brake Pads?]
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5650.0 Brake pads] for 2014 SR
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5650.0 Brake pads] for 2015 FX, 2016 FXS
 
  
 
===[[Front Brake Pad Replacement]]===
 
===[[Front Brake Pad Replacement]]===
 
 
{{:Front Brake Pad Replacement}}
 
{{:Front Brake Pad Replacement}}
  
Line 866: Line 376:
 
* See Zero's [https://www.zeromotorcycles.com/powertrains/ Z-Force Powertrain Solutions] page which has a contact form.
 
* See Zero's [https://www.zeromotorcycles.com/powertrains/ Z-Force Powertrain Solutions] page which has a contact form.
  
==Throttle==
+
==[[Throttle]]==
The Zero throttle is a very straightforward twist-grip motorcycle control that operates a sensor instead of pulling on a mechanical cable or operating hydraulics.
+
{{:Throttle}}
 
 
Zero switched the throttle supplier from a [[#Magura_Throttle|Magura]] with a linear potentiometer to a [[#Bitron_Throttle|Bitron]] with a Hall-effect sensor in 2015 which changed how the wiring works.
 
 
 
;Connections
 
:The Zero throttle connects directly to the [[#Controller|controller]], so anything you do related to the throttle signal can compromise the operation of the bike if there's an electrical fault or discrepancy.
 
: '''Example:''' [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6548 Sudden braking followed by no motor/throttle response on highway[2016 FXS]]
 
 
 
;Customization
 
: See [[Unofficial_Service_Manual#Drive_Modes|Drive modes]] to customize throttle input interpretation as an owner.
 
: Use the mode control for "Custom" mode on 2014+ or "Eco" on earlier models to set the maximum torque the throttle applies.
 
:: This also directly changes how quickly torque ramps up for a given throttle twist/position.
 
 
 
;Advanced Customization
 
: The Sevcon motor [[#Controller|controller]] settings are where most of the throttle interpretation happens.
 
 
 
;Replacement
 
:TODO...
 
 
 
;Assembly
 
: The return spring cannot be tensioned while disassembled throttle is on the handlebar. Throttle must be removed to place the spring end correctly.  see video from Harlan Flagg: https://www.facebook.com/harlanflagg/videos/1364143910276196/
 
 
 
;Troubleshooting
 
:[http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6382.msg49746#msg49746 One report of a "snatchy" throttle] turned out to have this explanation:
 
:: There is a black adjusting screw which holds the pinion gear of the throttle in place or for adjustment.
 
:: The pinion gear had moved to the right and caused the spring clip for throttle return to pop out of the slot.
 
:: This was clicking through the gears and causing a notchy throttle feel.
 
:: Resolution: Reset the pinion location and tighten the screw.
 
 
 
===Magura Throttle===
 
The 2012-2014 stock throttle is a [http://www.evdrives.com/product_p/thr-magura-assy.htm 5kOhm Magura throttle]
 
 
 
;Basic details
 
: The Magura Twist Throttle has a 0-5kΩ output.
 
: Comes with matching grip for opposite side.
 
: 7/8" (22mm) handle bar fit
 
: 68" long control cable
 
: Weight: 0.5 lbs
 
 
 
;Connectors
 
: Three wire output directly to the [[#Controller|controller]].
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Magura Throttle Connectors
 
! Wire
 
! Function
 
! Destination
 
! Illustration
 
|-
 
| Blue
 
| Throttle High
 
| Sevcon Pin 34
 
|rowspan="3"|[[File:throttle-magura-connector.png|400px]]
 
|-
 
| Brown
 
| Wiper
 
| Sevcon Pin 22 (analog)
 
|-
 
| Orange/Black
 
| Throttle Low
 
| B- Sevcon terminal
 
|}
 
 
 
===Bitron Throttle===
 
2015+ models use a new HAL-based (Hall-effect active device) sensor from [http://www.bitron.net Bitron] which can't be replaced easily by Domino or similar
 
: Product reference: [http://www.bitron.net/index.php?option=com_k2&view=itemlist&task=tag&tag=accelescooter&Itemid=231 Bitron HAL-based throttle]
 
 
 
;Connectors
 
: Via [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6966.msg57299#msg57299 Keith's investigation]
 
: 8 wire output, bundled into two pairs of 3 wires for potentiometer outputs.
 
: [[File:throttle-wiring-bitron.png|400px]]
 
: [http://prd.sws.co.jp/components/en/detail.php?number_s=61880779 Sumitomo connector 6188-0779]
 
: [http://prd.sws.co.jp/components/en/detail.php?number_s=61891240 Sumitomo connector 6189-1240]
 
: The hall-effect sensor may be a potentiometer wired up as a voltage divider as follows:
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|+ Measured voltages
 
!Wire
 
!Twist
 
!Voltage
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|Brown
 
|None
 
|0.5
 
|-
 
|Full
 
|4.5
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|Brown/Red
 
|None
 
|4.5
 
|-
 
|Full
 
|0.5
 
|}
 
 
 
==Regen==
 
The Sevcon [[#Controller|controller]] can enter a regeneration mode where it captures momentum from the motor and charges the battery.
 
 
 
;Operating Range
 
: Regen for Zeros operates between 12mph (where the motor cannot produce enough voltage to naturally power through the controller) and 4500 RPM (70mph in default gearing).
 
: This band can be adjusted in [[MBB Console#Settings|MBB settings]].
 
  
;Level
+
===[[Magura Throttle]]===
: Regen levels are defined/set in terms of percentage of maximum allowable levels, so 0-100%.
+
{{:Magura Throttle}}
: That 100% maps to a 40A recharge limit setting in the Sevcon controller, equivalent to 10% of the maximum discharge rate of a Gen4 size 4 controller.
 
: The 100% setting also corresponds to 60% of the 72Nm torque limit also specified.
 
: The recharge limit may be set up to 91A via Sevcon setting or higher by a dummy value (65535?).
 
: Zero sets regen levels to preclude rear wheel lockup, so raising the limit is a risk that ABS cannot directly control.
 
: Regen has the same effect for SR/DSR models as for S/DS.
 
  
;Efficiency
+
===[[Bitron Throttle]]===
: The recharge efficiency of regen is typically that 10% of the energy used to climb an incline can be returned on the corresponding descent.
+
{{:Bitron Throttle}}
  
;Triggers
+
==[[Gen2/Regen|Regen]]==
*Normal regen is triggered by relaxing the throttle.
+
{{:Gen2/Regen}}
*: There is a position just above the resting position where an actual neutral torque is achievable.
 
*: The [[MBB Console#Settings|MBB has a setting]] in mV for the potentiometer output of the throttle to trigger regen.
 
*: Adjusting this is not normally effective unless changing throttle types.
 
*Brake regen is triggered by the same signal that turns on the brake light:
 
*: A contact switch against the front brake lever will engage the brake light (and regen); the hydraulic piston and the switch engage simultaneously by default.
 
*: Rear brakes engage pad contact and the brake light (and regen) simultaneously, but require some amount of travel before they engage.
 
  
==Drive Modes==
+
==[[Drive Modes]]==
 
{{:Drive Modes}}
 
{{:Drive Modes}}
  
==Motor==
+
==[[Motor]]==
All of Zero's motors are air-cooled and mounted on a shaft that is aligned with the front pivot of the swingarm so that transmission tension is perfectly aligned with swingarm movement.
+
{{:Motor}}
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Motors by Model
 
!Brand
 
!Designation
 
!Years
 
!Models
 
|-
 
|[http://www.saiettaengineering.com/motors/ Agni/Saietta]
 
|[http://www.robotcombat.com/products/EMS-AGNI-B-95R.html 95-R] [http://www.asmokarts.com/index.cfm?pageID=24 alt]
 
|2009-2011
 
|S/DS/X/MX
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|[[Motenergy]]
 
|[http://www.evdrives.com/product_p/mot-me0810.htm ME0810]
 
|2011-2012
 
|X/MX
 
|-
 
|[http://www.motenergy.com/me0913.html ME0913]
 
|2012
 
|S/DS
 
|-
 
|rowspan="8"|[http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/technology/ Z-Force]
 
|rowspan="3"|[[#Z-Force Motor|75-5]]
 
|2013
 
|FX/MX/XU
 
|-
 
|2014-2015
 
|FX
 
|-
 
|2016
 
|FX/FXS
 
|-
 
|[[#Z-Force Motor|75-5]] ([[#Z-Force Motor IPM Update|IPM]])
 
|2017
 
|FX/FXS/S ZF6.5/DS ZF6.5
 
|-
 
|[[#Z-Force Motor|75-7]]
 
|2013-2016
 
|S/DS/MMX
 
|-
 
|[[#Z-Force Motor|75-7]] ([[#Z-Force Motor IPM Update|IPM]])
 
|2017
 
|S/DS/MMX
 
|-
 
|[[#Z-Force Motor R-Variant|75-7R]]
 
|2014-2015
 
|SR
 
|-
 
|[[#Z-Force Motor R-Variant|75-7R]] ([[#Z-Force Motor IPM Update|IPM]])
 
|2016-2017
 
|SR/DSR
 
|}
 
 
 
===Agni Motor===
 
: [[File:AgniMotor.jpeg|right|300px]]
 
: From 2009 to 2012, Zero used brushed DC [http://www.saiettaengineering.com/motors/ Agni/Saietta] [http://www.robotcombat.com/products/EMS-AGNI-B-95R.html 95-R] motors.
 
: These have known quality issues after time and Zero offers many owners a [[#Z-Force Motor|Z-Force motor]] upgrade or complete trade-in for remaining 2014 models.
 
 
 
;Basic Facts
 
: Shaft ⌀19mm
 
: 6mm keyway
 
 
 
;Chain Specs
 
: 420 chain specs: .500" pitch / .3125" roller diameter / .250" roller width / .227" sprocket width.
 
: #41 sprocket teeth will engage 420 chain links, but they're made for .306" dia. rollers and a #41 sprocket / 420 chain combo will wear quickly.
 
: Some sprocket places sell '41/420' sprockets, but there's no such thing.
 
 
 
;References
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5123 2012 to 2013 motor upgrade info]
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7168.0 Jack Shaft sprocket source]
 
 
 
===Z-Force Motor===
 
: [[File:motor-illustrated.png|right|400px|link=http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/technology/|Z-Force™ Motor]]
 
: [[File:z-force-motor-opened.png|right|400px]]
 
: For the 2013+ models, Zero has [http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/technology/ their own motor design], trademarked "Z-Force".
 
 
 
; Features
 
* Sealed
 
* Air-cooled (via finned casing)
 
* Brushless
 
* Permanent-magnet rotor
 
 
 
; Operation
 
: It is a 3-phase [[wikipedia:Brushless DC electric motor|''brushless DC'' (BLDC) electric motor]] which is [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=3640 roughly described] as a ''permanent magnet AC synchronous'' (PMAC) motor since the controller is continuously adjusting the phase angle of the field to the rotor's current position and speed.
 
: The field must apply synchronously to the rotor, so the calibration between the position sensor and the [[#Controller|controller]] is critical for efficiency, minimizing wear on the bearings, and minimizing heating of the windings and magnets.
 
 
 
; Motenergy's Clone
 
: [http://www.motenergy.com/ Motenergy] makes [http://www.motenergy.com/mepmbrmo.html an unlicensed generic derivative], the [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/motors/motenergy-me1507.html ME1507], of the same form factor, rated for much lower outputs and seems to differ from Zero's motor in key ways.
 
: From [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/motors/motenergy-me1507.html Motenergy's ME1507 product page], it's clear that they're advertising a model on par with the 2016 IPM update:
 
<blockquote>The ME1507 is an Radial Air Gap, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) with an Internal Permanent Magnet Rotor (IPM). Designed for battery pack voltages of 100 VDC or less. Maximum rotor speed of 6000 rpm. Continuous current of 200 amps, and continuous power of 17 kw. Weight of 44 pounds.</blockquote>
 
  
; Motor theory
+
===[[Gen1/Agni Motor|Agni Motor]]===
: [http://www.motioncontrolonline.org/content-detail.cfm/Motion-Control-Technical-Features/Interior-Permanent-Magnet-Motors-Power-Traction-Motor-Applications/content_id/789 IPM vs SPM] for a different motor control regime but some principles translate to the Z-Force motor.
+
{{:Gen1/Agni Motor}}
  
;Efficiency
+
===[[Z-Force Motor]]===
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4070 forum thread]
+
{{:Z-Force Motor}}
: [http://ptruchon.pagekite.me/wiki/rangevsspped Range vs Speed by Patrick Truchon] discusses the theory and measurements in depth.
 
: [http://ptruchon.pagekite.me/wiki/blog/2015-09-19/does_gear_size_affect_range Does Gear Size Affect Range? by Patrick Truchon] with more theory!
 
  
====Z-Force Motor 75-5====
+
====[[Z-Force Motor/75-5|Z-Force Motor 75-5]]====
The [[#X Platform|X platform]] uses the 75-5 variant.
+
{{:Z-Force Motor/75-5}}
  
====Z-Force Motor 75-7====
+
====[[Z-Force Motor/75-7|Z-Force Motor 75-7]]====
The [[#S Platform|S platform]] uses the 75-7 variant.
+
{{:Z-Force Motor/75-7}}
  
====Z-Force Motor R-Variant====
+
====[[Z-Force Motor/75-7R|Z-Force Motor R-Variant]]====
The 75-7R motor was introduced in 2014 with high-temperature magnets.
+
{{:Z-Force Motor/75-7R}}
: These require Sevcon Gen4 size 6 controllers to deliver more current and torque
 
: SR (2014+) and DSR (2016+) models use these motors.
 
  
====Z-Force Motor IPM Update====
+
====[[Z-Force Motor/IPM Update|Z-Force Motor IPM Update]]====
In 2016, Zero introduced an interior permanent magnet (IPM) design as distinguished from a surface permanent magnet (SPM) design of the original motor introduced in 2013.
+
{{:Z-Force Motor/IPM Update}}
: The IPM design reduces the heating associated with developing magnetic flux and distributes the heat produced more evenly.
 
:: This allows the motor to operate at higher outputs while producing less heat overall and concentrating heat production where it dissipates more easily.
 
:: In practice, this avoids hitting thermal limits which require cutbacks to protect the motor windings.
 
: 2016 models S/DS/SR/DSR/FXS have the IPM design.
 
: FX and S/DS models with a 3-brick battery retained the SPM design (presumably to be phased out with inventory).
 
: [http://livestream.com/accounts/14139273/events/4442461 Zero livestream announcing 2016 upgrades]
 
: [http://livestream.com/accounts/14139273/events/4534534 Zero livestream presentation with Ryan Biffard about the Z-Force motor IPM upgrade]
 
: The IPM design motor apparently involves custom Zero programming of the Sevcon controller for the encoder, so off the shelf DVT software cannot perform alignment/commissioning but can apply settings / DCF files and restore them.
 
  
====Z-Force Motor Mount/Torque Update====
+
====[[Z-Force Motor/Splined Shaft Update|Z-Force Motor Mount/Torque Update]]====
In 2017, the Sevcon [[#Controller|controllers]] were updated ("4.5" is the unofficial revision) to support more current to the motor.
+
{{:Z-Force Motor/Splined Shaft Update}}
: The [[#Belt|belt]] was also reinforced and widened to apply more torque through the transmission and be more robust against interference.
 
: Accordingly, the motor shaft is now splined instead of keyed so the motors and sprockets are not compatible across the 2016-2017 year-line.
 
  
====Z-Force Motor 75-10====
+
====[[Z-Force Motor/75-10|Z-Force Motor 75-10]]====
The [[#FST Platform|FST platform]] uses the 75-10 variant, which has a new construction in addition to being wider.
+
{{:Z-Force Motor/75-10}}
* Cooling ridges run along the circumference of the cylinder rather than axially parallel to the shaft.
 
*: These ridges align with directional airflow from under the frame where the motor controller enclosure guides it.
 
* The construction therefore is no longer an extrusion as in previous casings.
 
*: Possibly there are lathe-like methods involved in machining.
 
* The finish in the first model with the motor is bronze, probably indicating something about an alloy change.
 
  
;Features
+
===[[Gen2/Motor Mounting|Motor Mounting]]===
* The motor encoder position sensor is now housed in a servicing-accessible enclosure, opposite the shaft, on the right side.
+
{{:Gen2/Motor Mounting}}
* The motor mounts are now more structural, joining the swingarm to the rear of the main frame.
 
*: TODO review for a better structural description.
 
  
===Motor Mounting===
+
===[[Gen2/Motor Removal|Motor Removal]]===
On the motor there are 8 M8 bolts holding the motor in place: 4 on the drive side, 4 on the rear side.
+
{{:Gen2/Motor Removal}}
: Those bolts only have about 12Nm of torque on them.
 
 
 
;References
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5218 Burton's 2013 to 2014 motor swap thread] shows the most detail about the physical mounting of the motor.
 
 
 
===[[Motor Removal]]===
 
{{:Motor Removal}}
 
  
 
===[[Motor Bearing Replacement]]===
 
===[[Motor Bearing Replacement]]===
 
{{:Motor Bearing Replacement}}
 
{{:Motor Bearing Replacement}}
  
===Motor Shaft===
+
===[[Z-Force Motor/Shaft|Motor Shaft]]===
;Pre-2017
+
{{:Z-Force Motor/Shaft}}
: The motor shaft is keyed; the key has a square cross section.
 
:;Measurements
 
:* Dimensions seem to be ¼” square ⨉ 2.0” length (expressed in metric on drawings).
 
:* Ends 5mm from shaft end.
 
:* Shaft diameter is ⌀28.275mm+0-0.021
 
:* Shaft length extends 66.675mm beyond the motor face minus 4mm for raised parts of the face.
 
: 2013 models had a minor [[Recalls|recall]] about the shaft key coming loose, but this was a design revision that has not recurred.
 
;2017+
 
: The motor shaft is splined to allow higher torque transmission.
 
: Rumor has it (via [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7010.msg59925#msg59925 Harlan at Hollywood Electrics]) that the spline is supposed to match a Kawasaki KX250F as well as a Yamaha YZ450F.
 
  
===Motor Sounds===
+
===[[Z-Force Motor/Sounds|Motor Sounds]]===
 +
{{:Z-Force Motor/Sounds}}
  
 
====[[Motor Whirring]]====
 
====[[Motor Whirring]]====
Line 1,165: Line 437:
  
 
====[[Motor Whine]]====
 
====[[Motor Whine]]====
: While moving, the motor tends to make a solid smooth tone resonant with the RPMs the motor is rotating at, usually noticeable around 15-30mph (30-50kph).
+
{{:Motor Whine}}
 
 
===Motor Wiring===
 
The motor's stator is connected to the [[#Controller|controller]] for power and position feedback.
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+Power Inputs
 
|-
 
|3-phase / Y-shaped (120° phase offset) power inputs from the controller.
 
# A (M1)
 
# B (M2)
 
# C (M3)
 
|[[File:motor-controller.png|thumb|Motor-controller power connections]]
 
|}
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+Sensor Connections
 
|-
 
|8-pin Metri-Pack 150 ([http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Delphi-Connection-Systems/12047937/ Mouser p/n 829-12047937])
 
:* Terminal: [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Delphi-Connection-Systems/12084200/ Mouser p/n 829-12084200]
 
:* Retainer: [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Delphi-Connection-Systems/15324525/ Mouser p/n 829-15324525]
 
:* Seal: [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Delphi-Connection-Systems/15324973/ Mouser p/n 829-15324973]
 
:* Seal: [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Delphi-Connection-Systems/12059168-B/ Mouser p/n 829-12059168-B]
 
# Motor Position (Cosine) / white
 
# Motor Position (Sine) / blue
 
# Motor Position (Ground) / black
 
# ''unused''
 
# [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IC_power-supply_pin V<sub>DD</sub>] (5V) / red
 
# Shield / green
 
# Temperature (negative) / yellow
 
# Temperature (positive) / yellow
 
|[[File:motor-signals-connector.png|thumb|2013 motor sensor connectors]]
 
|}
 
 
 
===Motor Alignment===
 
The back side of the motor (encoder side) has screw jack bolts that let you tweak the motor position. Mostly this is only needed when (re)installing the motor.
 
 
 
;Procedure
 
# Loosen the four M6 socket head screws.
 
# Adjust the portion of the silver nut that is not wedged into the slot on the motor.
 
 
 
===Motor Commissioning===
 
Motor commissioning refers to aligning the controller's sine wave programming against the motor using its position sensors.
 
 
 
;Benefits
 
: Maximum efficiency (avoids current applied wastefully)
 
: Avoid any slippage.
 
: Avoid misapplied torque which might wear on the bearings.
 
 
 
===Motor Limits===
 
The following regards what engineering constraints limit the power and RPM of the (IPM) Z-Force motor. Pre-IPM motors generated more heat for a given amount of power, so cooling was usually the first concern, but the IPM design pushes the frontier further so the topic is worth addressing.
 
 
 
;RPM
 
: The Z-Force motor is design-limited to 6,000 RPM as follows.
 
: RPM is primarily limited by the inductance of the motor windings.
 
: At low RPM, under full throttle, the current through the driven phase(s) of the motor ramps up from 0 to the maximum allowed by the controller pretty quickly, and you get full torque because you've got full current.
 
: But the faster the motor turns, the faster the motor controller has to cycle the phases of the motor on and off, and eventually, you reach a point where there's not enough time (because of the inductance of the motor windings) for the current to ramp up to maximum before that phase has to be turned off and the next phase cycled on.
 
: At that point, power starts to drop off, so very shortly after that, the motor won't have enough torque or power left to drive the load.
 
: The mechanics of the motor could easily have been designed for higher RPM, but there's no point since you'll be current-limited anyhow.
 
 
 
;Torque / Power
 
: The easiest way to get more torque, and thereby more power (since power is proportional to torque times RPM), is to pump more current through the motor.
 
: Several things can bottleneck that effort:
 
:* First, the motor windings have a DC resistance because they're copper wires with fixed gauges and lengths.
 
:* The bike's wiring external to the motor also has some DC resistance in it.
 
:* If you apply more voltage to a fixed DC resistance, you'll get more current, but the batteries only give you ~110VDC to play with....and of course, the battery has a current limit of its own.
 
:* You'll need to be sure the controller can handle the current as well; you won't go very fast once you smoke the controller.
 
:* Since the motor rotates and therefore the windings have to be commutated (driven on and off in the proper sequence and speed), the motor's inductance also comes into play as discussed above about RPM.
 
:* You could change some of this stuff fairly easily (higher-gauge wiring is pretty simple, though might be tough to fit in some of the tight confines the Zero's wiring is routed through), but other things are more difficult.
 
:* To reduce the motor winding's DC resistance, you'd want to use heavier wire, but you wouldn't be able to get as many turns onto the same coil form.
 
:* Fewer turns would create less inductance, which also helps allow higher current levels, but fewer turns also results in a weaker magnetic field for the same current, so you might actually reduce the torque the motor puts out.
 
:* Then you'd also need to be sure you don't over-current the controller, or the batteries, and cooling everything involved becomes an additional topic.
 
: It's kind of like asking what's the highest VO2 max an athlete can put out.
 
:* It's not just about his lungs, it's about his heart, his muscles, his metabolism at a microscopic level, even about his mental attitude.
 
:* Tweak any one thing and the system's whole balance shifts.
 
:* That's why engineers make the medium-sized bucks!
 
 
 
;Speed
 
: Vehicle top speed can only be altered by the gearing (sprocket ratios).
 
: Power output is not affected by gearing; only torque is.
 
: So, a ratio yielding a higher top speed will result in lower torques throughout the range, resulting in slower accelerations from start.
 
  
;References
+
===[[Z-Force Motor/Electrical Connections|Motor Wiring]]===
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7208.0 What is the limit of a Zero motor?]
+
{{:Z-Force Motor/Electrical Connections}}
  
==Controller==
+
===[[Gen2/Motor Alignment|Motor Alignment]]===
This takes power from DC battery bus, encoding three-phase sine waves to match the motor's position sensor to apply torque precisely to the motor.
+
{{:Gen2/Motor Alignment}}
: The power is applied to the motor in synchronization with the current speed and position of the rotor.
 
: Controller alignment ([[#Motor_Commissioning|motor commissioning]]) is the process of tuning all of this for maximum efficiency and to avoid any slippage.
 
[[File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top]]
 
  
===Controller Operation===
+
===[[Motor Commissioning]]===
The controller is a switching [[wikipedia:MOSFET|MOSFET]] power supply that creates 3 phased sine wave outputs to drive the motor via [[wikipedia:Pulse-width modulation|Pulse-width modulation]] (PWM).
+
{{:Motor Commissioning}}
: The switching attempts to produce a smooth sine wave to each output terminal via [[wikipedia:Space vector modulation|Space vector modulation]] strategy of PWM.
 
: The motor has 3 stator (casing-embedded) windings at 120° equally spaced offsets around the circumference.
 
:* Each winding pulls from one motor terminal's output from the controller.
 
:* Each winding electromagnetically pulls on the rotor.
 
:* The forces need to balance out, not leading to a net lateral force on the rotor and shaft.
 
:* It also shouldn’t precess or wobble or slip.
 
: The process of making the sine waves is “encoding”.
 
[[File:my2017sr-sevcon-scope.jpg|thumb|MY2017 Zero SR.  Scope at Sevcon M3 Output Terminal]]
 
  
===Controller Alignment===
+
===[[Z-Force Motor/Limits|Motor Limits]]===
Alignment is the calibration of the controller sine wave production to match the controller output to the motor's position precisely.
+
{{:Z-Force Motor/Limits}}
* This is performed once/first by Zero's [[#Motor_Commissioning|motor commissioning]] process and then repeated later as a recalibration.
 
* It should generally be performed periodically as a preventative maintenance step.
 
  
The motor has sensors for encoder alignment to tell the exact angle of rotation of the rotor.
+
==[[Gen2/Motor Controller|Controller]]==
* If those sensors are inaccurate, encoding can be rough or fail entirely.
+
{{:Gen2/Motor Controller}}
* The sensors are embedded within the motor so for owners they just compensate in the controller for the drift, or swap the motor if the signal is bad enough that the controller can’t work with it.
 
  
===Controller Versions===
+
===[[Gen2/Motor Controller/Operation|Controller Operation]]===
{| class="wikitable sortable"
+
{{:Gen2/Motor Controller/Operation}}
!colspan="2"|Bike
 
!colspan="2"|Controller
 
!colspan="2"|Limits
 
|-
 
! Years
 
! Models
 
! Manufacturer
 
! Model
 
! Input Voltage
 
! Phase Current
 
|-
 
|2009-2011
 
|S/DS
 
|[http://www.alltraxinc.com/ Alltrax]
 
|[http://www.alltraxinc.com/Products_AXE.html AXE4855] refs: [http://www.evdrives.com/product_p/con-axe4855.htm] [http://www.electricmotorsport.com/alltrax-axe4855-24-48v-500a.html]
 
|48V
 
|500A
 
|-
 
|rowspan="3"|2012
 
|XU
 
|rowspan="2"|[[Sevcon]]
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4] [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-2-80v.html Size 2]
 
|rowspan="2"|120V
 
|220A
 
|-
 
|S/DS
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4] [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-4-80v.html Size 4]
 
|420A
 
|-
 
|X/MX
 
|[http://www.alltraxinc.com/ Alltrax]
 
|[http://www.alltraxinc.com/Products_AXE.html AXE7245] refs: [http://www.evdrives.com/product_p/con-axe7245.htm] [http://www.electricmotorsport.com/alltrax-axe7245-24-72v-450a.html]
 
|72V
 
|450A
 
|-
 
|rowspan="3"|2013-2016
 
|XU
 
|rowspan="5"|[[Sevcon]]
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4] [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-2-80v.html Size 2]
 
|rowspan="5"|120V
 
|220A
 
|-
 
|S/DS/FX/FXS/MMX
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4] [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-4-80v.html Size 4]
 
|420A
 
|-
 
|SR/DSR
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4] [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-6-80v.html Size 6]
 
|660A
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|2017+
 
|S/DS/FX/FXS/MMX
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4].5 [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-4-80v.html Size 4]
 
|550A
 
|-
 
|SR/DSR
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4].5 [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-6-80v.html Size 6]
 
|775A
 
|}
 
  
;2017 “Gen4.5”
+
===[[Gen2/Motor Controller/Alignment|Controller Alignment]]===
: 2017 models reference higher current ratings without publicized evidence of a Sevcon model change.
+
{{:Gen2/Motor Controller/Alignment}}
: These improvements seem to be in choosing [http://www.mouser.com/new/Infineon-Technologies/infineon-optimos-5/ MOSFETs] with increased power switching efficiencies to allow higher continuous and peak current levels.
 
: “Gen4.5” has been a term heard describing these improvements.
 
  
;Gen4 Size 6 Controller
+
===[[Gen2/Motor Controller/Versions|Controller Versions]]===
<gallery mode="packed">
+
{{:Gen2/Motor Controller/Versions}}
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top Connections.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top Terminals
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connectors Left Side.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Terminals Left Side
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connector.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connector
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Left Side.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Left Side
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Front.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Front
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Rear.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Rear
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Bottom.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Bottom
 
</gallery>
 
;Gen4 Size 6 Controller Internals
 
<gallery mode="packed">
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connection Front (Uncovered).png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connection Front
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connections Profile (Uncovered).png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connections Profile
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connectors Left Side (Uncovered).png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connectors Left Side
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Cover (Underside).png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Casing
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top (Uncovered).png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top
 
</gallery>
 
  
 
===Controller Mounting===
 
===Controller Mounting===
;S Platform Location
+
====[[SDS Platform/Controller Mounting|SDS Controller Mounting]]====
: The controller is located beneath the seat at the front of the tail assembly.
+
{{:SDS Platform/Controller Mounting}}
: The baseplate is fastened from the underside of the tail of the frame, between the frame "horns".
 
;X Platform Location
 
: The controller is mounted to the forward downward face of the frame at the bottom.
 
: The baseplate is fastened from the outside of the frame face.
 
 
 
; Fasteners
 
: A [[#Controller Cover|plastic sheet cover]] is fastened across the top of the controller by a Phillips head screw (PH1).
 
: A [[#Controller Heatsink|heatsink]] is fastened to its surface for radiative cooling, with a thermal paste between to maximize heat transfer via contact/conduction.
 
: 4 M6 bolts secure the controller baseplate to the frame.
 
:* For size 2 and size 4 controllers, the base plate is 12mm thick.
 
:* For size 6 controllers (S platform only), the base plate is 20mm thick.
 
 
 
===[[Controller Uncovering]]===
 
{{warning|This exposes high-voltage terminals that can damage tools, equipment, or cause injury or death if not de-energized.
 
Ensure the bike is fully de-energized or that you are using professional methods and safety precautions.}}
 
{{:Controller Uncovering}}
 
 
 
===Controller Heatsink===
 
The underside face of the controller is directly covered by a finned heatsink that faces downwards toward the rear wheel and swingarm.
 
* The heatsink varies in size with the size of the controller.
 
* A thermal paste is applied between the heatsink and baseplate to maximize heat transfer via contact/conduction.
 
* The rear shock connects just ahead of the heatsink to the frame center tube.
 
 
 
===Controller Connections===
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Controller Connectors
 
|-
 
| Main terminals are, in order from front to rear: M1, B-, M2, B+, M3.
 
: For Size 4 and Size 6, the bolts are all M8 with a torque setting of 11Nm±2Nm; bolts should engage a minimum of 10mm and thread depth is 15mm.
 
: For Size 2 (2013XU), the bolts are all M6 with a torque settings of 7Nm±2Nm.
 
* M-terminals supply the motor with its rotating field in three phases. Each gets a sine wave that is offset by 0, 120, 240 degrees.
 
* B+ and B- connect to the battery power at positive and negative, respectively.
 
|[[File:motor-controller.png|thumb|Motor-controller power connections]]
 
|-
 
| [http://www.te.com/usa-en/product-1-776163-1.html Connector info] (see AMPSEAL Automotive Plug Connector and Header Assembly (PDF, English))
 
: [http://www.mouser.com/Search/ProductDetail.aspx?qs=YqNA2qefETAUziSpjzx9mg%3d%3d More connector info] (look at bottom for pins)
 
|[[File:controller-connector.png|thumb|2013 Gen4 Size 4 Controller signal connector]]
 
|}
 
 
 
;Diagnostic Cables
 
: [[File:cable-harness-sevcon-prog-all.png|400px|Sevcon programming cable harness]][[File:cable-harness-sevcon-prog-ampseal-34-rear.png|300px|Connections to Sevcon for programming]][[File:cable-harness-sevcon-prog-ampseal-34.png|200px|34-pin AMPSeal connector]]
 
: Zero Sevcon programming cables are part #86-06747 connected as follows:
 
:* Pin 1 is "Key Switch In": power for the logic circuits.
 
:* Pin 2 is linked to pin 24 via 120Ω resistor to tell the Sevcon that it's at the CANBus termination.
 
:* Pin 13 is "CAN High".
 
:* Pin 27 is "CAN Low" in the Sevcon manual (pin 24 also is, unless used for termination signal).
 
 
 
===Controller Feature Usage===
 
 
 
;Throttle
 
:[[Sevcon]] provides the [[#Throttle|throttle]] with two mappings:
 
:# Mapping voltage to value in the first place (separately for forward and reverse)
 
:# An "input characteristic" profile which has linear, curved, crawl, and user-defined segmented options.
 
:The controller also supports:
 
:*Control modes targeting speed (used through 2012) versus torque (used in 2013+).
 
:*:The control mode translates the throttle signal into motor operation, so it makes the throttle target a speed or a level of torque.
 
:*Dual throttle inputs.
 
:*Regen proportional to the throttle.
 
:*Directional throttle.
 
:*Speed limit proportional to throttle.
 
:*Reverse speed limit.
 
 
 
;Regen
 
:The [[Sevcon]] controller manual refers to regen as braking, and has a number of recommendations and features disabled to help prevent wheel lockup for "on-highway applications".
 
;Braking
 
: The Sevcon can also apply reverse torque as braking or a reverse gear, and supports separate speed and torque limits while the motor is rotating in reverse, very important if used on a Zero since motorcycles are unstable when reversed so must operate within human walking speeds.
 
 
 
;OEM Programming
 
: Zero programs the Sevcon controller for their needs, above and beyond DOT, NHTSA, and EU vehicle manufacturing standards.
 
: Some of this is a bunch of settings and some of this seems to be a custom version of the firmware code.
 
: The new IPM motor may have demanded further customization than previous models, where custom firmware code is particularly relevant.
 
: ''Settings'' can be changed and restored, but not ''code'' without some OEM-supported technical assistance.
 
  
===[[Sevcon Controller CAN Diagnostics|Controller CAN Diagnostics]]===
+
====[[XMX Platform/Controller Mounting|XMX Controller Mounting]]====
{{:Sevcon Controller CAN Diagnostics}}
+
{{:XMX Platform/Controller Mounting}}
  
===Controller Configuration===
+
===[[SDS Platform/Controller Uncovering|Controller Uncovering]]===
The controller's configuration implements a number of Zero features:
+
{{:SDS Platform/Controller Uncovering}}
* Speed calculations.
 
* Distance calculations.
 
* Over-voltage limits to protect the battery by cutting out regen or refusing to operate.
 
* Under-voltage limits to protect the battery charge state.
 
* Current limits to protect the battery.
 
* Delay before regen toggles on or off.
 
* Driving modes like Eco/Custom/Sport which include speed and torque limits and speed ramping limits to prevent wheel lockup.
 
  
;References
+
===[[Gen2/Motor Controller/Heatsink|Controller Heatsink]]===
: [http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Sevcon Gen4 product page] (formerly at [http://www.sevcon.com/ac-controllers/gen4%E2%84%A2.aspx])
+
{{:Gen2/Motor Controller/Heatsink}}
: [http://www.sevcon.com/media/78433/gen4_size_2_4_6_may_2016.pdf Gen4 data sheet] (no longer available without request form with contact details)
 
: [http://www.thunderstruck-ev.com/Manuals/Gen4_Product_Manual_V3.0.pdf Gen4 reference Manual]
 
  
; Configuration
+
===[[Gen2/Motor Controller/Connections|Controller Connections]]===
: Some MBB settings direct the Sevcon controller; look to the MBB first.
+
{{:Gen2/Motor Controller/Connections}}
: The MBB can also provide a dump of Sevcon diagnostics and logs.
 
: DVT software to maintain the Sevcon programming is available but recent versions require a license and the cabling is not cheap. The older unlicensed versions may have trouble maintaining newer programming by Zero.
 
  
; [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4297 Direct diagnostics]
+
===[[Gen2/Motor Controller/Feature Usage|Controller Feature Usage]]===
: For those interested in better understanding your Zero's motor controller setup, you'll need some specific cables and software.
+
{{:Gen2/Motor Controller/Feature Usage}}
:: These will allow you to browse the current controller configuration as well as make changes such as increasing regeneration rates, customising sport or eco modes etc.
 
: This is what you'll need:
 
:# An IXXAT CAN-USB compact adaptor v1.5 (v1.01.0087.10100) or v1.6
 
:#:approx USD300 but you may find it cheaper on eBay or borrow/rent it from another forum member or dealer.
 
:#: You cannot buy these anymore, you must get them off ebay or part of a [http://www.thunderstruck-ev.com/sevcon-gen4-pc-based-programming-kit.html Thunderstruck EV $900 kit].
 
:#: You cannot use a new version of the IXXAT CAN-USB either as it will not work with an unlicensed copy of the software. And to get a license you have to own a business.
 
:# A DB2 female to OBDII male cable with a specific pin mapping (not the most common one).
 
:#:[http://www.easysync-ltd.com/ Easysync] make a [http://www.easysync-ltd.com/product/577/obd-m-db9-f-es.html DB9 female to OBD male cable] that has the correct pin configuration - about USD25
 
:# Sevcon DVT Customer software
 
:#:It has to be version 1.03c or lower to use unlicensed (Google is your friend, as is Dropbox in this case).
 
:#:Good luck saving your DCF files with it.
 
:#:You need to write down your settings before making big changes.
 
:#:Even if you bought the new version and got a license you would have to use a NEW IXXAT USB-CAN as the old one isn't compatible.
 
:#:The Sevcon software will run on Windows XP, 7 and 8.
 
:#:There are manuals and getting started guides on the Internet (Google again) on how to use the DVT software including one at [https://www.thunderstruck-ev.com/images/DVT%20Tutorial.pdf Thunderstruck EV].
 
: {{Warning| Do not link any files as they have been removed multiple times in the past.}}
 
:* One of the dropbox links you will find will have at least 3 different versions.
 
:* If you install any new versions completely remove everything from the previous versions.
 
:* If you find the program wont start up and it isn't 1.02 then install a "merge" installation of TCL and it should work.
 
: {{Warning|You can brick your controller temporarily by making changes.}}
 
:: It would be nice to have a backup but these online versions of "free" sevcon software all have issues with saving.
 
:: I have tested 1.00 1.01 1.02 (which never ran) and 1.03c so far.
 
:: If you brick your device you will need someone to give you a DCF file to return your device to working order.
 
:: But good luck getting it from a form member who doesn't work for a dealer as stated it is next to impossible to export the file.
 
: Sevcon is very much against this use of their product and software, and have issued takedown notices for publicly available files.
 
: You will not get official support and people will be reluctant to post details publicly.
 
:: Get the 200 page DVT / SEVCON GEN 4 manual from the manufacture's webpage and read it a couple times.
 
:: Try contacting knowledgeable people privately.
 
: You really need to understand what you are doing when you start to make changes.
 
:: This isn't a toy you are going to be remotely piloting, it is a vehicle you are risking your life on!
 
: Zero has specific programming to customize the Sevcon controller.
 
:: So it is not clear whether customer customization is achievable beyond basic modification of settings or performing an alignment using DVT.
 
  
; Recovery
+
===[[Gen2/Motor Controller/CAN Diagnostics|Controller CAN Diagnostics]]===
: [https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewtopic.php?f=30&t=88205&p=1287062#p1287062 DoctorBass has documented a backdoor method of recovering a Sevcon controller if its firmware is in an unusable state]
+
{{:Gen2/Motor Controller/CAN Diagnostics}}
: Using the IXXAT connection, issue the following command:
 
can send "0x7FA 0x48 0x65 0x79 0x73 0x6c 0x69 0x70"
 
: This byte sequence is also apparently available as "BD" (for "backdoor", presumably).
 
  
===Controller Cover===
+
===[[Gen2/Motor Controller/Configuration|Controller Configuration]]===
The Sevcon Controller has a sheet installed over it for EMI protection to the rider that is probably also helpful at keeping dust and moisture off.
+
{{:Gen2/Motor Controller/Configuration}}
  
;Mounting
+
===[[Gen2/Motor Controller/Cover|Controller Cover]]===
: The cover is anchored in front of the controller in a recessed area under the arms of the Y-shaped seat underframe.
+
{{:Gen2/Motor Controller/Cover}}
: The cover is anchored to the rear of the controller with a single screw.
 
  
 
====[[Controller Uncovering|Controller Cover Removal]]====
 
====[[Controller Uncovering|Controller Cover Removal]]====
Line 1,521: Line 502:
 
Until 2014, Zero used branded versions of generic Koso instrument clusters, mapping the fuel level indicator to battery state of charge.
 
Until 2014, Zero used branded versions of generic Koso instrument clusters, mapping the fuel level indicator to battery state of charge.
  
===Koso XR-SR===
+
===[[Gen1/Koso XR-SR|Koso XR-SR]]===
For years 2008-2011
+
{{:Gen1/Koso XR-SR}}
  
;References
+
===[[Koso RX-1N]]===
* [http://kosonorthamerica.com/shop/motorcycle-mx/xr-sr-multi-functions/ Koso XR-SR product page]
+
{{:Koso RX-1N}}
* [http://www.kosonorthamerica.com/instructions/BB017B00.pdf instructions]
 
  
===Koso RX-1N===
+
===[[Gen2/Instrument Cluster|Zero 2014 Instrument Cluster]]===
For years 2012-2013
+
{{:Gen2/Instrument Cluster}}
[[File:koso-rx-1n.png|thumb|Koso RX-1N (retail)]] [[File:2013-instrument-cluster-Koso-RX-1N-front.png|thumb|Zero's Koso RX-1N cluster (front)]][[File:2013-instrument-cluster-Koso-RX-1N-rear.png|thumb|Zero's Koso RX-1N cluster (rear)]]
 
  
;References
+
==[[Onboard Charger|Charger]]==
* [http://kosonorthamerica.com/shop/motorcycle-mx/rx-1n/ Koso RX-1N]
+
{{:Onboard Charger}}
* [http://www.kosonorthamerica.com/instructions/BA011B02.pdf Instructions]
 
  
;Features
+
===[[Gen2/Calex Charger|Calex Charger]]===
: The 2012-2013 RX-1N shows battery level in 11 increments.
+
{{:Gen2/Calex Charger}}
: It's relatively effective to treat each increment as representing 9% of charge state, and do a little mental math to figure out that each increment could represent 6-12 miles (for say 2013), and work out the remaining range / speed tradeoff from that.
 
:* go slower to get closer to 12 miles of range per increment
 
:* go faster if you can afford to burn off the battery to reach your destination in time.
 
: The Koso instructions linked below show how to operate it.
 
  
; Speedometer Adjustment Quick How-To
+
====[[Gen2/Calex Charger/Behavior|Calex Charger Behavior]]====
* [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7755 Reference]
+
{{:Gen2/Calex Charger/Behavior}}
# Turn on motorcycle.
 
# Press and hold the Select + Adjust buttons simultaneously for 3 seconds.
 
# Use the "adjust" button to increment the digit, and the "select" button to navigate to the next digit.
 
:* The stock setting is ''1972 28-132 2P''.
 
:* The previous setting was ''1972 25-128 2P''.
 
  
;Connections
+
===[[Gen2/Meanwell Charger|Meanwell Charger]]===
: Koso connectors are much simpler than Zero's connectors to its own custom dash.
+
{{:Gen2/Meanwell Charger}}
:: Interchanging them would be a significant project.
 
: [[File:koso-display-connector.png|200px|2013 S/DS Koso Display connections]]
 
  
===Zero 2014 Instrument Cluster===
+
====[[Gen2/Meanwell Charger/Behavior|Meanwell Charger Behavior]]====
{{:2014 Instrument Cluster}}
+
{{:Gen2/Meanwell Charger/Behavior}}
  
==Charger==
+
===[[Gen2/Calex Charger/Operation|Charger Operation]]===
Zero motorcycles have a stock [[Wikipedia:SAE_J1772#Charging|Level 1 charger]] built in, accepting single-phase AC from common household outlets (100V to 240V).
+
{{:Gen2/Calex Charger/Operation}}
  
;Location
+
===[[Gen2/Charger Power Cord|Charger Power Cord]]===
: [[File:2016-dsr-calex-1200-battery-underside.JPG|thumb|2016 DSR battery case bottom with charger removed]]
+
{{:Gen2/Charger Power Cord}}
: Bolted onto the underside of frame under the battery pack.
 
: Protected by a metal belly pan on the DS/DSR/FX and very hard ABS plastic on the S/SR/FXS.
 
  
;Inlet
+
===[[Gen2/Calex Charger/Connections|Charger Connections]]===
:S Models - Located on the left side of the frame above the footpeg with a rubber boot attached.
+
{{:Gen2/Calex Charger/Connections}}
:X Models - Located in the front below the right "batwing".
 
: The inlet is an [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEC_60320#C13.2FC14_coupler IEC 60320 C14 inlet] for a cord ending in a C13.
 
: The bike comes with a tethered C13-shaped rubber dust cover for the inlet, P/N 45-04864.
 
:: It protects the inlet from dirt which would create resistance and heat in power connections, eventually damaging the inlet and/or the onboard charger.
 
:: Press the dust cover in firmly after unplugging the cord to minimize wear on the inlet and charger.
 
:: It's very cheap to replace but seems proprietary so far.
 
 
 
;Connections
 
: Charger electrical connections face the rear towards the motor; cables run upward.
 
 
 
;Power
 
: The onboard charger for Zero motorcycles is rated to use 100V to 240V AC but is limited in capacity to the 110V power rating, so operates at half current at 220V.
 
: Efficiency should be a little bit higher at higher voltages because of the reduction in current.
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Onboard Charger Models
 
! colspan="2"|
 
! colspan="3"|Charger
 
! colspan="3"|Input
 
! Output
 
! colspan="2"|
 
|-
 
! Platforms
 
! Years
 
! Manufacturer
 
! #
 
! Model
 
! Power
 
! @110V
 
! @220V
 
! Current
 
! Dimensions
 
! IP Rating
 
! Photo
 
|-
 
| S and X || 2009-2012
 
| [https://delta-q.com/ DeltaQ] || 1 || [https://delta-q.com/product/quiq-1000-industrial-battery-charger/ QuiQ 1000]
 
|1000W || 8A || 4A || 8A
 
|10.9” ⨉ 9.7” ⨉ 4.3”
 
| IP66
 
|-
 
| rowspan="2" | S
 
|2013
 
| [https://www.meanwell-web.com/en/ Mean Well]
 
| 2s2p || [https://www.meanwell-web.com/en/product-info/ac-dc-power-supply/led-driver/gt-185-w-led-driver/hlg-320h/product/HLG-320H-54A HLG320H-54A] @320W ([http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Mean-Well/HLG-320H-54A/ via Mouser])
 
| rowspan="2" | 1300W
 
| rowspan="2" | 11A
 
| rowspan="2" | 7A
 
| rowspan="2" | 11A
 
| 8.87” ⨉ 14.17” ⨉ 1.724” (4 in a row)
 
| rowspan="5" | IP65
 
| [[File:charger-meanwell-zero-s-2013.jpg|200px|2013S onboard charger]]
 
|-
 
|2014-2017
 
|[http://www.greenwattpower.com/ GreenWattPower] (Calex subsidiary) || 1 || [http://www.greenwattpower.com/1300evc.html EVC-116-1200]
 
|14.76” ⨉ 9.76” ⨉ 1.73”
 
| [[File:charger_calex.png|200px|Calex onboard charger]]
 
|-
 
| rowspan="2" | X
 
|2013-2014
 
| [https://www.meanwell-web.com/en/ Mean Well] || 2s1p || [https://www.meanwell-web.com/en/product-info/ac-dc-power-supply/led-driver/gt-185-w-led-driver/hlg-320h/product/HLG-320H-54A HLG320H-54A] @320W ([http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Mean-Well/HLG-320H-54A/ via Mouser])
 
|650W
 
| rowspan="2" | 5A
 
| rowspan="2" | 3A
 
| rowspan="2" | 5A
 
| 8.866” ⨉ 3.543” ⨉ 1.724” ''ea''
 
|-
 
|2015-2017
 
|[http://www.greenwattpower.com/ GreenWattPower] (Calex subsidiary) || 1 || [http://www.greenwattpower.com/720evc.html EVC-116-720]
 
|720W
 
|12.20” ⨉ 7.08” ⨉ 2.0”
 
|}
 
 
 
===Calex Charger===
 
The Calex / GreenWattPower EVC-116-1300 and EVC-116-720 are used on modern Zero models (2014 onwards except for the 2014FX) and are CANBus-controllable which eliminates the CCU board.
 
:[[File:onboard-charger-rear-uncovered.jpg|thumb|Calex connections uncovered]]
 
:[[File:onboard-charger-rear.jpg|thumb|Calex connections]]
 
 
 
;Design
 
: The board is a solid-state switching power supply with a CAN interface.
 
: The aluminum enclosure is well-sealed with over two dozen fasteners.
 
: The enclosure is filled with a solid rubbery [[Potting|potting]] material.
 
 
 
;Reliability
 
: Certain model years (MY14 and MY15) have had onboard charger faults after 900-1200 miles and require replacement under warrantee.
 
: MY16 onward (and MY13 which used Meanwell units) appear to have a lower defect rate.
 
: This appears to be a third-party quality issue with Calex that was reportedly resolved by early 2016, but this is not proven perfectly yet.
 
: 720W chargers used on X models appear to be more reliable than 1300W chargers used on S models.
 
 
 
;Design Revision
 
: In response to the 2014-2015 reliability difficulties, it seems that the internal board was mainly reworked for lower risk of overheating.
 
: One observation is that the size of the board changed from about ⅓ of the volume of the enclosure to the full area of the enclosure.
 
: Newer revisions seem to have a cube-shaped clip-on ferrite bead EMI filter on the AC input cable (per [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=9049.msg77958#msg77958 this EMF thread]).
 
 
 
;Repair
 
: Because of the solid rubbery potting, repair of anything beyond the connectors is almost totally impractical, especially given the cost of replacement.
 
: The board is designed for blind [[#Charger Replacement|replacement]].
 
 
 
====Calex Charger Behavior====
 
: Per [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6330.msg48829#msg48829 CANBUS diagnostic reply], the Calex charger operates as a CC/CV mode charger.
 
:* Constant current (CC) mode is the default operational mode.
 
:*: The charger attempts to deliver a target amount of current to the battery.
 
:*: This means that the charger's power input is proportional to the battery's voltage at that moment, which rises from low state to the high state of charge, so charging will be slower at low voltages (< 20% SoC).
 
:* Maximum allowed battery voltage: 116.4V ''(Confirmed via charger self-report over CANBUS)''
 
:*: When battery voltage reaches or exceeds this value, the charger enters a constant voltage (CV) mode.
 
:*: Since the rate of charge dynamically adds voltage to the pack, the taper eases off this addition so there's a stable charge equilibrium at the end.
 
:*: Tapering behavior is observed to reduce output current in increments of 1A and typically starts at 12A.
 
:* Current taper cutoff: 10A ''(Confirmed via charger self-report over CANBUS)''
 
:*: The charger will cut to 0 output rather than taper below this value.
 
:* Maximum allowed current: 65.535 A ''(Confirmed via charger self-report over CANBUS)''
 
:*: This is a meaningless binary value.
 
 
 
;Overcharge Protection
 
: The charger is limited by the manufacturer to a range that matches Zero's battery safe range.
 
: The charger is connected to external AC sources and is therefore a vulnerable component while plugged in.
 
:: Per [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6707.msg54407#msg54407 Re: Change to Charging - Leaving Bike Plugged In]
 
:* The charger is an isolated power supply with suppressors on the input.
 
:* So, if a surge were big enough, the suppressors could fail short.
 
:* Then the circuit breaker should fail after that.
 
:* The BMS and the rest of the bike is completely isolated from the charger, so there's no current path to them.
 
:: This is why some people on this forum report their charger is dead, but the bike is fine, and there wasn't any fire. Most of the time Zero, replaces the onboard charger for them.
 
:; Worst-case scenario
 
:* BMS unresponsive
 
:* MBB unresponsive
 
:* Contactor welded
 
:* Charger outputs more than 117.6V
 
:: In the event of all these holding (extremely unlikely), there is some risk of a fire.
 
:: This is probably why Zero asks you to check on the bike every 72 hours to make sure the bike is still responding and the BMS is still alive.
 
 
 
===Meanwell Charger Behavior===
 
These chargers do not interact over CANBus messaging, so just operate in a preset way in CC-CV mode, although the [[#Charging_Control_Unit|CCU]] also has some control over it to implement battery protections.
 
 
 
;Clicking Sound
 
: There is a known issue, per [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4176 Clicking sound when plugged-in], that the Meanwells sometimes make a repeated clicking sound.
 
: It seems to happen generally in the cold.
 
: This symptom does not seem to precede an equipment failure, and should go away once charging is complete.
 
 
 
===Charger Operation===
 
Mainly, the charger is the most routine bike maintenance and you just plug it in and can forget about it.
 
 
 
;When to Charge
 
: Per Zero's recommendation, the battery state of charge is ideally kept between 30% and 70%.
 
* Always plug in when the SoC is below 30%.
 
* Leave it plugged in to reach 100% and improve cel balance if you are planning to ride the bike in the next few days.
 
* You can unplug the bike when it reaches 70% if the bike will not be ridden sooner than a few days, or if your next ride will not require more charge.
 
*: This keeps the battery in a healthier state and improves battery lifetime beyond the warranty.
 
 
 
; What to Watch For
 
: When plugging in, expect:
 
* The contactor to close with a click or remain closed.
 
* The dash charging indicator to begin blinking green.
 
* After a few seconds, (2014+ models) the charge time indicator should display a number of hours and minutes until fully charged.
 
*: This indicator helps predict when a desired SoC can be anticipated, with a little math.
 
 
 
; Trouble Indications
 
* Spark at the plug when connecting.
 
* Heat from the plug.
 
* No charging dash indicator.
 
* Circuit breaker trips.
 
 
 
; Reliability Tips
 
: There is a growing consensus that the Calex charger's limited cooling capacity can lead to damage over time if it's operated repeatedly at the high end of its rated band.
 
: To minimize risk of a charger fault or component burnout, avoid operating it while the battery is hot and still cooling, and address any heating or sparking at the plug.
 
: Check the [[Common_Problems#Charging|Common Charging Problems]] section regarding the plug and cord.
 
: Basic suggestions:
 
:* After an intense ride in the heat with the battery temperature high, wait for a couple of hours until the temperature is lower.
 
:* Keep the inlet covered when not in use.
 
:* Use contact cleaner on the inlet periodically (once per month) or whenever the charging cord plug warms up significantly during charging.
 
:* Minimize strain and load on the charging cord.
 
:* Unplug the cord and cover the inlet when not in use.
 
 
 
;[[Common_Problems#GFCI_Faults|GFCI]]
 
: Ground fault circuit isolation (GFCI or GFI) enabled outlets often trip when using the Zero onboard charger, relating to how AC phases are wired to a single or multiple outlets.
 
: If this happens regularly, it is reasonable to break off the grounding pin from your charging cord, or, better yet, get a [https://www.google.com/?ion=1&espv=2#q=three+prong+to+two+prong+adapter&tbm=shop cheater (three prong to two prong) "cheater" plug].
 
 
 
===Charger Power Cord===
 
: The charging cord is a 10-ft 14AWG cord with a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NEMA_connector#NEMA_5 NEMA 5-15P] (US) to [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEC_60320#C13.2FC14_coupler IEC320 C13] output plug rated for 15A.
 
: Zero specifies that any extension cord be at least the above specification, and 15A continuous rating is important to look for.
 
 
 
; Demand
 
* The S-Platform onboard charger draws 11-12A at 120V AC (and half the amps at ~220V).
 
* The X-Platform onboard charger draws 7A at 120V AC (and half the amps at ~220V).
 
 
 
;Tips
 
* When in doubt, prefer a thicker gauge cord, a shorter length, and a sturdier plug.
 
* Do not let a charge cord sit coiled up, particularly in a container; make sure that any heat produced is not confined near the cord for any reason.
 
* Plugging into a 220V outlet will reduce the current to the onboard charger by half, so is one way to drastically minimize risk to any cords.
 
 
 
;Replacements
 
: See [[Common_Modifications#Spare_Onboard_Charger_Power_Cables|Spare Onboard Charger Power Cables]]
 
 
 
===Charger Connections===
 
: AC input is an IEC-60320 C13 inlet.
 
: DC output is an [[Anderson_connector|Anderson]] [http://www.andersonpower.com/us/en/products/sbs/sbs-50.aspx SBS50-BRN], but it seems to be a narrower pin pitch with no center data pin set.
 
: CANbus signal interface is a JAE MX23A18NF1 connector (applies to the Calex, not the Mean Wells!)
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ CAN signal pins per GWP data sheet
 
|-
 
!Pin
 
!Function
 
|-
 
|4
 
|CAN ground
 
|-
 
|5
 
|CAN +5V power
 
|-
 
|6
 
|CAN Dominant Low
 
|-
 
|7
 
|CAN Dominant High
 
|-
 
|10
 
|ob_charger_attached_n [charger_attached]
 
|-
 
|11
 
|ob_charger_attached_n [charger_attached]
 
|-
 
|12
 
|charger_en_0 [charger_en_n]
 
|-
 
|13
 
|ob_charger_ref_0 [charger_gnd_ref]
 
|}
 
 
 
;CANbus wiring
 
:Adapted from an examination of the wiring on a 2014 SR: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6167 Onboard charger wiring for 2014 and 2015+] for the Calex.
 
:When the onboard charger is plugged in and powered on the onboard charger pushes:
 
:* 5V and 48mA through the Charger attached Pin #11.
 
:* 5V and 26mA through the Charger enabled Pin #12.
 
:The 5V ground reference is Pin #13 which is battery negative.
 
:With this knowledge, another onboard charger solution can be wired to function as follows:
 
:# Run a separate circuit that when triggered pushes 5V ~50mA through pin#11 (attached charger) with the other end of the 5V circuit connected to the battery negative pin #13.
 
:# When this is triggered, the bike shows the battery state of charge % and charge time remaining, closes the contactor and allows charging - through the accessory charging port, the onboard charger port or via the Sevcon battery terminals for high power charging.
 
:# Upon completion of charging, the 5V can be switched off and the charge level and time remaining switch off and the contactor opens just as with the onboard charger.
 
:# The bike can be keyed on and ridden away as normal.
 
: Using this method there is no need to leave the bike on when charging via the accessory charging port or the controller battery-side cables, or if you are using the [[#Accessory_Charging_Port|accessory charging port]] without triggering the auxiliary pin on the accessory charging port's Anderson SBS75XBRN.
 
:;NOTE
 
:: For 2015 onwards, the charger install uses additional wiring which may have a different approach using CAN signals, so it may require a different approach.
 
  
 
===[[Calex Charger Replacement|Charger Replacement]]===
 
===[[Calex Charger Replacement|Charger Replacement]]===
 
{{:Calex Charger Replacement}}
 
{{:Calex Charger Replacement}}
  
==Main Bike Board==
+
==[[Gen2/Main Bike Board|Main Bike Board]]==
[[File:2016 Zero MBB Front.png|thumb|2016 Zero MBB Front]]
+
{{:Gen2/Main Bike Board}}
[[File:2016 Zero MBB Back.png|thumb|2016 Zero MBB Back]]
 
The Main Bike Board (MBB) controls the overall system, implements safety interlocks, and directs the controller.
 
: It is also the entry point for configuring these systems, performing diagnostics, and examining operational events.
 
: When referring to "the firmware", or "the logs", people are referring to this board primarily, and possibly the BMS.
 
: It is enclosed within a fully-potted plastic-like container with multi-pin connectors along the top side.
 
  
; Location (S Platform)
+
===[[Gen2/Main Bike Board/Limitations|Main Bike Board Limitations]]===
: Below the front area of the seat under cable runs.
+
{{:Gen2/Main Bike Board/Limitations}}
: It is located aft of (and above) the [[#DC.2FDC_12V_converter|DC-DC converter]] with a bracket sandwiched between them.
 
[[File:2017-S-Frame - Board Mounting Plate Left Bracket.png|thumb|100px|Board Plate Mounting Bracket (Left)]]
 
[[File:2017-S-Frame - Board Mounting Plate Right Bracket.png|thumb|100px|Board Plate Mounting Bracket (Right)]]
 
  
; Location (X Platform)
+
===[[Gen2/Main Bike Board/Connections|Main Bike Board Connections]]===
: Below the front modular battery (or front half of a longbrick battery) in the triangular bay above the controller.
+
{{:Gen2/Main Bike Board/Connections}}
  
; Mounting (S Platform)
+
==[[Gen2/Charging Control Unit|Charging Control Unit]]==
: Two socket head bolts with washers fasten the enclosure to a vertical plate.
+
{{:Gen2/Charging Control Unit}}
: The bolts enter the plate in the forward direction but offer very limited clearance for manipulating them.
 
: '''NOTE:''' on the right, the cables from the controller to the motor run past.
 
: A very small angled 3mm Allen Key wrench is best for unmounting the board.
 
  
; [[MBB_Console|Diagnostics]]
+
==[[DC-DC 12V Converter|DC-DC 12V converter]]==
: When using the OBD2 port, the board's application firmware supplies the interactive [[MBB_Console|console]].
+
{{:DC-DC 12V Converter}}
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=3057 Playing with the 2012 MBB] shows Doctorbass' transcript using 2012 firmware.
 
:* 2013 models' interface differs quite a bit from this but the general logic and experience are the same.
 
 
 
; Protections
 
: The board appears to be permanently sealed and potted within the enclosure to protect it from dust and a certain amount of moisture ingress.
 
 
 
; Interlock Troubleshooting
 
: Use careful electrical isolation measures when troubleshooting electrical switches used as inputs for interlocks enforced by the firmware.
 
 
 
; Replacement
 
: The board must have its firmware setup specific to the bike in question.
 
: Major firmware difference exist across model years such that the firmware binary in question must be selected to prevent major problems on replacement.
 
:* '''NOTE:''' ''Apparently'' only the manufacturer can perform this provisioning (probably imaging the base kernel, userland, and application-container management).
 
: A dealer must select the correct and latest applicable ''application'' firmware to apply to the bike per its basic parameters:
 
:* Year
 
:* Model
 
:* Battery configuration
 
: Information from the bike's [[#VIN|VIN]] is necessary to select the right programming by the dealer or manufacturer.
 
:: This information may not be sufficient, if it requires coding in the presence of a [[Power Tank]] or [[Charge Tank]].
 
: The board settings require model information to be set per above, and the BMS must agree about this information.
 
 
 
===Main Bike Board Limitations===
 
The board design is very modest and seems to prioritize light weight and simplicity over robustness.
 
: Take as much care as possible when troubleshooting in and around this module.
 
: A professional-grade application of dielectric grease around the connectors seems advisable.
 
:* '''NOTE:''' Ensure that the entire connector and pins are clean and dry before applying.
 
 
 
; Performance and Lockup
 
: The board communicates with the bike's other systems via [[Wikipedia:CAN Bus|CAN Bus]], which is a 2-wire [[Wikipedia:Multi-master bus|Multi-master bus]].
 
:* This means that multiple nodes on the bus must initiate a transfer.
 
: The board also has limited memory, I/O dispatching, and computational performance.
 
:* So, it can get clogged with requests for data outside its designed parameters.
 
:* So, running any telemetry while in drive mode through the OBD-II serial console or using the Bluetooth transmitter will meaningfully increase the load on the board.
 
:*: In some cases prevent it from acting on rider inputs, including safety interlocks like the cutout switch or kickstand interlocks.
 
: Reportedly, 2017 and newer models have increased performance and doubled memory capacity.
 
:* This enables an onboard upgrade with an atomic swap of versions by holding new and old firmware versions simultaneously.
 
:* There's no known means of using these in older models.
 
 
 
; Electrical Vulnerability
 
: The circuits connected to the pins seem to lack significant protection against shorting faults, which could be a source of breakages while dealing with connected systems.
 
 
 
; OBD-II Serial Output
 
: The use of the non-standard OBD-II port most easily draws power from a very limited internal circuit.
 
: The OBD-II port as a result is typically not usable over a long cable without an external power supply and good quality connections.
 
 
 
===Main Bike Board Connections===
 
The board has a 34-pin and 40-pin connector exposed through the top of the enclosure, making them relatively accessible and a way to identify the component.
 
: Both are made by [http://www.jaeusa.com/ JAE Electronics].
 
 
 
[[File:2016 Zero MBB Top.png|thumb|none|2016 Zero MBB Top]]
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Connector
 
!Harness-side
 
!MBB-side
 
!Notes
 
|-
 
|34-pin connector "MBB 1"
 
|[https://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/JAE-Electronics/MX23A34SF1/ JAE Electronics MX23A34SF1]
 
|[https://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/JAE-Electronics/MX23A34NF1/ JAE Electronics MX34A34NF1].
 
|[[File:MBB_pins.png|300px|frame|Harness-side pinout; MBB side mirrored]]
 
[[File:mbb-1-connector.png|thumb|2013 MBB 1 connector Wiring Diagram image]]
 
|-
 
|40-pin connector "MBB 2"
 
|[https://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/JAE-Electronics/MX23A40SF1/ JAE Electronics MX23A40SF1]
 
|[https://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/JAE-Electronics/MX23A40NF1/ JAE Electronics MX34A40NF1]
 
|[[File:mbb-2-connector.png|thumb|2013 MBB 2 connector Wiring Diagram image]]
 
|}
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Inputs
 
!Component
 
!Function
 
!Wire
 
!MBB Pin
 
!Role
 
|-
 
|rowspan="3"|[[#Kickstand_Switch|Kickstand Switch]]
 
|rowspan="3"|Safety Interlock
 
|Red (2013) 20AWG
 
|27
 
|Colors are different for 2016 models:
 
|-
 
|Orange (2013) (black) 20AWG
 
|12
 
|Blue (5v power), Pinkish Red (measure signal TODO), Black.
 
: Do '''not''' short these directly. That is not how you bypass.
 
|-
 
|Yellow (2013) (black) 20AWG
 
|11
 
|[[#Kickstand_Switch|Kickstand Switch]]
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|[[#Kill_Switch|Kill Switch]]
 
|rowspan="2"|Safety Interlock
 
|Red 20AWG
 
|23
 
|
 
|-
 
|White 20AWG
 
|24
 
|
 
|}
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Outputs
 
!Component
 
!Function
 
!Wire
 
!MBB Pin
 
!Function
 
!Notes
 
|-
 
|rowspan="3"|DC-DC Converter
 
|Enable Signal
 
|Orange (Red) 18AWG
 
|
 
: 21 (2013)
 
: 20 (2015)
 
|
 
|
 
|}
 
 
 
==Charging Control Unit==
 
The Charging Control Unit (CCU) on Meanwell-charger-equipped models (all 2013 and the 2014FX) collects battery temperature sensor data, battery voltage, and charger DC voltage to decide on whether to open or close the [[#Contactor|contactor]]. It also manages the Meanwell [[#Charger|onboard charger]] which has no CANBus connection or programmability, so when the programmable Calex charger was introduced, the CCU's functions were moved to direct BMS/MBB management.
 
 
 
[[File:CCU-top.JPG|thumb|CCU top]]
 
[[File:CCU-back.png|thumb|CCU back]]
 
[[File:CCU-front.png|thumb|CCU front]]
 
 
 
; Connectors
 
: CCU 18-pin connector: [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/JAE-Electronics/MX23A18SF1/?qs=sGAEpiMZZMs7eK6h2EBtKkAz7jnNYZmagRPFVYhCTJM%3d JAE Electronics MX23A18SF1]
 
: [[File:ccu-connector.png|400px|2013 CCU Connector diagram]]
 
: [[File:ccu-connector-schem.png|400px]]
 
 
 
; TODO
 
: more from Burton's post here: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=3987.msg25494#msg25494 Re: 2013 S 11.4 quick charger build]
 
 
 
The contactor protects the battery against faults. It is analogous to a circuit breaker. The CCU directs it.
 
 
 
2012-2013 models exhibited behavior where the BMS in certain situations yielded a "contactor welded shut" condition that require dealer servicing. Later model years fail more safely (open).
 
 
 
2014+ models do not have a CCU, and the BMS directly controls the contactor and onboard charger.
 
 
 
; Location
 
: Under the seat in front of the [[#Main_Bike_Board|MBB]] with the connections mounted on top.
 
 
 
; Limits
 
: The CCU terminals are not designed for high amperage currents. Presumably, anything above the 2013's intended 30A charging limit could damage the CCU or trigger the contactor opening.
 
 
 
{{Warning|This is always energized. Any exposure of this at any time will risk direct contact with battery terminals that could result in injury or equipment damage.
 
: '''DO NOT UNCOVER''' this without professional-level care!}}
 
 
 
If you are in a remote location, and have trouble with a contactor unit not closing without any indication of a particular condition that interlocks it in the BMS, a little mild mechanical agitation (while the vehicle is keyed off) against the top surface with a rubber mallet might loosen it.
 
 
 
==DC-DC 12V converter==
 
This is a solid state switching power DC step-down converter designed to produce low voltage DC power from the pack voltage.
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ DC-DC Converters
 
|-
 
!Years
 
!Platform
 
!Manufacturer
 
!Model
 
!Replacement Options
 
|-
 
|2013-2014
 
|rowspan="2"|S and X
 
|rowspan="2"|Sevcon
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/dcdc-converters/dcdc-300w/ Sevcon DC-DC 300W converter]
 
|OEM or [http://www.thunderstruck-ev.com/sevcon-72-80v-dc-dc-en.html via Thunderstruck Motors]
 
* '''NOTE:''' Select the 300W model! connector hardware is an extra
 
|-
 
|2015+
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/dcdc-converters/dcdc-500w/ Sevcon DC-DC 500W converter]
 
|OEM or [http://www.thunderstruck-ev.com/sevcon-72-80v-dc-dc-en.html via Thunderstruck Motors]
 
* '''NOTE:''' Select the 500W model! connector hardware is an extra
 
|}
 
 
 
;Appearance
 
: It's about the size of a long box of soap with a black surface, but for 2013-2014 models will be covered entirely with Nashua aluminum ducting tape, so will appear silver.
 
{|
 
|[[File:DC-DC Sevcon 500W Converter - 1.png|thumb|500W Sevcon DC-DC converter - top]]
 
|[[File:DC-DC Sevcon 500W Converter - 2.png|thumb|500W Sevcon DC-DC converter - connector]]
 
[[File:DC-DC Sevcon 500W Converter - 3.png|thumb|500W Sevcon DC-DC converter - connector side]]
 
|[[File:DC-DC Sevcon 500W Converter - 4.png|thumb|500W Sevcon DC-DC converter - side]]
 
[[File:DC-DC Sevcon 500W Converter - 5.png|thumb|500W Sevcon DC-DC converter - backplate (upside down)]]
 
[[File:DC-DC Sevcon 500W Converter - 6.png|thumb|500W Sevcon DC-DC converter - backplate (as installed)]]
 
|}
 
 
 
;S-Platform Location
 
: Below the front of the seat under cable runs, between the [[#Main_Bike_Board|MBB]] (separated by a bracket) and the back of the battery frame area.
 
: [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yig2RtRuIoY Quick and dirty illustrative video of how to find and access the converter]
 
;X-Platform Location
 
: Below the removable battery compartment. See [[#X_Platform_Routing|our FX teardown layout guide]].
 
 
 
;Protections
 
* Ingress: IP67
 
* Short circuit overload
 
* Reverse polarity
 
* Fully isolated
 
* Can parallel with diode safeguard
 
 
 
;Mounting
 
: The Sevcon 500W DC-DC converter is mounted to its own baseplate via 4 Torx T10 cap head screws and there are 3 additional Torx T15 cap head screws in the middle.
 
: The Sevcon baseplate is then bolted to Zero's [[#Board_Mounting_Plate|board mounting plate]] with 4 10mm hex head bolts which have 6mm outer diameter, 16mm length, and 1mm pitch.
 
 
 
;Removal
 
# Remove the [[#Board_Mounting_Plate|board mounting plate]].
 
# Remove the converter from the board using a 10mm hex socket wrench.
 
# Disconnect the connector if appropriate.
 
 
 
;Installation
 
# Attach the converter to the mounting plate with a 10mm hex socket wrench.
 
# Install the plate with the converter back into the bike.
 
 
 
;Connections
 
: There is a 5-pin connector controlling the converter, facing the left as installed on the bike, connected as follows:
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
!Pin
 
!Function
 
!Measurement
 
!Component
 
!Years
 
!Wire
 
!MBB Pin
 
!Illustration
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|1
 
|rowspan="2"|Enable signal
 
|rowspan="2"|Battery voltage when key is on
 
|rowspan="2"|[[#Main_Bike_Board|MBB]]
 
|2013
 
|rowspan="2"|Orange (Red) 18AWG
 
|21
 
|rowspan="6"|[[File:dc-dc-connector.png|400px]]
 
|-
 
|2015
 
|20
 
|-
 
|2
 
|Input (Positive)
 
|rowspan="2"|116V
 
|rowspan="2"|[[#Battery|Battery]]
 
|2013
 
|Orange (Blue) 16AWG
 
|7
 
|-
 
|3
 
|Input (Negative)
 
|2013
 
|Orange (Black) 20AWG
 
|5
 
|-
 
|4
 
|Output (Positive)
 
|rowspan="2"|13.5V
 
|[[#Fuse_Block|Fuse Block]]
 
|2013
 
|Blue (16AWG, 14AWG) wires
 
|-
 
|5
 
|Output (Negative/Ground)
 
|[[#Routing|12V return conduits]]
 
|2013
 
|Black 10AWG
 
|}
 
 
 
;Output
 
: It is configured to output 13.5V DC; usually produces ~13.8V DC.
 
: There is very little ripple that is typical of a gas-power motorcycle's alternator-driven DC supply.
 
: Capacity is 300W (20-25A) for pre-2015 bikes and 500W (35-40A) for 2015+ models, with most of that excess needed to run ABS pumps, etc.
 
 
 
;Operation
 
: The input side is always-on DC from the battery, upstream of the contactor.
 
:: This is the best place to tap for an always-on power supply.
 
: The converter is enabled by a 12V signal from the [[#Main_Bike_Board|MBB]].
 
 
 
;Environmental Vulnerability
 
* The Sevcon DC-DC converter is rated to IP67 for intrusion protection and seems very robust as such.
 
* However, the connector is not sealed, faces the left side of the inside of the frame arms with not much splash protection from beneath; on 2015+ models, it is also vulnerable to debris and splash impact from the rear near the motor and belt.
 
* No sealed connector option is currently available for Sevcon's DC-DC converter models that Zero uses.
 
* Connector looseness could age and wear the converter prematurely due to sporadic voltage input or output changes.
 
* Leakage across pins could cause the enable signal to activate inadvertently.
 
 
 
;Connector Inspection
 
: Try to inspect the pins' tabs to ensure they are in the right shape to clamp that enable pin securely.
 
: The connector is not well-sealed, and the pins are too easy to bend into not-connecting if there's any tension/tugging on the wires.
 
: If the connector seems grimy, remove and clean it while de-energized; then apply grease once dry before re-seating it.
 
: Test the connector before fully re-assembling the bike.
 
 
 
;Failure to De-energize Condition
 
: The converter can fail in a way where it shorts its enable line and will not turn off even if the bike is keyed off.
 
:* If this condition happens in rain:
 
:*# Let the bike dry out until it clears.
 
:*# Attempt a dielectric grease application to the inputs while de-energized.
 
: If the DC system output disappears:
 
:* Check DC voltage upstream of the fuse block in case the fuse block is faulty.
 
:* Check the continuity and snugness of the connectors and pins.
 
:* Check for the enable signal from the MBB
 
:*: Continuity: < 1Ω between pins.
 
:*: Not shorted to B+?: > 151kΩ from pin 20 to pin 7.
 
:*: Not shorted to ground?: > 1MΩ from pin 20 to 18.
 
 
 
;Protection Recommendations
 
* Splash protection around the left-side's connector from all sides is worth considering.
 
 
 
;References
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6904.msg57973#msg57973 Re: My DC-DC converter has died again, local dealer has gone bust]
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7041 Re: A puddle, some rain and some problems]
 
  
 
==Power Harness==
 
==Power Harness==
 
The power cables and signal wiring that connects the MBB to the BMS units intended for that platform and year are collectively bundled and referred to as a “power harness”.
 
The power cables and signal wiring that connects the MBB to the BMS units intended for that platform and year are collectively bundled and referred to as a “power harness”.
  
===BMS Blanking Plug===
+
===[[Loopback Blanking Plug]]===
This wires two pins together in a ''[[#Loopback|loopback]]'' circuit meant to emulate a basic connectivity feature for the BMS1 connection.
+
{{:Loopback Blanking Plug}}
 
 
If you own a non-longbrick X platform model or an S-platform model with a [[Zero Aftermarket#OEM Power Tank|Power Tank]], retain this blanking plug in case your second BMS fails to connect or issues errors that prevent your motorcycle from operating.
 
 
 
===Loopback===
 
This is part of the built-in cable communications support for the [[Zero Aftermarket#OEM Power Tank|Power Tank]] or the second [[Zero Aftermarket#OEM Power Pack|Power Pack module]] in a non-longbrick X platform model (labeled ''BMS1'' by the MBB).
 
 
 
The cabling ends in a multi-pin connector and should either:
 
# Terminate with a [[#BMS Blanking Plug|plug]] that wires two pins together in a ''loopback'' circuit.
 
# Connect to a Power Tank's corresponding communications cable.
 
 
 
If one of the above conditions do not hold, the MBB is configured to issue [[Error Codes#35|error code 35]].
 
: It is unconfirmed what purpose the loopback mechanism serves.
 
: ''Hypothesis:'' This is a hardware debugging mechanism for a loose connector.
 
 
 
==Firmware Update==
 
Firmware update typically must be performed by a dealership with a license with Zero and the hardware kit to connect a Windows computer to the motorcycle's data ports (OBD-II, the BMS serial port, and the Sevcon 34-pin connector).
 
 
 
;Mobile App Self-Service Updates
 
: On 2017 and newer Zeros, it's possible for the user to [[Official_Mobile_Application#Firmware_Update|upgrade the firmware via the Zero Motorcycles mobile app]].
 
  
==Firmware Versions==
+
===[[BMS CANBus Loopback|Loopback]]===
 +
{{:BMS CANBus Loopback}}
  
Using the Zero App to download the logs, and Phreak's Log Parser Utility ([http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5020.0 forum], [https://github.com/KimBurgess/zero-log-parser Github], [http://home.hasslers.net/zerologparser/ online]), different users have reported the latest firmware versions to be:
+
==[[Firmware Update]]==
 +
{{:Firmware Update}}
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
==[[Firmware Versions]]==
|+Latest Board and Firmware Versions
+
{{:Firmware Versions}}
!
 
!colspan="2"|MBB
 
!colspan="2"|BMS
 
|-
 
!Board Year
 
!Revision
 
!Version
 
!Revision
 
!Version
 
|-
 
|2013
 
|1
 
|67
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|2014
 
|1
 
|44
 
|1
 
|43
 
|-
 
|2015
 
|3
 
|25
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|2016
 
|3
 
|51
 
|3
 
|39
 
|-
 
|2017
 
|12
 
|
 
|21
 
|
 
|}
 
 
 
The online log parser has a list of the most recent firmwares that have been uploaded to the server:
 
[http://home.hasslers.net/zerologparser/firmware-summary.php Latest Firmware Versions]
 
 
 
Feel free to update this section as you discover new available updates.
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Guessed/Inferred Changes
 
!colspan="4"|Version Changes
 
|-
 
!Component
 
!Version
 
!Release Date
 
!Notes
 
|-
 
| rowspan="1"|BMS
 
|-
 
| rowspan="100"|MBB
 
|48
 
|spring 2017
 
|
 
|-
 
|49-51
 
|49 Build Date: 06Jul2016
 
51 Build Date: 25Apr2017
 
|
 
: Confirmed: SoC improvements, particularly for pre-2016 model years.
 
: Observed: 2016 SoC is significantly more pessimistic in v51 than in v49.
 
: Guess: Throttle remapping to a smoother roll-on curve.
 
: Guess: Regen seems to apply more broadly.
 
|}
 
 
 
;Upgrading Firmware
 
: As of 2017, Zero models are capable of performing remote firmware updates by the customer [[#Using_Mobile_App|using the mobile app]].
 
: Apparently this doesn't transfer to older models because the older boards did not have enough storage space to perform an atomic/reversible update.
 
:: This means holding both firmware versions and being able to toggle which version to use.
 
:: So, if anything goes wrong with a firmware update, the system can roll back to the previous version without requiring a dealer visit.
 
 
 
;ChangeLog
 
: Zero Motorcycles on their website now [https://www.zeromotorcycles.com/owner-resources/firmware/ lists changes of Zero Motorcycles vehicle firmware]
 
  
 
=Battery=
 
=Battery=
 
;Basic Concepts
 
: Metaphorically speaking, think of a river and a reservoir.
 
:; Volts
 
:: water pressure.
 
:; Amps
 
:: volume of water flowing.
 
:; Charge (Kwh)
 
:: how much water is behind the dam.
 
:; Power (kW)
 
:: the rate at which water is flowing.
 
 
 
The following guidance includes advice adapted from [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4280.0 MostlyBonkers' research summary] and [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5314 Battery Notes from a Farasis Engineer].
 
The following guidance includes advice adapted from [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4280.0 MostlyBonkers' research summary] and [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5314 Battery Notes from a Farasis Engineer].
  
==Charge Tips==
+
==[[Battery/Concepts|Battery Concepts]]==
Generally, refer to the [[#Charger Operation|Charger Operation]] section, but for battery concerns, the following are relevant:
+
{{:Battery/Concepts}}
# If you run your bike to empty, do your best to give it at least a partial charge (ideally to 40-50%) as soon as you can.
 
# Charge and discharge your bike freely and at your convenience.
 
# Don't worry about keeping the bike topped up, like standard car batteries.
 
# Don't feel you have to run the bike to empty before re-charging; it's fine to charge if you've only used 10%, for example.
 
# If you can afford extra chargers to reduce charging time, Zero's fast chargers won't hurt the batteries.
 
# Use the bike as much as you can.  If you aren't using it for a regular commute or aren't lucky enough to have the freedom to ride regularly then it will work out a lot cheaper to own a conventional motorbike.
 
# Zero's engineers have done the work to ensure a long service life from their battery packs and have backed it up with a five year warranty with the 2014 model range onwards.  That should be enough to drop any anxiety you may have and just concentrate on enjoying the bike.
 
 
 
==Battery Capacity==
 
 
 
Normally, the true energy a battery can have is calculated by taking nominal voltage times the Ah capacity of the battery = Wh (divide by 1000 for kWh units).
 
 
 
However for some reasons, based on industry convention, Zero calculates battery energy (the kWh) by taking the maximum voltage the battery has at 100% capacity times the capacity in Ah, instead of nominal voltage.
 
 
 
Maximum voltage is only present at the beginning of discharge when it is full, and then it drops (nonlinearly).
 
 
 
The nominal voltage is like the average voltage the battery over the entire discharge range. The average is the voltage measured at the battery terminal when it has 50% charge state and is disconnected from any load.
 
 
 
For example, the 2013 S has 100Ah and a nominal 102V: the total energy the battery has is 100Ah x 102V = 10200Wh (10.2kWh).
 
But if you use maximum battery voltage you get 100Ah x 116V = 11.6kWh.
 
 
 
This also applies when adding a power tank, confusing customers about the official rating versus what the mobile application reports.
 
 
 
Regardless of this complexity of measurement, Zero's range figures appear reliable in the general context of the test conditions.
 
 
 
==Cells==
 
The current manufacturer is [[Farasis]] who are supplying [http://www.farasis.com/solutions/cells/ pouch cells] for the 2013+ model range.
 
 
 
;NMC Cell Chemistry
 
: The chemistry used is '''Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt''': LiNiMnCoO2 ("NMC" or other rearrangements of those letters).
 
: NMC is a relatively new battery chemistry which ''differs from'' the Li-cobalt chemistry we are familiar with from mobile phone batteries and laptops.
 
:: While Li-cobalt has a higher energy density than NMC (storage capacity per kilogram), it doesn't cycle as well and ages quicker.
 
:: That's fine for a mobile phone that is likely to be obsolete after 2-3 years, but not for an electric bike.
 
: The automotive-grade NMC cells that Farasis supply should easily satisfy the requirements of the five year warranty that Zero are providing with their current Z-Force battery packs.
 
:: It seems they should last 8-10 years if they aren't abused.
 
:: Even if you start to notice some significant deterioration after five years, the rate at which battery technology is progressing means that you should be able to buy a new battery pack with much better capacity (range) than the original for less money.
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Battery Cells
 
! colspan="6"|
 
! colspan="3"|Voltage
 
!
 
|-
 
! Years
 
! Form
 
! Manufacturer
 
! Model
 
! Datasheet
 
! Capacity
 
! Minimum
 
! Nominal
 
! Maximum
 
! Dimensions
 
|-
 
|2009-2011
 
|cylindrical
 
|[http://www.molicel.com/ca/ Molicel]
 
|[http://www.molicel.com/hq/product/products11.html IMR-26700A]
 
|[http://wamtechnik.pl/files/specs/645.pdf Molicel 26700] [https://evmc2.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/imr26700.pdf] [https://master-instruments.com.au/products/60681/IMR26700A.html]
 
|2.9Ah
 
|2.5V
 
|3.8V
 
|4.2V±50mV
 
|26.4mm ⌀ ⨉ 70mm
 
|-
 
|2012
 
|rowspan="7"|pouch
 
|[http://www.eigbattery.com EIG]
 
|[http://www.eigbattery.com/_eng/designer/skin/02/01_03.asp EIG C020]
 
|[http://www.eigbattery.com/_eng/developer/m_product_data_set/download.asp?file_nm=EIG_NCM_C020_Data-sheet_APR2016.PDF EIG NCM C020]
 
|20Ah
 
|2.5V
 
|3.65V
 
|4.15V
 
|130mm ⨉ 217mm ⨉ 7.2mm
 
|-
 
|2013-2014
 
|rowspan="6"|[[Farasis]]
 
|Farasis 25Ah
 
|rowspan="6"|[http://www.cdiweb.com/datasheets/ctc-battery/FEI-DataSheet-IMP06160230P25A-Pouch-25Ah-v5.pdf Farasis IMP06160230P25A 25Ah] or [https://evmc2.files.wordpress.com/2013/12/fei-datasheet-imp06160230p25a-pouch-25ah-v5.pdf alt]
 
|25Ah
 
|rowspan="6"|2.0V
 
|rowspan="6"|3.65V
 
|rowspan="6"|4.15-4.20V
 
|161mm ⨉ 230mm ⨉ 6mm
 
|-
 
|2015
 
|Farasis 27Ah
 
|27Ah (25Ah label)
 
|161mm ⨉ 230mm ⨉ 6mm
 
|-
 
|2016-2017
 
|Farasis 29Ah
 
|29Ah (28Ah label)
 
|160mm ⨉ 230mm ⨉ 6mm
 
|-
 
|2018
 
|[https://chargedevs.com/newswire/new-farasis-pouch-cell-balances-power-and-energy-density/ Farasis 32Ah]
 
|32Ah (? label)
 
|160mm ⨉ 230mm ⨉ 6mm
 
|}
 
 
 
;Farasis Claims
 
: Per Farasis engineers and industry professionals:
 
:; 25Ah
 
:: A solid cell, and are Farasis's oldest chemistry design.
 
:: They are a manganese-rich cathode (NMC) 25Ah cell with excellent cycle life, and acceptable [[C-Rate|C-rate]].
 
:; 27Ah
 
:: An adaptation of the 25Ah cell chemistry with thinner foils and more of them.
 
:: This means that there is more active materiel (more capacity)  but less conductive path to get that capacity in and out.
 
:: So for the slow discharge S/DS bikes, you get more capacity, but they are lower C rate, and cannot handle being used in the FX platform.
 
:; 29Ah
 
:: Higher discharge rate (peak and continuous) than the 25Ah cell.
 
:: More capacity than the 27Ah cell (especially at higher [[C-Rate|C rates]]/cooler temperatures).
 
:; 32Ah
 
:: 10% capacity improvement and very likely lower internal resistance.
 
:: Internal weight savings and better cooling are inferred.
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Farasis Specs
 
!
 
! colspan="2"| Discharge
 
!
 
! Charge
 
|-
 
! Cell
 
! Continuous
 
! Peak (10sec)
 
! Max Burst
 
! Maximum
 
|-
 
|25Ah
 
|4C (100A)
 
|7C (175A)
 
|400A
 
|1C (25A)
 
|}
 
 
 
;References
 
: [https://evmc2.wordpress.com/2013/12/01/2014-zero-battery-chemistry-z-force-power-tank-secret-sauce/ 2014 ZERO BATTERY CHEMISTRY (Z-FORCE® POWER TANK SECRET SAUCE)]
 
: [https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewtopic.php?t=87997 DoctorBass on Endless Sphere: Zero Motorcycles BATTERY for your E-projects!!]
 
: [https://chargedevs.com/newswire/new-farasis-pouch-cell-balances-power-and-energy-density/ Charged EVs: New (32Ah) Farasis lithium-ion pouch cell balances power and energy density]
 
: [https://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5314.0 Battery notes from a Farasis Engineer. @ ElectricMotorcyleForum]
 
 
 
==Cell Arrangement==
 
;Notation
 
: See [http://liionbms.com/php/wp_series_parallel.php Battery Cell Arrangement Notation] to understand how Zero's battery cell arrangements are described.
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Pack Configurations
 
|-
 
! Cell
 
! Voltage
 
! Series
 
! Pack Voltage
 
! Years
 
! Platform
 
!
 
! Configuration
 
|-
 
|rowspan="3"|Molicel 26700
 
|rowspan="3"|3.8V
 
|rowspan="3"|14
 
: 7⨉2s banks
 
|rowspan="3"|
 
:48V (min)
 
:53V (nominal) &asymp; 3.8V &times; 14
 
:58V (listed/max)
 
|2009
 
|S
 
|14s24p
 
|rowspan="3"|Monolith (12 or 24 parallel)
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|2010-2011
 
|X
 
|14s12p
 
|-
 
|S
 
|14s24p
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|[http://www.eigbattery.com/_eng/designer/skin/02/01_03.asp EIG C020] 20Ah
 
|rowspan="10"|3.65V
 
|rowspan="2"|18
 
|rowspan="2"|
 
:[http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6630.msg56388#msg56388 65.7V] (nominal) &asymp; 3.65V &times; 18
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=3481.msg19765#msg19765 74.7V] (max)
 
|rowspan="2"|2012
 
|X
 
|18s1p
 
|1 module
 
|-
 
|S
 
|18s2p or 18s3p
 
|2 or 3-brick monolith
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|[http://www.cdiweb.com/datasheets/ctc-battery/FEI-DataSheet-IMP06160230P25A-Pouch-25Ah-v5.pdf Farasis 25Ah]
 
|rowspan="9"|28
 
|rowspan="8"|
 
:116V (max)
 
:102V (nominal) &asymp; 3.65V &times; 28
 
:84V (min)
 
|rowspan="2"|2013-2014
 
|X
 
|28s1p
 
|1 or 2 removable modules
 
|-
 
|S
 
|28s3p or 28s4p
 
|3 or 4-brick monolith
 
|-
 
|[http://www.cdiweb.com/datasheets/ctc-battery/FEI-DataSheet-IMP06160230P25A-Pouch-25Ah-v5.pdf Farasis 25Ah]
 
|rowspan="2"|2015
 
|X
 
|28s1p
 
|1 or 2 removable modules
 
|-
 
|[http://www.cdiweb.com/datasheets/ctc-battery/FEI-DataSheet-IMP06160230P25A-Pouch-25Ah-v5.pdf Farasis 27Ah]
 
|S
 
|28s3p or 28s4p
 
|3 or 4-brick monolith
 
|-
 
|rowspan="4"|Farasis 29Ah
 
|rowspan="2"|2016
 
|X
 
|28s1p
 
|1 or 2 removable modules
 
|-
 
|S
 
|28s3p or 28s4p
 
|3 or 4-brick monolith
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|2017
 
|X
 
|28s2p
 
|Long brick (fixed), or 1 or 2 removable modules
 
|-
 
|S
 
|28s2p or 28s4p
 
|Long brick with storage, or 2 long-brick monolith
 
|}
 
  
;References
+
==[[Battery/Charge Tips|Charge Tips]]==
: [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=NukSXWpbBsE 2011 Zero S battery rebuild to Tesla cells] reveals Molicel construction for the 2009-2011 era.
+
{{:Battery/Charge Tips}}
: [https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewtopic.php?t=87997 Zero Motorcycles BATTERY for your E-projects!! by DoctorBass]
 
  
===Brick===
+
==[[Battery/Capacity|Battery Capacity]]==
Zero arranges Farasis cells in 28-cell series in modular form, referred to as "bricks" because they're bathed in an epoxy after assembly. The brick configuration is "28s1p".
+
{{:Battery/Capacity}}
  
Both the [[Zero_Aftermarket#OEM_Power_Tank|Power Tank]] and [[Zero_Aftermarket#OEM_Power_Pack_Module|Power Pack Module]] products encapsulate a single brick.
+
==[[Battery/Cells|Cells]]==
 +
{{:Battery/Cells}}
  
For the S platform 2014+ years, installing the [[Zero_Aftermarket#OEM_Power_Tank|Power Tank]] changes a "4p" to a "5p" (and presumably "3p" to "4p" but this seems unlikely).
+
==[[Battery/Cell Arrangement|Cell Arrangement]]==
 +
{{:Battery/Cell Arrangement}}
  
;Components and Weight
+
===[[Battery/Brick|Brick]]===
: 28 cell ⨉ 485 g/cell = 29.9 lb
+
{{:Battery/Brick}}
: For 2015, each brick weighs 32 lb, implying 2.1 lbs for epoxy/etc.
 
  
; Dimensions
+
===[[Battery/Monolith|Monolith]]===
: 8? x 7.5 x 9.75in (HxWxL)
+
{{:Battery/Monolith}}
  
;References
+
===[[Battery/Long Brick|Long Brick]]===
: [https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewtopic.php?f=3&t=65764&hilit=battery#p994254 DoctorBass' repackaging of a 25Ah brick into two, length-wise] reveals some structure.
+
{{:Battery/Long Brick}}
  
===Monolith===
+
==[[Battery Management System]]==
[[File:2_monolith.png|thumb|right|400px|link=http://www.motorcyclistonline.com/7-cool-things-about-zero-electric-motorcycles|Monolith technical rendering published in 2016]]
+
{{:Battery Management System}}
The term "monolith" refers to Zero's standard [http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/technology/ Z-Force Power Pack] sealed battery assembly with specific, fixed dimensions and a single [[#Battery_Management_System|BMS]] with fixed communication and power interface.
 
  
A monolith is designed to package up to 4 parallel bricks, described as "4-brick" or "28s4p", referring to 4 parallel stacks of 28 cells in series.
+
===[[BMS/Architecture|BMS Architecture]]===
: The 4p arrangement is a "full" arrangement: the monolith is split into 4 equal quadrants each fitting a brick.
+
{{:BMS/Architecture}}
: A "3-brick" arrangement was available for 2013-2016 S and DS bikes, leaving the forward upper quadrant empty (presumably filled with lightweight but load-absorbing material).
 
 
 
;Interconnects
 
: An interconnect wiring system electrically connects each cell across bricks that is in the same position in the series.
 
:* Interconnects minimize the complexity of cell balancing by ensuring that only 28 conductive connections are needed from the single [[#Battery_Management_System|BMS]] to keep cells balanced.
 
:* Interconnects also ensure that a set of 3 or 4 cells are electrically able to balance a certain amount of load, reducing stress from imbalanced load variations while running.
 
: Interconnects do seem to embody some specialized emergency fuse safeguards.
 
 
 
;Components and Weight
 
: 32 lb/brick ⨉ 4 brick = 128 lb
 
: The 4-brick monolith weight of 140 lb implies 12 lb for the base plate, BMS, dog house with contactor, current sensor, fuse, and connectors.
 
 
 
;Casing features
 
* The front face has two holes for accessing the BMS indicators, I/O port, and reset buttons.
 
* The front face is also removable for servicing the BMS; within, the interconnects to the cells are on the left edge (as seen while facing the battery from the front); on the top edge are connections to CANBus communications and the external power bus.
 
* The trailing edge of the left side of the monolith casing features an arc cutout with two holes.
 
*: This cutout accommodates/mounts a CHAdeMO or J1772 charging inlet.
 
* The top rear module called the doghouse contains the contactor and sensors for operating the safety limits.
 
 
 
===Long Brick===
 
The 2017 model year shifted Zero's battery assembly to a "half monolith" or "long brick" configuration containing the same number of cells as for 2 bricks. A single [[#Battery_Management_System|BMS]] manages the cells in both stacks.
 
 
 
;Model Changes
 
* The 2017 S and DS models offer a 2p arrangement using a single long brick arranged along the forward half of the monolith frame area.
 
*: This configuration leaves the rear half of that area empty for a storage bin accessed from the side of the frame.
 
*: The prior 3p configuration is no longer for sale, but can be created by adding a [[Zero Aftermarket#OEM Power Tank|Power Tank]].
 
*: The long brick for this model does not have the same gapped casing that a Monolith has
 
*:: So, it is less insulated from cold but dissipates heat better.
 
* The 2017 X platform bikes are delivered by default with a non-removable long brick.
 
*: They are available optionally with single removable bricks like prior model years for an additional cost of about $500.
 
 
 
;Design
 
: The long brick arrangement figures suggest that each brick aligns its cells with the other brick.
 
:* Layout appears to be more efficient as a result.
 
:* Interconnects between the bricks seem to be trivial and nearly-zero-resistance, improving cell life.
 
:* There is unsupported speculation that 56s1p arrangement is a possible future evolutionary step as a result.
 
 
 
;Long brick Monoliths
 
: For 2017 packs, made with "long bricks", the interconnects are extremely simple, only connecting two stacks which are aligned directly against each other.
 
: 2017 monoliths consist of two "long bricks" with simpler interconnects.
 
 
 
==Battery Management System==
 
Zero's proprietary BMS board manages the battery, of course.
 
 
 
The same board model seems to be capable and used for both single-brick ([[#X Platform|X platform]]) bikes and power pack ([[#S Platform|S platform]]) bikes, given software configuration changes. The board appears to be OEM-designed and has revision numbers that indicate progression over time from the 2013 model line.
 
 
 
;Power Note
 
: This is the one power drain on the vehicle when it is completely turned off with no charging, but it draws a very minor amount of power like a "sleep" mode.
 
 
 
{{Warning|The board is entirely solid state and not designed for fixing, only replacement.
 
: Any damage to this board will disable the motorcycle.}}
 
 
 
{{Warning|The board has full battery voltage inputs to it at all times.
 
: Take extreme care to avoid connections that could short, arc, or ground.
 
: Before accessing the BMS, first turn the bike off and disconnect charging.
 
:: This ensures that the contactor is open and you do not interact with the BMS while it performs a cel balancing operation.}}
 
 
 
; Location (S Platform)
 
: Behind the lower front face of the battery behind the front forks/wheel.
 
: Remove the lower front body plastics and the front battery face to access the unit.
 
; Location (X Platform and Power Tank)
 
: Each separate brick has its own BMS inside the armored casing.
 
: The long brick has one BMS module inside the armored casing.
 
 
 
; Protections
 
: The board is mounted with rubber vibration dampening.
 
: The board is layered with a very thick coating ("dam and fill potting") to protect the components from moisture and shock damage.
 
: The rubber pads covering reset buttons and LED indicator lights (for 2015+ models) have dielectric grease coating ([http://www.americansealantsinc.com/silicone-grease/ CP70] [http://www.americansealantsinc.com/wp-content/files_mf/asi70pds.pdf datasheet]) those components.
 
:* The covers are not there to make it waterproof, only to keep the dirt out of the grease.
 
:* MY13 bikes had no grease. MY14 bikes had a different grease that did not age well, and [http://www.americansealantsinc.com/silicone-grease/ CP70] is worth applying to both MY13 and MY14.
 
:* Maintain that coating and do not pressure wash the front of the battery casing to avoid damaging this board.
 
 
 
; Inspecting
 
: If the BMS stops working (no indication from the lights, no response to reset), the appropriate, non-warrantee-risking thing to do is take it to a dealer and they'll likely replace it under warrantee.
 
: But if a dealer visit is difficult or there's an emergency, a visual inspection might inform what's going on (naturally, a bike that doesn't work feels like an emergency; use your judgement).
 
: Basically, uncover the BMS and look for burned out components.
 
: There is a large pin connector which may be loose, which would explain a loss of power to the BMS. Apparently this is very difficult to work with but can be re-attached carefully.
 
: Don't loosen the BMS mounting without a very good reason - it's always connected to battery cell voltage by some pins on the side that run into the batter pack so a spark there might be damaging.
 
: If you are going to lift off the BMS, take extreme care with the fasteners and dampeners to not drop them into the battery casing.
 
: You'll also need to restore each and every fastener and dampener because the BMS mount prevents vibration damage.
 
 
 
;Diagnostics
 
: The mobile app can extract BMS logs, but it is a very slow and error-prone process compared to MBB log extraction.
 
: The front of the board has a diagnostic port for a live debugging connection.
 
: A cable to access the serial connection of the diagnostic port is described [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7561.0 here]
 
 
 
===BMS Parts===
 
[[File:BMS with potting large.png|right|600px|2016 BMS with potting]]
 
;<span style="color: red">Battery Connections</span>
 
: {{Warning|Always live at full pack voltage, and pose a risk of sparking damage.}}
 
;<span style="color: magenta">Precharge circuit</span> (see [[#Precharge|Precharge]])
 
;<span style="color: yellow">PL536 chips</span> (see [[#BMS_Architecture|the architecture section]])
 
;<span style="color: lightgreen">BMS Indicator Lights and Reset Controls</span> accessible through ports.
 
: Upper port shows the indicator lights, in "1234" order, left to right.
 
; Window Port Cover
 
* The cover is a clear polycarbonate snap-in plug of 7/8" diameter. OEM is Heyco WP 875.
 
:* [https://www.heyco.com/Hole_Plugs/product.cfm?product=Window-Plugs&section=Hole_Plugs Heyco® Window "View Port" Plugs] WP 875 matches the OEM window.
 
:* [https://www.heyco.com/Hole_Plugs/product.cfm?product=Shorty-Window-Plugs&section=Hole_Plugs Heyco® Shorty Window "View Port" Plugs]. Shorter option with confirmed fit on 2014 S.
 
[[File:Heyco_window_port.jpg|right|400px|OEM port cover (center), WP 875 (right), SWP 885 (left)]]
 
; Solid Port Cover
 
* Through diameter is 24.5mm or 0.96"; outer diameter is 26mm or 1.02".
 
* [http://www.mcmaster.com/#1179k19/ McMaster part number 1179K19] is a plastic plug suitable for getting the effect of the 2013 BMS indicator.
 
:*This fits but it's a little hard to get in and out, being made of flexible plastic instead of rubber.
 
* [http://www.mcmaster.com/#9600k517/ Rubber Round Plug for Panel, Fits 7/8" ID] should fit, but is a plug not meant for easy removal.
 
: Lower port covers the two reset pushbuttons and the diagnostic port, usable with dealership cables (should be a CAN port or at least a serial TTY).
 
* [http://www.heyco.com/Hole_Plugs/product.cfm?product=Ergonomic-Plugs&section=Hole_Plugs Heyco ergonomic plugs] shows a likely rubber plug fit but is not directly available.
 
* [http://www.easternbeaver.com/Main/Elec__Products/Grommets/grommets.html 32/24 blind rubber grommet] at Eastern Beaver seems closer to original and can be ordered individually.
 
; Rubber Mounting Bushings/Spacers
 
* Spec: ID 7.8mm, OD 12.5mm, Height/Thickness: 5.25mm, black rubber
 
; Potting
 
* Spec: Silicone (unclear type; thick gel form), and CP70 (industry-specified dielectric grease, do not substitute) around openings and reset buttons.
 
; Internal Pack Wiring for X Model connector to BMS and contactor
 
[[File:BMS.png]]
 
 
 
===BMS Architecture===
 
Some general speculation here about how the BMS is designed and arranged, correlated with BMS board examination.
 
 
 
;[http://www.ti.com/product/BQ76PL536 TI PL536]
 
: ''Stackable Cell Monitor With Overvoltage Protector and Balancing''
 
: The product identifier "PL536" occurs in BMS logs, referring to a TI BMS chip that handles 3-6 cells in series.
 
: The Zero BMS has 5 of these (visible on the front of the board above).
 
: The 5 chips divide up the 28 cell series into groups that each chip monitors (seemingly 6 per chip until the last chip handles 4 for a total of 28).
 
 
 
;References
 
: [http://www.intersil.com/content/dam/Intersil/whitepapers/battery-management/battery-management-system-tutorial.pdf BMS tutorial]
 
: [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Battery_management_system BMS on wikipedia]
 
  
 
===[[BMS Reset Procedure|BMS Reset]]===
 
===[[BMS Reset Procedure|BMS Reset]]===
 
{{:BMS Reset Procedure}}
 
{{:BMS Reset Procedure}}
  
===Cell Balancing===
+
===[[BMS/Cell Balancing|Cell Balancing]]===
: The BMS connects to the battery cells via the interconnect wiring and can sense cell voltage and feed small amounts of current to cells that are abnormally low in order to maintain battery longevity and minimize the possibility of cell damage.
+
{{:BMS/Cell Balancing}}
: There are 28 contacts on the left side of the back of the board (as viewed from the front of the bike looking at the battery) which connect to each cell in the "brick" series. It detects voltage levels on all cells, through interconnects between bricks that harness each cell in the same position in the brick's series, and through this same path able to balance cells by targeting current to the cells with the lowest voltages.
 
: Cell balancing because of the limitations of this circuit can take a long time and is part of why Zero recommends keeping the motorcycle plugged in when unattended by default.
 
 
 
===[https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pre-charge Precharge]===
 
: The BMS has a precharge circuit for ensuring that the [[#Contactor|contactors]] can close without causing damaging current spikes to the [[#Controller|controller]] or other components.
 
: Precharge is necessary because of capacitors in the controller; connecting sets of capacitors electrically requires care to match voltages because of the rate at which capacitors will charge and discharge to each other to balance potentials.
 
: See [[Precharge Theory]] for a detailed explanation.
 
 
 
;Operation
 
* When the motorcycle is keyed on, precharge supplies a low amount of power (fused at 10A) to the controller-side main bus.
 
* Voltage should climb above 85V within 4-5 seconds of powering on.
 
* At this point, the BMS measures the voltage on both sides and decides to close the contactors.
 
* If this process fails, precharge will stop and then the voltage level will decay.
 
*: You will likely see error code 25 for a precharge error on the dash (when error codes are selected for display).
 
 
 
{{Warning|The precharge circuit is not isolated from the [[#Controller|controller]] or [[#Accessory_Charging_Port|accessory charging port]], and can be damaged if a large transient current is induced from an outside source to a de-energized motorcycle.}}
 
  
;Precharge Failure
+
===[[BMS/Precharge|Precharge]]===
: A recent (mid-2016) firmware update improves the robustness of the precharge logic especially when used with accessory charging systems that are permanently connected to the vehicle.
+
{{:BMS/Precharge}}
:: If while starting the bike, the sequence completes before the contactor closes, the green run light for the motorcycle will flash until the contactor does close.
 
: To address a failed precharge on startup:
 
# Key the bike off if after several seconds, the contactor has not shut with an audible click and the green run light is still flashing.
 
# Wait 2 seconds (ensuring the dash indicator goes fully dark) and then key the bike on again.
 
#: This should allow precharge to get a boost from residual charge from the last precharge startup cycle.
 
# Repeat a few times if necessary. If the contactor never shuts, check the logs and any error codes.
 
  
==State of Charge==
+
==[[State of Charge]]==
[[Wikipedia:State_of_charge|State of Charge]] is a calculation meant to help estimate remaining energy in the battery.
+
{{:State of Charge}}
; Concepts
 
: SoC is a porportional representation; a fraction, so it is only applicable with a '''known total''' or max.
 
: Riders all have experienced different ranges under different temperatures, various environmental conditions etc.
 
: So ''full'' is really a subjective term, like asking ''when is a ballon full?  Before it pops? But if you fill it with cold air then move to a warm environment, it pops''.
 
:* Paraphrase of [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=8052.msg68226#msg68226 ElectricZen's explanation]
 
: SoC is most easily calibrated using the battery pack's voltage at rest or near rest.
 
  
{{:Battery Voltage}}
+
===[[BMS/SoC Estimation|BMS SoC Estimation]]===
 +
{{:BMS/SoC Estimation}}
  
; SoC Indications [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5527.msg40219#msg40219 per protomech]:
+
===[[BMS/SoC Calibration|SoC Calibration]]===
* The [[Official_Mobile_Application#Statistics_Mode|mobile app]] appears to simply show kWh using Zero's max capacity rating, i.e. present voltage times present amp hours.
+
{{:BMS/SoC Calibration}}
* The voltage and amp-hours are likely to be correct, but the kWh readout is a rough guide at best.
 
* The percentage reading adjusts to the estimated pack maximum over time, so if the pack ages, the reported Ah and kWh readout will decrease, but not the maximum percentage.
 
  
; Variance across Battery Pack Years
+
==[[Battery/Storage and Capacity with Age|Battery Storage and Capacity with Age]]==
: The sensors measuring current and temperature for the battery pack improve over the years, impacting SoC indication.
+
{{:Battery/Storage and Capacity with Age}}
: One can find multiple complaints of going into limp-home mode at 5-15% from 2014 SR owners, for example.
 
: 2017 model year bikes appear to have an increased range of current sensor calibration quality, improving that year's estimations.
 
  
; Other References
+
==[[Battery/Temperature Effects|Battery Temperature Effects]]==
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7283 Inaccurate SoC Estimate]
+
{{:Battery/Temperature Effects}}
: [https://www.electric.motorcycles/post/how-oems-calculate-battery-capacity-and-why-it-s-not-totally-their-fault-they-are-wrong How OEMs calculate Battery Capacity, and why it's not totally their fault they are wrong by Brandon Nozaki Miller]
 
  
 +
==[[Battery/Memory Effects|Battery Memory Effects]]==
 +
{{:Battery/Memory Effects}}
  
===[[#BMS|BMS]] SoC Estimation===
+
==[[Battery/Rate of Charging and Discharging|Rate of Charging and Discharging]]==
SoC is inherently an abstract / simulated measure, not one that can be directly proven with enough physical inputs.
+
{{:Battery/Rate of Charging and Discharging}}
: The actual proof of state of charge is to fully discharge the battery, running an integral of current as discharged (this is the Current Method of Estimation).
 
: But a "full" discharge must be decided from a measurement, too, taking minimum cell voltage, which sometimes (and possibly for certain cell generations) can have a single cell fall in voltage early causing SoC to drop early.
 
: And this voltage can be a dynamic result of the rate of discharge, so that restarting the bike after a few minutes' rest period can show a higher SoC than before.
 
 
 
; [[#BMS|BMS]] estimation modes:
 
# [[Wikipedia:State_of_charge#Current_integration_method|Current Integration Method]], or "coulomb counting", which measures the battery current over time and estimates its integral or sum.
 
#: Battery current will reverse for regen mode and for charging, and this is measured and included in the estimation.
 
# [[Wikipedia:State_of_charge#Voltage_method|Voltage Method]], a fairly inaccurate but simpler method where battery voltage is measured and then dynamically compensating the voltage reading by a correction term proportional to the battery current, and by using a look-up table of battery's open circuit voltage vs. temperature.
 
#: Voltage correlates to SoC well at the empty and full states, but less well in the plateau area of 20-80%.
 
 
 
; Method Switching
 
: The SoC method may switch during operation, and should be indicated in the event logs.
 
: It appears to change primarily when charging starts or stops; it is probably triggered by the battery's Charge Mode state.
 
: When the method switches, SoC may change dramatically (by 12% or more) with no clear explanation.
 
 
 
; Temperature Effects
 
: Batteries are chemical systems that can be very complicated to summarize.
 
: One of the main capacity factors is the pack temperature, which is determined by both outside temperature and any heat produced internally from resistance during charging and discharging.
 
: Temperature appears to be a significant factor in building the SoC estimation for either method.
 
 
 
;Examples
 
: Walk through the logic of SoC boundary parameters with some stock Zero equipment.
 
:;Equipment
 
:: [[#Cells|Farasis 25Ah cells]] (using the datasheet available) in a 28 cell series.
 
:;Static Voltage Walkthrough
 
:: The 116V reported by the mobile application at 100% SoC corresponds to 4.14V (=116V/28).
 
:: 0% state of charge at least naively then would correspond to 92.4V ( = 3.3V &times; 28).
 
:: The nominal cell voltage listed (3.65V) then corresponds to a nominal pack voltage of 102.2V, which does reflect the relatively stable battery voltage reading near the middle of the state of charge cycle in steady state.
 
:; Reframing (per Terry)
 
:: Zero will let you discharge to about 88 volts and up to 116.4 volts.
 
:: By the Farasis data sheet, this is using the full capacity of the cells with the exception of about 4 volts from the whole pack.
 
:: 84 volts would be 3.0V per cell but 88 volts is pretty close.
 
:: 88 volts is about 3.14V per cell and there is less than 1% energy left at 3.14V.
 
: In any case, the state of charge calculation is driven by attempting to bracket vehicle usage to stay in this range.
 
:: The desired voltage range (to maintain battery chemistry over the stated lifetime) drives stated limits, coupled with an estimation of the amp-hours remaining from any given point in the collective state of the battery pack.
 
 
 
===SoC Calibration===
 
;SoC Drift
 
The SoC has an inherent drift based on inherent sources of error:
 
* An integral is not generally computable from time-sampled measurements.
 
* Battery current sensors seem to have calibration targeted at the high end of the range (highway speeds) and do not have a known recalibration program; likely a non-linear output.
 
* Temperature measurements must rely on sensors in specific positions in the battery (with no feasible ideal position).
 
Steady throttle usage should experience less drift than wildly varying usage, but the inherent measurement problems still lead to some drift.
 
 
 
; SoC Drift Correction
 
: SoC drift is only really eliminated by the battery reaching an equilibrium state.
 
: The BMS seems to recalibrate SoC for the 100% condition:
 
* Pack voltage at 116.2V.
 
* Battery state at rest via ''either'':
 
*# 0A charge or discharge current.
 
*#: with some few minutes time spent with the charger disconnected.
 
*# ~0.8kW charge rate
 
*#: '''NOTE:''' observed by testing with a controllable switching supply; onboard charging can substitute.
 
 
 
==Battery Storage and Capacity with Age==
 
 
 
Chemically, the cells mainly age in two ways:
 
# The electrolyte reacting with the active components of the cathode and anode in the cells, and releasing gas (calendar life).
 
# The interaction between the lithium ions and the anode/cathode blend that causes a small amount of damage each time they are cycled. (Cycle life)
 
 
 
You just have to come to terms with the fact that from the moment the battery pack is manufactured it will very slowly lose overall capacity regardless of whether you use it or not.  Li-ion batteries are good at holding their charge so you don't need to worry about letting them stand for a long time, providing they've got a reasonably good state of charge (SoC).  At 40-50% SoC the overall capacity loss due to aging is minimized.  At full charge the aging effects are increased but not by such a great amount that it should cause any great concern.  For some owners it might be wiser to follow Zero's recommendations and just leave the bike plugged in for however long you plan to store the bike.  This at least makes sure the individual cells stay balanced with each other and there's little risk of them dropping to a very low SoC at which point the aging effects begin to increase.  If you let the SoC drop below their minimum threshold you run the risk of the battery pack becoming unusable.  I think that's why Zero recommend leaving the bike plugged in over winter.  If there's some sort of power cut mid-winter and the bike isn't checked for a few months, then at least there's a good chance the battery won't have discharged too much.
 
 
 
Farasis recommendations:
 
<blockquote>
 
The manufacturer might state that you will get 500 cycles from a battery and they will be referring to full cycles.  However, if you only ever use 10% of the capacity from a full charge and then top it up, you will get more cycles from it before the battery health drops to 80%.  In this example you are likely to get 1500 cycles from a battery that you only ever discharge to half it's capacity.  That's assuming that all other variables remain the same.  In day-to-day use, variations in state of charge and temperature are more likely to affect battery life than how you cycle the battery. Taking Zero's claim's of an estimated battery pack life of 496,000 km using city ranges it would take at least 2,250 full cycles to achieve this (2014 Zero S 11.4 kWh).  Taking into account the loss of capacity in this period and the figure is bound to be more like 2,500 cycles.  Most trips and daily commutes will probably drop the battery to 40-50% SoC thus increasing the number of cycles we would get from the battery.  Let's say we average 60 miles between charges of a 100 mile combined range over the life of the bike.  Then let's allow ourselves 3,000 cycles before the battery drops to 80% health.  That's still 180,000 miles.  Even if we then halve that to allow for temperature and aging (very unlikely even in harsh conditions) we get a very, very conservative estimate of 90,000 miles.  That should give even a heavy commuter a good five or six years of use before noticing significant reduction in range.  Even then, a daily average of 60 miles would still give you a 20 mile reserve.
 
</blockquote>
 
 
 
If you do decide to leave it at 40-50% SoC you also need to be organized enough to check the bike every couple of weeks or so. It wouldn't hurt to charge it up after a few months, leave it plugged in for a few days to make sure the cells get properly balanced, then take it for a ride to bring the SoC down to the 40-50% level again before leaving it for the next few weeks or months.
 
 
 
I have no doubt that the good people at Zero have done their sums, know the specifications of the batteries in detail and are confident that their battery packs will have at least 80% health after five years even if the bike is never ridden and left plugged in all the time.  Zero also state in their specifications that their battery packs are good for hundreds of thousands of miles before they reach 80% of their original stated capacity.  That in itself should be enough to put your mind at rest, but if it isn't then perhaps these golden rules should help:
 
 
 
# Don't leave the bike standing empty for more than a few days.
 
# If you have to store the bike for a long time, then either leave it plugged in and don't worry about it, or leave it at 40-50% SoC but keep an eye on it.
 
# Just use your bike as much as you can and don't worry about the battery.  The engineers have thought all this through and are backing it up with a five year warranty.  The whole scene will be different in five years time, so it isn't worth thinking about.
 
 
 
==Battery Temperature Effects==
 
 
 
; Performance
 
: Battery internal resistance is higher at lower temperatures, which means that while riding, losses to battery internal resistance mean a loss of range at lower temperatures.
 
: Farasis quotes internal cell resistance as <2mΩ but it's not exactly clear how this translates into calculating those losses without some description of how that trends over temperature and charge rate.
 
: The warmer the battery is, the lower these losses will be.
 
: Below freezing temperatures, the battery chemistry will not allow effective charging at all, and Zero provides protections to prevent this until the battery's temperature has been raised sufficiently.
 
: It follows that to get maximum performance, charging and discharging repeatedly at a high rate will raise cell temperature enough to reduce internal resistance so more will be delivered to the motor.
 
 
 
; Degradation at high temperatures
 
Temperature is a bigger factor than state of charge when it comes to aging. Apparently, for every increase of 10F degrees in battery temperature across its lifetime, battery deterioration over that lifetime can double.
 
 
 
; Heat Production
 
: It is worth noting though that Li-ion batteries shouldn't generate a lot of heat when charging at normal rates.
 
: On a Zero, charging at or below 4kW will not produce much heat.
 
: Therefore, even if you live in a hot climate and have just been on a ride, the cells should cool down overall even while they are charging (although direct sunlight on the battery will add more heat).
 
: You might want to be a little more careful if fast charging in a hot climate but don't forget that the BMS will either reduce the charge rate or stop charging altogether if the cell temperature exceeds the limits that the engineers have set. They have set these limits on the conservative side to avoid any claims on that five year warranty.
 
 
 
; Storage
 
: If you are going to store the bike, it makes sense to store it somewhere cool.
 
: Fridge temperature is probably best but never store below freezing.
 
: If you don't have the option of storing it somewhere cool, then don't worry about it.
 
 
 
==Battery Memory Effects==
 
 
 
There are no memory effects with Li-ion chemistry.  Some 'Smart' battery management systems might recommend performing a deep discharge followed by a full charge from time to time.  This helps re-calibrate the system and give better estimations of capacity remaining.  However, there is no need to do this from purely a cell maintenance point of view.  All Li-ion batteries have protection circuits to keep the cells within their safe operating voltage range.  You can therefore simply charge and discharge at will and not worry about charging a battery that is half full.
 
 
 
==Rate of Charging and Discharging==
 
The Farasis cells have a nominal capacity of 25 Ah (2013-2014).  Each cell has a maximum continuous discharge rate of 100 A (4[[#C-rate|C rate]]).  You would have to discharge the battery in 15 minutes to achieve that, which is impossible to achieve normally.
 
 
 
Conveniently, the Zero S 11.4 should achieve a range of approximately 70 miles at a constant speed of 70 mph. That would result in a full discharge in an hour.  Even maintaining 80 mph, the maximum sustained speed of the bike, it's difficult to empty the battery pack in less than half an hour. So the cells are operating well within their specifications.
 
 
 
The maximum charge rate for Zero battery packs is 25A for each cell or brick (2013-2014), which would mean a full charge in an hour, referred to as a 1[[#C-rate|C rate]].  Even with 2 x 2.5 kW Elcon chargers, you're only going to get a full charge in 2 hours, probably more like 2.5 hrs as the charge rate will drop as the battery reaches capacity.  Yet again, the cells are under relatively little stress even with a fast charge.
 
  
 
==Protections==
 
==Protections==
  
===Contactor===
+
===[[Main Contactor|Contactor]]===
The main [[wikipedia:Contactor|contactor]] is a high-capacity relay-operated switch separating the battery's positive side from the bike's propulsion systems.
+
{{:Main Contactor}}
: It mutually protects the battery and the bike's systems from damaging each other, particularly for rush currents or overcurrent conditions.
 
 
 
;Model
 
: Contactors for the 2013+ years are [http://www.gigavac.com/catalog/power-products/gx-series GIGAVAC GX-series contactors].
 
: The 2013 year contactor is not identified, and some reported an occasional failure mode where "contactor welded shut" could occur.
 
: 2014+ years feature the [http://www.gigavac.com/products/gx11 GX11], which appears to fail safe open by design (SPST-NO) and has had no significant reported issues.
 
 
 
;Location
 
: The 2013+ power pack contactor is housed within the "dog house", an enclosed area extending from the main power pack enclosure top face at the rear.
 
: For the [[Zero_Aftermarket#OEM_Power_Tank|Power Tank]] accessory and bricks and long bricks, each enclosure has one contactor operated by the BMS within.
 
 
 
;Behavior
 
: See [[#Charging_Control_Unit|Charging Control Unit]] and [[#Contactor_Limits|Contactor Limits]].
 
 
 
;Theory ([http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7040 ref])
 
: A contactor is a large relay: it allows a fairly small voltage/current signal to switch a much larger voltage/current.
 
: It has two sides:
 
:# The drive/coil side (control).
 
:# The load (contact) side.
 
: On the drive/coil side, there's a "kickback" diode which handles the inductive spike caused when the drive to the coil ceases.
 
:: Without that diode, the energy represented in the magnetic field inside of the coil would have no place to go, so it would cause a voltage spike which can be damaging to components.
 
:: The kickback diode gives that energy somewhere to go, allowing it to ramp down fairly slowly without a big voltage spike.
 
: Depending on how the coil side of the contactor is wound, it has a certain current requirement to pull the contactor shut, say 12V @ 100mA, which will be provided by the driving circuitry.
 
:: There's not necessarily any relationship between the ''coil rating'' and ''contact rating'', except that bigger (higher-current rated) contacts might be heavier and require higher coil current to get the armature to move.
 
:: The kickback diode only needs to carry this amount of current, regardless of the contact side current.
 
:: If a 3A kickback diode is specified for that contactor, it will be adequate for any contact side current.
 
: The ''make/break'' current is the rating for the contact side of the contactor.
 
:: You won't actually want to make or break the contactor under the limiting conditions (you'll always want to both make and break the contactor at exactly 0 amps), but in an emergency, it's rated to do so without the contacts welding together -- and an emergency is what the contactor is there for.
 
: In automotive use, you often see the coil set up for 12V, drawing maybe 100mA (the current can vary widely though).
 
:: That small current pulls the contacts together, which switches on the high-current side.
 
 
 
====Contactor Limits====
 
Zero's effective contactor limit for the charging rate is 95% of 1[[C-Rate|C rate]].
 
  
The BMS will open the contactor for the following conditions:
+
===[[Battery/Internal Fuse|Battery Fuse]]===
;Inactivity
+
{{:Battery/Internal Fuse}}
: If the motorcycle is keyed off and not otherwise set in charging mode, the contactors will open after a few seconds.
 
: If the motorcycle is keyed on and not otherwise set in charging mode, and then 30 minutes pass without control input.
 
:: Twisting the throttle is sufficient to reset this timer; otherwise restart charging once it happens.
 
;Voltage
 
: Voltage is too low or too high outside its safe operating range.
 
: If voltage is too high (117V):
 
:# Confirm with the Zero mobile application
 
:# Attempt to bring it back to normal range by discharging the battery:
 
:#* operating the motor (fastest but requires a closed contactor, and the Sevcon won't operate above 118V) or:
 
:#* turning on all available electrical loads.
 
: If voltage is too low, charge by any means necessary:
 
:: Prefer the onboard charger or an equivalent rate source through the charging port.
 
:: In an emergency, the regen feature can be used to charge the battery through the motor.
 
::: Drive the motor by spinning the rear axle with a suitable power source, with the bike in Custom Mode with regen set to 100%.
 
;Power
 
: Incoming power exceeds 1[[C-Rate|C rate]] continuously for a minute. A 1[[C-Rate|C rate]] charges the battery fully in 1 hour.
 
: For a battery with 13 kWh max capacity, this value will be 11.4 kWh nominal / 102V = 110A (say).
 
: If the charge rate is too high for the battery, downgrade the charge rate manually and restart.
 
: Field testing indicates that the short time setting for the contactor opening is 30 seconds, and that a 20 second period under that limit will reset it.
 
:: This may vary due to environmental conditions like ambient temperature.
 
;[[Battery Temperature Limits|Temperature]]
 
: If the battery temperature (not ambient) is outside safe operating bounds:
 
{{:Battery Temperature Limits}}
 
: The Zero battery will emit heat while its charging rate exceeds 4 kW, and it will cool if under that threshold.
 
: If temperature is out of safe range, do whatever is appropriate to bring the temperature back in range.
 
  
;Calculating Contactor Limit Per Bike
+
==[[Battery/Stress Factors|Battery Stress Factors]]==
Per Zero's specs pages:
+
{{:Battery/Stress Factors}}
: Maximum capacity (kWh) = COUNT(cells) &times; (cell capacity rating (Ah)) &times; MAX(cell rating (V))
 
  
;Example
+
==[[Battery/Longevity|Battery Longevity]]==
: A 2015 SR w/ Power Tank has 15.3kWh max, 13.5 kWh nominal, with a 102V nominal voltage, so is nominally rated at 133 Ah.
+
{{:Battery/Longevity}}
: 1C rate means that it can charge at up to 133A.
 
: At 10% actual SOC (3.4 volts per cell), 1C = 3.4 volts per cell &times; 28 cells in series &times; 133 A = 12.7 kW.
 
: At 95% SOC (4.1 volts per cell), 1C = 4.1 volts per cell &times; 28 cells in series &times; 133 A = 15.3 kW.
 
: These are DC power ratings; AC input power will read 10 to 20% higher (due to conversion losses).
 
  
;Contactor Limit Per [[Zero_Aftermarket#OEM_Power_Tank|Power Tank]] or module
+
==[[Battery/Progress|Battery Future]]==
: The current capacity will be proportional to the number of bricks vs 4 providing a scaling factor.
+
{{:Battery/Progress}}
: Or, more directly, the Ah rating on the label indicates the 1C rate.
 
  
{| class="wikitable sortable"
+
==[[Battery/Best Practices|Battery Best Practices]]==
|+ Charging Limits
+
{{:Battery/Best Practices}}
!colspan="3"|
 
!colspan="2"|Capacity (kWh)
 
!colspan="2" class="unsortable"|Voltage
 
!Capacity
 
!Contactor Limit
 
|-
 
!Year
 
!Cell
 
!# Bricks
 
!Max
 
!Nominal
 
! class="unsortable"|Max
 
! class="unsortable"|Nominal
 
!(Ah or 1C amps)
 
!A (95% assumed)
 
|-
 
|2013
 
|rowspan="2"|25Ah
 
|rowspan="2"|4
 
|rowspan="2"|11.4
 
|rowspan="2"|10.0
 
|rowspan="6"|116.4
 
|rowspan="6"|102
 
|rowspan="2"|98
 
|rowspan="2"|93
 
|-
 
|2014
 
|-
 
|2015
 
|27Ah
 
|4
 
|12.5
 
|11.0
 
|108
 
|103
 
|-
 
|2016
 
|rowspan="2"|29Ah
 
|rowspan="2"|4
 
|rowspan="2"|13.0
 
|rowspan="2"|11.4
 
|rowspan="2"|112
 
|rowspan="2"|107
 
|-
 
|2017
 
|-
 
|2018
 
|32Ah
 
|4
 
|14.4
 
|12.6
 
|125?
 
|119?
 
|}
 
  
===Battery Fuse===
+
==[[Battery/Construction|Battery Construction]]==
Each "brick" has an internal 300A fuse for protection in case the contactor welds shut (very difficult if not impossible by design in post-2013 models).
+
{{:Battery/Construction}}
 
 
Naturally, if this fuse blows, your battery warranty may be in question, and certainly if you open the pack to replace it.
 
 
 
==Battery Stress Factors==
 
The following factors speed up degradation:
 
 
 
;Hot Temperatures
 
: This causes the electrolyte to become more reactive. Farasis claims to have one of the most stable electrolyte blends in the business, and use a lot of proprietary tech to keep the cathode/anode blend as least reactive as possible, but the effect is unavoidable.
 
;High Voltage
 
: Again, The higher the potential between the cathode and anode, the faster the reaction between the electrolyte and the actives occurs.
 
;Very Low Voltage
 
: Below a certain voltage (2.0-2.2V/cell) the potential between the cathode and anode is such that the battery has used all its high potential lithium, and so it starts picking on the next easiest thing, which is the copper.
 
 
 
This process is super ugly, as it electroplates the copper off the negative foils (anode) and electrodeposits it onto the positive foils (cathode). PERMANENT IRREVERSIBLE DAMAGE. This is super dangerous too, as the next time it is charged, that copper gets blasted back to the negative foils and lands wherever it feels like, as the anode isn't designed to deal with copper Ions. So they form big crystal sharp structures called dendrites, which at best can pierce the separator and cause high self discharge and gassing as the electrolyte nucleates (gas builds up, the cell goes to 0V and looks like a balloon) , or at worst, the dendrite is able to get a solid connection between the cathode and anode, and this causes the cell to short internally and results in fire.
 
Luckily for you, Zero has an amazing BMS and pack topology that sips hardly any power from the cells in a key-off state, but you still can murder the bike by approaching 0% SOC as slowly as possible until it is at its absolute lowest SOC (state of charge) and the BMS shuts the bike off. What happens is that the bike has the smallest amount of reserve battery then, and the BMS sipping away at that small amount will eventually murder the cells over a period of several years.
 
 
 
==Battery Longevity==
 
 
 
If Zero are putting a five year warranty on their battery packs, it's quite possible that they believe they will last ten years.  Tesla are saying that their battery packs are good for 15 years apparently.  It seems a lot like buying a normal bike or a car.  Feel confident that it will give you at least five years or 50,000 miles of good service.  If you don't mind buying a five year old vehicle and taking a bit more risk, then you should achieve double.  Time will tell and sellers will be able to quote actual range figures to prospective buyers.
 
 
 
;References
 
: [https://jalopnik.com/just-how-far-can-you-push-an-electric-car-battery-1827929360 Just How Far Can You Push an Electric Car Battery?], part of Jalopnik's Formula-E coverage
 
 
 
==Battery Future==
 
 
 
Battery technology is improving every year, but not at the same rate as computer technology.  A 10% per year increase in capacity might be a reasonable expectation. We can always hope that there will be a significant breakthrough that makes is way to production and changes the state of the art much quicker. For the time being though, we have robust technology that should give you five to ten years of service and a range of about 100 miles of mixed riding as long as you don't spend much time on fast roads. It's perfect for many city commuters and people who like relaxed rides taking the country roads. You will need an ICE bike for longer journeys and touring, unless you are willing to plan in long charging stops. If you can use your bike for your commute or have regular trips that cover less than 100 miles a day, then range anxiety won't be an issue.
 
 
 
==Battery Best Practices==
 
Basically, the way to kill a Zero the fastest is to either ride it to absolutely dead as possible, and then store it in a shed for six years, or to store it at absolutely tip top charge in direct sunlight in a super hot desert in Arizona somewhere. Either way, you will still struggle to kill them before the warrantee is up.
 
 
 
So, to prolong your battery life, you can do the exact opposite. Store the bike in a cool place with a stable temperature at a medium SoC. About 60% or so is fine for S/DS (one BMS sipping on 3-5 cellboxes) or 70% for the FX modules (one BMS per cellbox).
 
 
 
When you get done riding your S/DS hard on a hot day, let it cool down for 4-6hrs before charging it.
 
: This takes less time for FX modules.
 
 
 
Fast charging is fine, but know that around the .8C mark is the point where at normal ambient temp, you go from cooling off to heating up. If your pack is already hot from a ride through the desert at WOT, and you fast charge, you are still going to be on a hot pack when you continue your WOT journey. This is not a big deal, but it's helpful to bring the battery temperature back down to minimize the aging effects that this accumulates over time. The BMS will keep you from really breaking your pack, so don't worry about it.
 
 
 
==Construction==
 
The Power Pack is a heavily armored box case.
 
 
 
Dimensions for the full Power Pack are 10" width, roughly 17" height and 14" depth.
 
 
 
The "long brick" enclosure for 2017+ models is the same at roughly half the depth, and of course the storage area on S/DS models with this Power Pack has about the same dimensions minus clearances and dividing bracket allowances.
 
  
 
==Battery Removal==
 
==Battery Removal==
;X Platform
+
===[[XMX Platform/Power Pack Module Removal|Power Pack Module Removal]]===
:The OEM manual covers this, and it's a primary feature of the X platform that the power packs can be swapped or removed.
+
{{:XMX Platform/Power Pack Module Removal}}
:As of 2017, X platform models (FX/FXS/FXP) are assembled by default with a "long brick" 6.5kWh pack that cannot be easily swapped or removed; it is bolted into the frame. The option to buy a model with individual power pack modules is still available for an additional cost.
 
;S Platform
 
:This is very involved, only suitable for a dealer or experienced electrical engineer equipped with a hoist, because the frame must be lifted vertically off of the battery, and the battery must be electrically detached from the systems safely.
 
:There is also almost no realistic reason to do this for a battery under warrantee.
 
:Steps below are a rough sketch of the process.
 
:#Remove the belly pan and onboard charger.
 
:#Disconnect all cables leading to the battery.
 
:#Place the motorcycle on a center lift that can balance the battery on its own.
 
:#Harness the frame into a hoist and put some of the load onto that hoist.
 
:#:The hoist should be rated to lift the bike's weight entirely.
 
:#(Possibly) remove the front wheel and/or forks.
 
:#(Possibly) remove the rear wheel and/or swingarm.
 
:#Use an allen key wrench to remove the 2 bolts on each side of the lower battery mount (4 total).
 
:#Lift the frame?
 
 
 
==Battery Pack Rebuild==
 
This is the most unrecommendable thing to do for a Zero owner who is not an experienced electrical engineer. The battery warranty will be completely forfeit, its watertightness will be compromised, and there is likely little a non-expert can do to improve the design. And you could be killed.
 
  
For older Zeros whose battery warrantee has expired, contact a dealer or Zero's corporate technical support line to see what they can support. Zero has in the past offered reasonable trade-in value for older motorcycles which are difficult to support and rare.
+
===[[SDS Platform/Monolith Removal|Monolith Removal]]===
 +
{{:SDS Platform/Monolith Removal}}
  
It is conceivable but entirely unconfirmed that pack upgrades or recycling trade-ins might be offered years after a model is released.
+
==[[Battery/Pack Rebuild|Battery Pack Rebuild]]==
 +
{{:Battery/Pack Rebuild}}
  
One rebuild report: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6277 2010 Zero X Battery rebuild with pouch cells]
+
=[[Gen2/Charging|Charging]]=
 +
{{:Gen2/Charging}}
  
==References and further reading==
+
==[[Gen2/Charging Indications|Charging Indications]]==
 +
{{:Gen2/Charging Indications}}
  
* [http://batteryuniversity.com/ Batteries in a Portable World by Isidor Buchman]
+
==[[Charging Heat]]==
* [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pxP0Cu00sZs Why do lithium batteries die? (video)]
+
{{:Charging Heat}}
  
=Charging=
+
==[[Gen2/Charging Inlet|On-board Charging Port]]==
The [[#Charging_Control_Unit|CCU]] (Meanwell-charger-equipped models only for 2013 and 2014FX) and [[#Battery_Management_System|BMS]] manage the onboard [[#Charger|charger]] and the battery's [[#Contactor|contactor]] to prevent charging in a number of conditions.
+
{{:Gen2/Charging Inlet}}
  
;Operation
+
==[[Gen2/Accessory Charging Port|Accessory Charging Port]]==
: The [[#Contactor|contactor]] makes [[Contactor Click Sound|an audible “click” sound]] when closing and opening.
+
{{:Gen2/Accessory Charging Port}}
* Don't twist the throttle after turning the bike on until you hear that click.
 
*: The bike prevents itself from lurching forward if the contactor closes while the throttle is open, but you shouldn't rely on that or find yourself surprised.
 
* Similarly, do not start charging without a closed contactor.
 
*: The onboard [[#Charger|charger]] will enable charging mode by CAN bus communications, or keying the bike on can at least close the contactor for drive mode.
 
*: Charging mode can be retained through [[#Accessory Charging Port|charging port]] inputs at the signal pins, but they cannot initiate charging mode.
 
  
==Charging Indications==
+
==[[Gen2/Charging Circuit Fuse|Charging Circuit Fuse]]==
;External
+
{{:Gen2/Charging Circuit Fuse}}
: The [[#Instrument_Cluster|dash]] charging light will '''flash''' while charging.
 
: The [[#Instrument_Cluster|dash]] charging light will be '''solid''' once fully charged.
 
: The BMS front indicator window shows 4 LEDs.
 
:: The number of LEDs lit indicates the SOC level in quarters.
 
 
 
;Voltage (verifiable with the mobile app)
 
: Battery voltage will rise with its state of charge while charging from below 20% and then stays relatively constant (easing from 100V to 104V) from 20% to 80% where it starts rising again.
 
: A Zero battery will have a full charge when it has 116V while at rest.
 
: During a charging session, the voltage will dynamically increase by as much as 1V so expect 117V at the end of a full charge until charging stops.
 
 
 
Indications for the Zero battery state of charge while charging may have a significant inaccuracy at high charge rates.
 
: Typically, indicated SoC will lag (lower than) actual SoC towards the upper end of the range (80% - 100%).
 
: Turning the motorcycle off and letting the contactor open and waiting for several seconds should restore charge accuracy.
 
:: The BMS historically would thereby reset its method of SoC estimation to a static voltage-based method.
 
 
 
The battery will charge most efficiently between roughly 20% and 80% state of charge, with voltage high enough that current limits allow more power input.
 
: At higher voltages, chargers taper out of concern to maintain battery condition.
 
 
 
==Charging Heat==
 
The Zero battery will emit heat above a charging level of 0.4[[C-Rate|C]] (4kW for a 4-brick pack), and will naturally cool below that threshold.
 
: Expect several degrees Fahrenheit rise when performing a full charge near a 1[[C-Rate|C rate]].
 
 
 
The onboard [[#Charger|charger]] is attached to the bottom of the battery on the S-platform and will conduct some heat into the battery as it operates.
 
 
 
Discharging a battery at a very high rate can also produce heat.
 
 
 
; High Temperature Guidance
 
: See the [[Usage#Hot_Weather|hot weather usage]] recommendations for thorough guidance.
 
: If the battery temperature is already high enough to cause concern about the next charging phase, ride at relatively modest speeds to allow ventilation to cool it faster than discharge heats it up.
 
: Use a battery temperature indication to help understand this.
 
 
 
==On-board Charging Port==
 
The onboard [[#Charger|charger]] is connected to an IEC C14 inlet hard-mounted to the lower left side of the frame above the footpeg.
 
 
 
;Fasteners
 
: The C14 inlet is fastened to the inside of the frame by 2 tiny M2×7.5 socket head bolts taking a 2.5mm Allen/hex key.
 
: The bolts are positioned above and below the body of the inlet; the lower can be accessed from the front, and the upper from the rear.
 
: The space around the fasteners is very tight, facing the motor, and difficult to see or access.
 
: '''NOTE:''' Because of the close proximity to the motor, front sprocket, and other electrical connections, take care not to drop or lose these bolts as you remove them.
 
 
 
;Rubber Plug
 
: A rubber plug is included to protect the inlet from the elements (which then protects the onboard charger from sparking currents that can degrade it over time).
 
: Keep the rubber plug on when the inlet is not connected to a cord.
 
: [[File:MY2016DSR_onboardchargerconnector_dustcap.jpg|300px]]
 
 
 
;Plug Replacement
 
# Remove the left pillion footpeg bracket
 
#:[[File:MY2016DSR_onboardchargerconnector_fasteners.jpg|200px]][[File:MY2016DSR_onboardchargerconnector_pillionbracketwrench.jpg|200px]]
 
# Remove the fasteners holding the electrical receptacle
 
#: [[File:MY2016DSR_onboardchargerconnector_pillionbracketremoved.jpg|200px]][[File:MY2016DSR_onboardchargerconnector_connectorremoval.jpg|200px]]
 
# You now have access to remove/replace the rubber protective plug
 
#:[[File:MY2016DSR_onboardchargerconnector_dustcapremoval.jpg|400px]]
 
 
 
==Accessory Charging Port==
 
The Zero platform includes a charging circuit terminated by a hard-mounted brown [[Anderson connector|Anderson SBS-75X connector]] to support OEM and third-party additional chargers.
 
 
 
;Input
 
: {{warning|Only supply DC power to this port in the battery's normal range, or '''risk catastrophic damage to the battery'''.}}
 
: All external chargers are switching power supplies that turn AC (or sometimes DC!) power at a wider range of voltages into DC that behaves well with Zero's battery technology and voltage range.
 
: 2012 Zero batteries operate in a lower voltage range than 2013+ Zero batteries; chargers for one range of years should never be used on another range of years.
 
 
 
;To use:
 
* Remove the rubber boot cover and plug in the charger(s).
 
*: [[File:MY2016DSR_accessorychargingport_stockfromfactory.jpg|200px]][[File:MY2016DSR_accessorychargingport_cutzipties.jpg|200px]][[File:MY2016DSR_accessorychargingport_removezipties.jpg|200px]][[File:MY2016DSR_accessorychargingport_connectchargeplug.jpg|200px]][[File:MY2016DSR_accessorychargingport_reseatrubbercover.jpg|200px]]
 
*: As delivered, the rubber boot cover will be secured with zip ties. Remove them first.
 
*: 2013 models do not include the rubber boot; it is a good idea to install one to protect the plug over time, though.
 
* Use the onboard charger in conjunction with the accessory charging port to keep the motorcycle in charging mode (allows keying off while charging among other things).
 
* Replace the rubber boot after unplugging the charger(s).
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+Mounted locations
 
|-
 
!Platform
 
!Years
 
!Location
 
|-
 
|X
 
|2013+
 
|Forward of the motor on the right lower side of the frame, under a plastic panel with 5 fasteners.
 
|-
 
| rowspan="3" |S
 
|2011-2012
 
|Right side of the battery.
 
|-
 
|2013
 
|Above the motor on the right side (opposite the ODB-II port).
 
|-
 
|2014+
 
|Above the motor on the left side (more accessible than 2013), covered by a rubber boot.
 
|}
 
 
 
;Location
 
[[File:dsr-above-motor.jpg|400px|DSR Charging Port from above the motor]][[File:dsr-under-tail.jpg|400px|DSR Charging Port from under the tail]]
 
 
 
;Mounting
 
: A small M2.5 Allen key socket head bolt runs through the connector's hole into a collared insert on a flanged edge of the [[#Board Mounting Plate|board mounting plate]].
 
: To detach or re-attach, it's been found only possibly by pulling the board mounting plate up by enough room to fit a right-angle Allen key underneath, between the connector and the motor fins, about an inch or two.
 
 
 
==Charging Circuit Fuse==
 
The charging circuit has a fuse encapsulated in a cable that protects the battery from charging at too high a rate.
 
 
 
;Affected Circuits
 
* '''2013:''' the charging fuse acts on the accessory charging port, and does not disable the onboard charger.
 
* '''2014+:''' the fuse acts on the circuit containing both the accessory charging port and the onboard charger but has a much higher limit.
 
 
 
;Location
 
: On the right side of the bike under the seat behind the battery, near or under quite a few 12V cable runs.
 
 
 
[[File:JJN-100 Fuse.jpg|right|200px]]
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+Fuse Specification
 
|-
 
!Platform
 
!Years
 
!Current Limit (Continuous)
 
!Power Limit (Continuous)
 
!Product
 
|-
 
|X
 
|2013+
 
|
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
| rowspan="3"|S
 
|2013
 
|30A
 
|3kW
 
|[http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Bussmann-Eaton/JJN-30/?qs=bpnLQM2ZShxX0X37lSZxFw%3D%3D Eaton JJN-30]
 
|-
 
|2014+
 
|100A rated, 85A slow limit
 
|10kW
 
|[http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Bussmann-Eaton/JJN-100/?qs=vco6xy%252beH1pHxfCrJKaBAA%3D%3D Eaton JJN-100]
 
|}
 
;NOTE: 2013 Battery Pack Longevity [[Recalls]]
 
: The battery pack replacements performed by the manufacturer due to discovered defects wind up being upgrades to 2015 and then 2016 model year power packs, and seem to include upgraded charging circuits, so those older models will have the higher-rated fuse and work like the newer bikes, charging-wise.
 
 
 
;Replacement
 
: {{Warning|This fuse is not meant to be user-serviceable, and could be very dangerous to replace without the exact same specification.}}
 
: The fuse is downstream from the contactor, so if the contactor is open (it should be if you can't charge and the bike is keyed off), it should be de-energized.
 
:: Verify this with proper testing equipment.
 
: It's a huge inline fuse within adhesive heat shrink, so it's difficult to extract and replace.
 
: The wires do have ring terminals once you get the fuse out, so you could wire in a fuse breaker. Or if in a pinch just bolt them together.
 
 
 
; Fuse Part Investigations
 
: A 2014 SR was found to have an [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Bussmann-Eaton/JJN-100/?qs=vco6xy%252beH1pHxfCrJKaBAA%3D%3D Eaton JJN-100 fuse], a fast-acting fuse rated for 300V and 100A.
 
: [http://www.mouser.com/ds/2/87/Bus_Ele_DS_1025_JJN-347438.pdf Datasheet for the Eaton JJN-100]
 
: If the 2014 match is correct, a [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Bussmann-Eaton/JJN-30/?qs=bpnLQM2ZShxX0X37lSZxFw%3D%3D JJN-30] would seem to be the match for a 2013 Zero (same datasheet as above).
 
: There was supposition of a 60A limit on 2014 motorcycles, implying a TTN-60, but that has not been proven with evidence.
 
  
 
=Electrical System=
 
=Electrical System=
Line 3,225: Line 687:
 
Zero's models ship with halogen bulbs.
 
Zero's models ship with halogen bulbs.
  
====X Platform Headlamp====
+
====[[XMX Platform/Headlamp|X Platform Headlamp]]====
;Pre-2014
+
{{:XMX Platform/Headlamp}}
: Hella circular reflector unit (possibly [http://www.myhellalights.com/index.php/products/auxiliary-lamps/sealed-beam-conversion-headlamps/vision-plus-5-75in-conversion-headlamp/ the Vision Plus 5¾" conversion headlamp]).
 
;2014+
 
: In 2014, the FX acquired a dual projector configuration with a W3W stock running light.
 
 
 
[[File:X headlamp front.jpeg|300px]] [[File:X headlamp markings 1.jpeg|300px]] [[File:X headlamp markings 2.jpeg|300px]]
 
 
 
; Adjusting angle (2014+)
 
: There are two retaining bolts on each side of the headlamp assembly.
 
: Loosen all four bolts, pivot the assembly to the angle as desired, and then re-tighten to fix it in position.
 
 
 
====S Platform Headlamp====
 
: [[File:lsl-urban-headlight.png|right|thumb|link=https://spieglerusa.com/lights-indicators/headlights-by-lsl/urban-headlight-kits/lsl-headlight-chrome-3290.htm|2013+ LSL Urban Headlight]][[File:lsl-urban-headlight-rear.png|right|thumb|link=https://spieglerusa.com/lights-indicators/headlights-by-lsl/urban-headlight-kits/lsl-headlight-chrome-3290.htm|2013+ LSL Urban Headlight (rear)]]
 
; Pre-2012
 
: Hella circular reflector unit (possibly [http://www.myhellalights.com/index.php/products/auxiliary-lamps/sealed-beam-conversion-headlamps/vision-plus-5-75in-conversion-headlamp/ the Vision Plus 5¾" conversion headlamp]).
 
; 2012+
 
: For 2012+ models, the Zero's stock headlamp assembly is the [https://spieglerusa.com/lights-indicators/headlights-by-lsl/urban-headlight-kits/lsl-headlight-chrome-3290.htm LSL Urban Headlight] with an H4 bulb in a 9003 / HB2 socket, and a W3W stock running light.
 
: LSL Urban headlight housing dimensions: 190mm width, 260mm height, 125mm depth.
 
: The headlamp housing OEM is by TRIOM with part number T7869010. It can be bought on the Italian market (ebay.it or amazon.it or such) for $100 instead of $160 in the US.
 
 
 
; Power
 
: The stock headlamp draws about 55/60W which is the largest regular 12V electrical load by default.
 
: The electrical load doesn't impact range much (110Wh over 2 hours compared to 11+kWh yields 1% range difference), ''unless'' you ride a very slow long travel leg for, say, offroading.
 
: However, it does heat up the housing glass.
 
 
 
; Bulb Retainer
 
: The headlight is fastened in by a plastic bracket that locks when rotated, and covered with a rubber boot to protect from moisture.
 
 
 
; [[Headlamp Removal (S-Platform)|Removal]]
 
{{:Headlamp Removal (S-Platform)}}
 
 
 
; [[Headlamp Bulb Replacement (S-Platform)|Bulb Replacement]]
 
{{:Headlamp Bulb Replacement (S-Platform)}}
 
 
 
; Adjusting angle (2013+)
 
: There is a set screw on the upper-right rear face of the headlamp housing to adjust the angle of illumination.
 
: Adjust this while the bike is sitting fully upright.
 
: Remove the lower screws and swing the headlamp on the two upper bolts to access the screw while adjusting.
 
: Turn clockwise to raise the angle, counterclockwise to lower.
 
 
 
===Turn Signals===
 
Zero uses a triangle-shaped turn signal housing on a flexible stalk.
 
 
 
The turn signals are oriented so the front and rear are interchangeable if you swap sides going from front to rear and vice versa.
 
 
 
{|
 
|[[File:ZM65-03462.png|thumb|Left-hand front (right-hand rear) turn signal]]
 
|[[File:ZM65-03463.png|thumb|Right-hand front (left-hand rear) turn signal]]
 
|[[File:ZM65-03463-drawing.png|thumb|Turn signal drawing]]
 
|}
 
 
 
;Maintenance
 
: Always check for functioning turn signals (running light, headlamp, turn signals, brakes).
 
 
 
;Connectors
 
: Threaded insert into the headlamp and tail bracketing (not identified, could be M8) with a notch to hold their position.
 
: Barrel-style single wire Molex connectors (2 per signal):
 
:* [https://www.molex.com/molex/products/datasheet.jsp?part=active/0003061011_CRIMP_HOUSINGS.xml 1 Pin Molex .062 Female Plug Connector w/Pins 03-06-1011]
 
:* [https://www.molex.com/molex/products/datasheet.jsp?part=active/0003062011_CRIMP_HOUSINGS.xml 1 Pin Molex .062 Male Plug Connector w/Pins 03-06-2011]
 
 
 
; Turn Signal Bulbs
 
; 2013+
 
: Type PY10W, similar to 1156, but the side pins are offset by 150 degrees rather than 180.
 
: Also called BAU15S or R10W.
 
: The glass is amber (as the lenses are clear) and smaller, since the regular 1156 glass is too big.
 
: AF1 Racing references [http://www.af1racing.com/store/Scripts/prodView.asp?idProduct=5890 #AP8127489] as "amber turn signal bulb, staggered pins"
 
; 2009-2012
 
: Clear 1156 incandescent bulbs, very standard.
 
 
 
===Turn Signal Flasher===
 
The turn signal ("blinker") flasher is a simple three prong flasher relay.
 
: It's attached directly by a plug so is easily replaced if it fails (or for an LED compatible unit).
 
 
 
;Label
 
Flasher Unit 12V
 
2x10W
 
PN: 8078
 
Made by Ecie Cheng Du
 
  
;Low Noise Revision
+
====[[SDS Platform/Headlamp|S Platform Headlamp]]====
: As of 2016, the part is [http://www.af1racing.com/store/Scripts/prodView.asp?idProduct=89625 revised with the description "low noise"].
+
{{:SDS Platform/Headlamp}}
:: This suggests reduced electronic and/or audible noise.
 
:: This model of flasher relay is noticeably quieter, and that year coincides with reports from Zero management of EU EMF noise compliance expenditures.
 
  
;Wiring
+
===[[Turn Signals]]===
: The orientation is specific:
+
{{:Turn Signals}}
* Look at the pins with the middle L (load) pin on top.
 
* '''2018+:''' The orientation should be '''E-''' (left), '''L''' (center), then '''B+''' (right)
 
*: Most off the shelf relays are oriented with '''E-''', '''L''', then '''B+''', and should connect without modifications.
 
* '''2013-2017:''' The left pin should be '''B1+''' (battery positive) and the right should be '''E1-''' (battery negative, AKA "emitter").
 
*: The common CF13 relay orientation is appropriate for MY 2018+
 
*: The C14 relay orientation is appropriate for models through 2013-2017 [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=8751.0 per pacificcricket]
 
*: Reversing the wiring can be necessary to adapt a generic relay. 
 
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
===[[Turn Signal Flasher]]===
|+[http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4604.msg31183#msg31183 Flasher Location]
+
{{:Turn Signal Flasher}}
!Years
 
!Platform
 
!Location
 
!Photo
 
|-
 
|2012
 
|S/X
 
|Under the seat below the fuse block.
 
|[[File:2012S-obdii-port-and-fuse-block.jpg|200px]]
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|2013+
 
|X
 
|Behind the right fairing
 
|[[File:2013-fx-flasher-relay.jpg|200px]]
 
|-
 
|S
 
|In front of the front plastics area under the frame "wishbone" with other electrical connections.
 
|[[File:Tank-relay-connectors.jpg|200px]]
 
|}
 
  
===Tail Light===
+
===[[Tail Light]]===
The tail running and brake light assembly is an LED unit made by [http://www.varrocgroup.com/triom_lighting TRIOM], an Italian company.
+
{{:Tail Light}}
 
 
The product made for Zero has not been identified so far, but has shown no failures, either.
 
  
 
===[[Horn]]===
 
===[[Horn]]===
Line 3,352: Line 707:
 
==Switchgear==
 
==Switchgear==
  
===Fuse Block===
+
===[[12V Fuse Block|Fuse Block]]===
The 12V fuse block protects the [[Unofficial_Service_Manual#DC.2FDC_12V_converter|DC-DC converter]] from faults in all the 12V components.
+
{{:12V Fuse Block}}
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+Components
 
!Platforms
 
!Years
 
!Components
 
!Rating
 
!Notes
 
!Photo
 
|-
 
|rowspan="8"|S,X
 
|rowspan="5"|2013+
 
|Accessory circuit
 
|10A
 
|Sumimoto plug (all years) and SAE plug (2014+ years)
 
|rowspan="5"|[[File:2013 S-DS Fuse Block.jpg|2013 Fuse Block|thumb]]
 
|-
 
|Headlamp
 
|10A
 
|
 
|-
 
|Instrument cluster (Dash)
 
:running lights
 
|5A
 
|
 
|-
 
|Turn signals (Flashers)
 
:horn
 
:brake lights
 
|10A
 
|
 
|-
 
|Ignition key
 
|5A
 
|
 
|-
 
|rowspan="3"|2015+
 
|ABS circuit and the ignition key
 
|5A
 
|
 
|rowspan="3"|[[File:fuse-block-2016.jpg|2015-2016 Fuse block (label inaccurate; rotated 180°)|thumb]]
 
|-
 
|ABS pump
 
|25A
 
|limited duty
 
|-
 
|ABS valve
 
|10A
 
|
 
|}
 
 
 
;Wiring
 
: The fuse block connects to the positive side of the [[Unofficial_Service_Manual#DC.2FDC_12V_converter|DC-DC converter]] output on its left side.
 
: The downstream wires enter a mesh sleeve, through a ferrite ring to clean up RF interference, and lead forward into a larger sleeve that runs (for the S-Platform) along the left side of the forward tank area.
 
 
 
;Location (S-Platform)
 
: Under the seat under the [[#Y-Shaped Underseat Frame|Y-shaped frame join piece]]'s left rear leg.
 
: For 2015+ models, the 25A ABS pump fuse is mounted to the back of the block and may require removing the frame join piece to access fully.
 
 
 
;Location (X-Platform)
 
: On the frame under the right side front body panel.
 
: For 2015+ models, the 25A ABS pump fuse is mounted to the frame above the block.
 
 
 
===Ignition Switch===
 
The [[#Ignition|ignition]] switch is a locked turn-key operation for enabling the bike with a reasonable amount of physical security.
 
  
The ignition wiring runs under the steering head to the MBB. This implies that the MBB is at least partially powered while the bike is keyed off.
+
===[[Ignition Switch]]===
 
+
{{:Ignition Switch}}
;Security
 
: Position the steering in the locked position to prevent easy access to the wiring which facilitates theft/override via "hotwiring".
 
 
 
;MBB pins (per 2013 trace)
 
:4 - Orange/White 20AWG
 
:5 - Orange/Black 20AWG
 
  
 
===Handlebar Switch Housing===
 
===Handlebar Switch Housing===
 
The handlebar switch housing assemblies seem generic but have Torx T22 security bolt fasteners making inspection and maintenance more difficult than average.
 
The handlebar switch housing assemblies seem generic but have Torx T22 security bolt fasteners making inspection and maintenance more difficult than average.
  
===Kill Switch===
+
===[[Kill Switch]]===
The kill switch (or engine cutoff/cutout switch) is a toggle switch on the right handlebar switch assembly prevents motor operation as a separate control from other interlocks.
+
{{:Kill Switch}}
  
; Mounting
+
===[[Kickstand Switch]]===
: On the right handlebar switch assembly.
+
{{:Kickstand Switch}}
  
; Operation
+
===[[SDS Platform/Tail Wiring|Tail Wiring]]===
: Push up/forward to cutoff motor operation.
+
{{:SDS Platform/Tail Wiring}}
: Push down to enable motor operation.
 
 
 
;When to Cutoff Motor Operation
 
* Whenever the bike should not be operating.
 
*: This is a redundant safety mechanism to prevent injury or damage.
 
* If the vehicle is on its side after a crash or other incident.
 
*: This prevents spinning up the wheel.
 
* Whenever someone unfamiliar with the motorcycle is sitting on it or nearby.
 
*: If they intentionally or unintentionally touch the throttle, this prevents their lack of familiarity from causing a surprise excursion.
 
 
 
;Troubleshooting
 
: The [[MBB_Console#Status|status]] command in the MBB console can report its reading.
 
: While energized, a voltmeter will indicate 5V across the input leads if the switch is open, and 0V if shut.
 
: While de-energized (and confirmed), resistance across the switch will be high if open, and low if shut.
 
 
 
; Connections
 
: It is wired as a digital input to the [[#Main_Bike_Board|MBB]].
 
: SPST where the off position is an open circuit, for failsafe considerations.
 
: Red 20AWG - (assumed high/positive-5V) to MBB pin 23 (per 2013 trace)
 
: White 20AWG - (assumed low/0V) to MBB pin 24 (per 2013 trace)
 
 
 
===Kickstand Switch===
 
The [[#Kickstand|kickstand]] has a safety cutout switch (really a sensor) to prevent motor operation while at rest.
 
'''Bold text'''
 
Raise the kickstand for testing only with the rear wheel lifted off the ground via a [[#Stand|stand or lift]].
 
 
 
{{Kickstand Switch Hazard}}
 
 
 
;Part
 
: From observation, the [https://en.ad-asahidenso.co.jp/products/motorcycles/ Asahi Denso] CE122 proximity sensor appears to be the part match, also used on some Triumph and KTM motorcycle models.
 
: From the 2016 SR's sensor to its connector, the wires are Blue, Pinkish Red, and Black.
 
:: While the bike is keyed on and contactor is closed, Blue measures a stable 5V, Red measures ~2.7V and varies (need to scope this), and black appears to be a signal ground/input (needs verification when I'm not tired).
 
: Some KTM riders with the Asahi Denso CE122 sensor have reported success using commercial bypass kits.
 
:* [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=9276.msg81168#msg81168 Reportedly], a [https://slavensracing.com/shop/sidestand-switch-bypass-removal-kit-ktm-690-950-990/ KTM sidestand switch bypass kit] can work on a Zero without issues.
 
:*: [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tglAUxsl51M Instructional video]
 
:: One such user suggested these are merely a potted 2.2kOhm resistor between the Red and Black wires (link here).
 
:: Zero motorcycles can be far more sensitive to faults on signalling pins so this should not be attempted unless you absolutely know what you are doing, and are willing to risk having to replace your MBB.
 
: talonreaper has had luck on a 2016 SR with a 2.7kOhm resistor between the red and black kickstand sensor's wires to get home from being stranded in an emergency.
 
:: This is still not advised.
 
:: North or South pole magnetism activation? TODO
 
 
 
;Connector
 
: The connector appears to be a Sumimoto MT sealed series connector MT-3S-2, p/n 6180-3241.
 
: Ref. [https://www.corsa-technic.com/item.php?item_id=232&category_id=126&manufacturer_id=44 Corsa Technic reference page for 6180-3241]
 
: This connector appears to be a very standard application for Japanese motorcycle interlock sensors for sidestands/kickstands.
 
 
 
;Troubleshooting
 
: The [[MBB_Console#Status|status]] command in the MBB console can report its reading.
 
 
 
;Bypass
 
: ''If there is a compelling justification worth risking warranty damage'', the sensor interlock preventing operating the powertrain may be bypassed.
 
:: The bypass should be performed via [[MBB Console#Settings|MBB settings]] configuration.
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ MBB pins (per 2013 trace)
 
!Pin #
 
!Wire Color
 
!Wire Gauge
 
|-
 
|10||Yellow/Black||20AWG
 
|-
 
|11||Orange/Black||20AWG
 
|-
 
|27||Red||20AWG
 
|}
 
 
 
;Removal
 
: See [[Kickstand Switch Removal]]
 
 
 
;Replacement
 
: See [[Kickstand Switch Replacement]]
 
 
 
===Tail Wiring===
 
Tail wiring includes the [[#Tail_Light|tail lights]] (running and braking power), each rear [[#Turn_Signals|turn signal]], and the license plate illuminator.
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Connections
 
! Photo
 
! Connector
 
! Function
 
! Wire Color
 
|-
 
| rowspan="99"| [[File:ZeroTail17b.jpg|400px]]
 
| rowspan="3"| Standard Suzuki or Honda brake light (3-wire)
 
| Tail light power
 
| Brown
 
|-
 
| Brake light power
 
| White with red stripe
 
|-
 
| Negative/Return
 
| Black
 
|-
 
| rowspan="4"| Single pin connector
 
:Socket: [http://www.molex.com/molex/products/datasheet.jsp?part=active/0003092011_CRIMP_HOUSINGS.xml Molex 03-09-2011] [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Molex/03-09-2011/] [https://www.digikey.com/product-detail/en/molex-connector-corporation/03-09-2011/WM1303-ND/]
 
:Pin: [http://www.molex.com/molex/products/datasheet.jsp?part=active/0003091011_CRIMP_HOUSINGS.xml Molex 03-09-1011] [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Molex/03-09-1011/]
 
| Left turn signal power
 
| Green
 
|-
 
| Negative/Return
 
| Black
 
|-
 
| Right turn signal power
 
| Grey
 
|-
 
| Negative/Return
 
| Black
 
|}
 
 
 
;Note about Braking Regen
 
: Braking regen is activated by the pressure switch on the front brake lever or hydraulic switch on the rear brake pedal, through the rear brake power circuit.
 
: If that circuit doesn't complete (due to a failed bulb or wiring disconnect), braking regen seems to not activate.
 
 
 
;Routing
 
: Tail wiring runs through a sleeve by the [[#Controller|controller]] on the left side.
 
:: Ensure it is protected from chafing by the controller cover.
 
: Turn signal wires run through a pair of holes where the tail stalk meets the subassembly underneath the tail.
 
  
 
==Schematic==
 
==Schematic==
Burton has been maintaining a Zero wiring diagram based on his now-highly-modified 2013 Zero S. It is schematically correct for that year but could use improvement explaining the physical routing and there are missing details like the precharge circuit.
 
  
===S-Platform Schematic===
+
===[[SDS Platform/Schematic|S-Platform Schematic]]===
{|
+
{{:SDS Platform/Schematic}}
|+ Schematic Diagrams
 
!Year
 
!Author
 
!Documents
 
!Notes
 
|-
 
|2010
 
| [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7373 diagram by igorbaldo]
 
|[[File:2010 harness.png|120px|2010S Battery Harness]] [[File:2010 batt_pack.png|120px|2010S Battery Pack]] [[File:2010 batt_box.png|120px|2010S Battery Box]]
 
|
 
|-
 
|2013
 
| [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=3603 diagram by Burton]
 
|[[File:ZeroWireDrawing_2013_S_11-4_R-1-3-0_no-grid_highRes-scaled.png|400px|2013S wiring diagram preview]]
 
|
 
;Latest versions
 
: [[:File:ZeroWireDrawing_2013_S_11-4_R-1-3-0_grid_highRes.pdf|1.3.0 Gridded PDF]]
 
: [[:File:ZeroWireDrawing_2013_S_11-4_R-1-3-0_no-grid_highRes.pdf|1.3.0 No Grid PDF]]
 
;2015+ Notes
 
: the 12V fuse block has more slots for ABS, at least, and the cabling layout is denser.
 
|}
 
  
===X-Platform Schematic===
+
===[[XMX Platform/Schematic|X-Platform Schematic]]===
{|
+
{{:XMX Platform/Schematic}}
|+ 2016 FX diagram by Keith
 
|-
 
|
 
;Latest version
 
: [[:File:2016_FX_Wiring_1-1.pdf| 1.1 PDF]]
 
|[[File:2016_FX_Wiring_1-1-preview.png|400px|link=2016 X-Platform Wiring Diagram|2016 FX wiring diagram hyperlinked]]
 
|}
 
  
[http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7547.0 Keith's thread with updates]
+
==[[OBD-II Port]]==
 +
{{:OBD-II Port}}
  
{|
+
===[[OBD-II Port Location]]<span id="OBD Location"></span>===
|+ Pack connector pin layout
+
{{:OBD-II Port Location}}
|-
 
|
 
: [[File:Anderson pins.png|preview|300px]]
 
|[[File:Anderson pins wire side.png|preview|250px]]
 
|}
 
 
 
;Earlier Model Years
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7373.msg63470#msg63470 Zero DS 2011 wiring diagram] forum thread with a 2011/2012 XU diagram
 
 
 
==OBD-II Port==
 
===OBD Location===
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+Zero OBD-II port location by model-year
 
!Platform
 
!Years
 
!Photo
 
|-
 
|S
 
|2011-2012
 
|In the tank area facing the forward frame join where the [[#Fuse_Block|fuse block]] sits.
 
|[[File:2012S-obdii-port-and-fuse-block.jpg|300px]]
 
|-
 
|S
 
|2013
 
|Above and behind the motor next to the [[#Accessory_Charging_Port|accessory charging port]], on the left-hand side.
 
|''difficult to photograph''
 
|-
 
|S
 
|2014-2015
 
|Above and behind the motor next to the [[#Accessory_Charging_Port|accessory charging port]], on the right-hand side.
 
|''difficult to photograph''
 
|-
 
|S
 
|2016+
 
|Under the seat on the left side just behind frame bulkhead that the tank plastics rest on for 2016 models.
 
|[[File:obd-ii-2016.jpg|OBD-II location for 2016|300px]]
 
|-
 
|X
 
|2011+
 
|Under the left side tank plastics.
 
|[[File:obd-ii-fx.jpeg|OBD-II location for FX|300px]]
 
|}
 
  
 
==Routing==
 
==Routing==
  
 
===S Platform Routing===
 
===S Platform Routing===
 +
====[[SDS Platform/Power Cable Routing|S Platform Power Cable Routing]]====
 +
{{:SDS Platform/Power Cable Routing}}
  
;Under The Seat
+
====[[SDS Platform/Charging Cable Routing|Charging Cable Routing]]====
: The 12V [[#Fuse_Block|fuse block]] is bolted under the Y-shaped frame bracket under the seat.
+
{{:SDS Platform/Charging Cable Routing}}
: The underside terminals lead to the positive terminals from the [[#DC-DC_Converter|DC-DC converter]] below on its left side.
 
: (The following picture has one flaw: the fuse label is rotated 180°; layout is reverse of the label)
 
: [[File:fuse-block-2016.jpg|Fuse block|400px]]
 
: The terminals on top enter a mesh sleeve, through a ferrite ring to clean up RF interference, and lead forward into a larger sleeve that runs along the left side of the forward tank area.
 
: The 12V accessory port cable is lower gauge than the others and has a crimped connection that splits into two circuits for 2014+ models.
 
:: The positive side crimped connection is just two inches from the fuse block under the first sleeve, wrapped in vinyl self-adhesive tape.
 
 
 
Ref. [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yig2RtRuIoY Quick and dirty Youtube guide to this areaa]
 
 
 
;Tank Area Left-Side Routing
 
: All cabling leading to the steering controls and instrument cluster runs along the left side of the frame tank area wrapped in a bundle.
 
: The largest connector on the left side leads to the instrument cluster. There is a smaller 4-pin connector there for ABS circuits (probably).
 
: [[File:2013-tank-electrical-layout.jpg|200px|2013 Tank Electrical Layout]][[File:tank-electrical-layout.jpg|300px|2015+ Tank Electrical Layout]]
 
 
 
;Negative/Return
 
: The negative side connection for all of the forward 12V circuits is halfway along the tank area under a longer stretch of vinyl self-adhesive tape.
 
: The merged output leads back down to the DC converter between the forward seat and the motor.
 
 
 
;Tank Area Front Mounting
 
: A group of components are clamped to the underside of the front part of the frame in front of the tank:
 
: [[File:tank-relay-connectors.jpg|Connectors and relay under front frame]]
 
* The turn signal flasher relay.
 
* 12V accessory ports: Sumimoto connector and the SAE connector (2014+).
 
* The 3-pin headlamp connector.
 
 
 
;Tail Routing
 
: Towards the tail, one sleeved bundle runs past the [[#Controller|controller]] on the left side and handles:
 
:* Turn signals
 
:* Brake and running lights.
 
:* License plate illuminator.
 
: The turn signal wires run through a pair of holes where the tail stalk meets the subassembly underneath the tail.
 
 
 
===X Platform Routing===
 
<imagemap>
 
Image:Electrical locations.png|2016 FX Electrical Locations
 
rect 480 618 610 692 [[#Accessory Charging Port|Accessory Charging Port]]
 
rect 628 615 775 679 [[#Controller|Sevcon Controller]]
 
rect 818 651 942 713 [[#DC-DC 12V converter|DC-DC 12V Converter]]
 
rect 859 260 990 296 [[#Charger|Onboard Charger]]
 
rect 817 117 942 165 [[#OBD-II Port|OBD-II Port]]
 
rect 873 399 993 434 [[#Charger|Onboard Charger]]
 
rect 604 142 682 172 [[#Fuse Block|12V Fuse Block]]
 
rect 436 209 557 256 [[#Main Bike Board|MBB]]
 
rect 258 172 389 242 [[#Loopback|Loopback and Blanking Plug]]
 
rect 153 300 260 378 [[Power Pack Module]]
 
</imagemap>
 
 
 
;Overview
 
: The 12V fuse block is located behind the right hand front body panel.
 
: The turn signal flasher relay is also under the right panel.
 
: The SAE connector is located under the bundle of wires on the right side front body panel.
 
  
In the following photo, the cable is on top, but it can be routed around.
+
====[[SDS Platform/Electrical Routing|S Platform 12V Routing]]====
: It only has power when the motorcycle is keyed on.
+
{{:SDS Platform/Electrical Routing}}
: [[File:zero-fx-wiring.jpeg|Zero FX wiring|300px]]
 
  
;High Voltage Fusing
+
===[[XMX Platform/Electrical Routing|X Platform Routing]]===
: [[File:Electrical HV fuse locations Left side.png|400px|HV Fuses Left Side]] [[File:Electrical HV fuse locations Right side.png|400px|HV Fuses Right Side]]
+
{{:XMX Platform/Electrical Routing}}
  
 
=Troubleshooting=
 
=Troubleshooting=
==Dash Display==
+
==[[Gen2/Instrument Cluster/Troubleshooting|Dash Display]]==
How to use the [[#Instrument_Cluster|instrument cluster]] to extract basic diagnostics from the bike.
+
{{:Gen2/Instrument Cluster/Troubleshooting}}
;Entire Display Flashes
 
: If the dash display in its entirety is flashing after keying the bike on, this indicates an onboard charger self-test failure.
 
: Key the bike off and wait for a few seconds and retry, and it should clear.
 
;No Backlight
 
: Check your running lights and license plate lights, if those are also out then check the fusebox (see: seat removal).
 
: If the fuse pops right away, there is a short circuit in the wiring harness (''as happened to a MY2016 DSR pinched wiring harness (or mouse nest!) to the license plate lights'').
 
: Disconnect the tail light module and the display module connectors; if the fuse still pops, try removing the tail and tracing the short circuit.
 
  
 
===[[System Warning Sequences]]===
 
===[[System Warning Sequences]]===
: The red indicator light in the lower part of the display sometimes will flash a repeating sequence.
 
: The [[Official Owners Manual]] lists what they mean, usually related to system startup.
 
: Often enough, keying the bike off and on is the way to re-test.
 
 
 
{{:System Warning Sequences}}
 
{{:System Warning Sequences}}
  
===[[Error Codes]]===
+
===[[Gen2/Error Codes|Error Codes]]===
How to use the [[#Instrument_Cluster|2014+ instrument cluster]] to extract self-reported diagnostic codes from the bike.
+
How to use the [[Gen2/Instrument Cluster|2014+ instrument cluster]] to extract self-reported diagnostic codes from the bike.
 
 
{{:Error Codes}}
 
 
 
===Isolation Faults===
 
BMS isolation faults are indicated by a combination of codes 20, 28, and 29.
 
 
 
;Meaning
 
* On some part of the power system connected to the BMS at that moment, there is insufficient isolation (insulation) from ground.
 
* This can include anything on the 116V power cabling "bus".
 
* This is usually not a short, but can mean an imbalance that could compromise the bike's performance or safety.
 
* If left unattended to, it could deteriorate to a serious problem; in-build protections should shut down the bike prior to damage but this itself would be unsafe happening while riding.
 
* If the BMS reports a specific voltage in the logs with the isolation code, it means that a specific cell (the combined parallel cells at a particular level in the 28-cell series) has poor isolation to ground, roughly computable as "3.7V ⨉ N = logged voltage".
 
 
 
;Possible Aggravating Conditions
 
* Damp weather
 
* Dust or mud ingress
 
 
 
;Troubleshooting
 
# Disconnect anything attached to the [[Unofficial_Service_Manual#Accessory_Charging_Port|Accessory Charging Port]].
 
#* If the condition clears, check the attached equipment (chargers and cabling) for grounding isolation.
 
# Key the bike off and on slowly, waiting after each transition to see whether the condition clears.
 
#* If the error occurs without or before the contactor is shut, then the fault is within the battery and might be due to moisture or dust entering the front of the battery faceplate where the BMS is.
 
#* If the error clears after opening the contactor, then the fault is likely downstream of the contactor, including the Accessory Charging Port signal pins, the Sevcon controller, and the MBB and DC-DC connections.
 
# Check for moisture on the Accessory Charging Port signal pins and attempt to dry them as necessary.
 
 
 
;[[#Controller|Controller]] Hypothesis [https://www.facebook.com/groups/zmcowners/permalink/1546883172047552/ via DoctorBass]
 
: It might be the Sevcon Motor controller that is defective.
 
: The codes are related to BMS isolation fault - as an interpretation of a voltage present relative to the frame.
 
:* A bad controller could have a single phase to the motor (M1, M2, M3 circuits) with a short to the heatsink.
 
:* Apparently Sevcon and Zero are aware of this potential problem.
 
:* The problem is apparently because the [https://www.kaptontape.com/ Kapton] tape they use between MOSFET transistors' heatsink and the aluminum heatsink might be punctured and create intermittent low resistance contact to the controller chassis.
 
: Warranty replacements have been reported.
 
;Controller Isolation Diagnostic Procedure
 
:* A dealer should be able to do this easily.
 
# Key off the bike and wait 10 minutes for the system to fully discharge.
 
# Remove the seat.
 
# Uncover the top of the Sevcon controller.
 
# Verify all inputs and outputs of the Sevcon controller are de-energized (zero/low voltage).
 
# Disconnect the cables from the controller (M1, M2, and M3, the Ampseal 34-pin connector, and B+ and B- to be extra careful) and cover the leads for safety.
 
# Check for continuity between each phase (M1, M2, and M3 terminals) and the controller heatsink plate.
 
#* If you get continuity (low resistance reading), then controller is defective.
 
 
 
2018-05-03, Doctorbass confirms, "I got these same errors couple month ago.. problem was the SR controller bad isolation from the phase output to the aluminum plate of his body. Controller replaced and that solved the problem.. no more 20 28 and 29 error code from now. The code talk about BMS but in fact the voltage level the controller bad electrical isolation create make the BMS to think it's the battery but in my case it was not."
 
  
Isolation Diagnostics test (requires terminal access to [[MBB Console]])
+
{{:Gen2/Error Codes}}
  
$ test isolation -v
+
==[[Gen2/Isolation_Faults|Isolation Faults]]==
 +
{{:Gen2/Isolation_Faults}}
  
 
==Using Mobile App==
 
==Using Mobile App==

Latest revision as of 00:05, 10 July 2020

Overview

This describes the Zero motorcycle platform and includes as many service tasks not described (or incompletely described) in the official Owner's Manuals as customers have identified.

Some information might be hearsay or not completely communicated, but attempts have been made to verify as much as possible.
As with anything in a wiki environment, whatever you undertake with this as a guide is your own responsibility.
Coverage
  • S,DS,SR,DSR AKA SDS Platform/Gen2
    Unless otherwise stated, this manual refers to the shared SDS Platform and the 2013+ years (Gen2) in particular.
  • FX,FXS AKA XMX Platform/Gen2
    Coverage is reasonable, but progress here would benefit from volunteers invested in these models.
  • Pre-2013 models AKA Gen1
    Maintenance coverage to keep their powertrains running (battery, controller, and motor).
    These models varied significantly by year and were produced in smaller numbers.
  • SR/F AKA FST Platform/Gen3
    The SRF Model bikes have only just started reaching customers in small numbers, and represents a very large shift in construction and powertrain details, so this may take some time.
    See Unofficial Manual updates based on Zero's SRF on the EMF forum for notes gathered so far.

Contents

Platforms

Zero motorcycles benefit from some commonality around the powertrain. The motor, controller, BMS and MBB are more or less shared across all models, along with handlebars and controls.

SDS Platform

The Gen2 SDS Platform follows the Gen1 S Platform, building on a single evolving frame design around a compartment sized for a full battery power pack (the Monolith), but also featuring a 3-Brick battery or a Longbrick battery for lower entry-cost models.

Models
S Model
DS Model
SR Model
DSR Model
Fleet variants
SP, DSP, SRP, DSRP - Law enforcement / patrol.


XMX Platform

The Gen2 XMX platform follows on the Gen1 X Platform and builds on a single lighter-weight frame design around two bricks of batteries.

Models
FX Model
FXS Model
Fleet variants
FXP, FXSP - Law enforcement / patrol.
MMX Model - Military built-to-order
Older Variants
XU (2013): a low power street/training model.
MX (2013): a motocross (tall suspension offroad, street homologation optional) model.


FST Platform

This is the Gen3 platform listed for the SRF Model and SRS Model.


General Information

VIN

The VIN is inscribed on the front head tube of the frame per the official manual.

See the VIN guide to understand how the VIN describes your vehicle, as compiled across manual revisions.

Systems

This is a very simplified way of looking at the bike’s systems functions and general purposes, linking to relevant sections.

Mechanical Systems

Powertrain Systems

Energy Systems

Electrical Systems

General Maintenance

Mostly, refer to the official owners' manual for regular and general maintenance.

Lift

Some maintenance tasks are better performed with the wheels off the ground.

The armored pan under the battery that protects onboard charging units is strong enough and positioned well to use a center lift.
Recommendation
Center lift under S model belly pan
FXS from below.
Using a scissor lift center stand is an easy method to lift the bike.
Rage Powersports BW-1604A has been spotted at Zero HQ, but other manufacturers make very equivalent stands.
A center lift is easier than a rear stand to operate solo, and it is more compact than the rear stand although much heavier.
Location (S Platform)
Use a center lift under the battery compartment.
  • Orient the center stand so that it runs side-to-side to provide lateral stability.
  • Place it under the rear of the battery compartment to lift the bike's front and rear equally.
  • Place it under the front of the battery compartment to lift the bike's front and leave the rear tire in floor contact.
  • Strap the bike securely (through the center frame tube, say) to avoid toppling it.
Confirmed fits
Location (X Platform)
The FXS (at least) has three bolts sticking out from the pan under the bike.
  • Orient the center stand so that it runs side-to-side to provide lateral stability.
  • You can put a rubber pad on your lift to make it easier to use it over the bolts.
Confirmed fits
References


Front Stand

When To Use
A front stand is the easiest way to:
Spool Stands
  • The Zero does not offer axle attachment points for spools for a front stand.
Steering Head Pin Stands
  • 2014+ models(?) have a steering pin diameter of 5/8".
  • 2012-2013 Zero models have an 8mm diameter (from a 2013 Zero S report and some checking around), with no vendor match.
  • The DS/DSR/FX models' high front fender must be removed (or drilled through) to use a pin for the front steering head.
Confirmed fits
Pit Bull Zero Fitments
Years Platform Front Pin Rear Pin Rear Supports Restraint
2013 S & X None! (8mm ⌀) Pin Fitting Only - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-04736)
Top Supports (Pair), Standard Rear Stand
Top Supports (Pair), SS Rear Stand
Trailer Restraint System - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-04736)
2014 Pin #7, Front
2015+ Pin Fitting Only - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-08032) Trailer Restraint System - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-08032)


Rear Stand

Inexpensive Jack Stands and a 2x4
Swingarm attachment
The Zero does not offer swingarm attachment points for spools for a rear stand.
A rear stand can work if it cradles the underside of the swingarm snugly.
This can work but takes a little care to operate single-handedly.
Confirmed fits
Axle Attachment
Custom Fabrication
An axle stand can be fabricated, like this Home made rear axle stand on Zero FXS.
Pit Bull Zero Fitments
Years Platform Front Pin Rear Pin Rear Supports Restraint
2013 S & X None! (8mm ⌀) Pin Fitting Only - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-04736)
Top Supports (Pair), Standard Rear Stand
Top Supports (Pair), SS Rear Stand
Trailer Restraint System - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-04736)
2014 Pin #7, Front
2015+ Pin Fitting Only - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-08032) Trailer Restraint System - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-08032)


Tools

See the separate Tool Kits article for a curated short list of tools with their purposes.

NOTE: integrate or meld notes below with that article.

Tools and parts to support your bike

A travel kit for a motorcycle is always a good idea, but Zero doesn't include a default set. They do sell a tool kit which covers many common tasks.

Tools for Everyday Riding

Consumables

These collect useful spare parts for Gen2 models.

Spare Parts for Everyday Riding
  • 12V fuses (10A, 15A typically).
  • Tire patch kit, suitable for tubed (pre-2015 DS or FX bikes) or tubeless tires (all others).
  • Cable ties and electrical tape for wiring.
Spare Parts for Travel
  • Belt
    ~$90, only available from Zero.
    Expect to eventually use it as replacement; avoids a delay waiting on delivery.
    Tools for belt replacement: 27mm socket with breaker bar, 10mm hex key...
  • Eaton JJN-100 fuse or size-matched 200V-rated fuses (30A will do in a pinch, being lower-spec)
    Fixes the accessory charging circuit which can be circumstantially blown without compromising the main boards.


Pre-Ride Checklist

Zero T-CLOCS Pre-Ride Checklist
Item What to Check Look For Check Off
Tires And Wheels Tires Condition Tread depth, wear, weathering, evenly seated, bulges, embedded objects. Front & Rear
Air Pressure Check When Cold; Adjust to Load
Wheels Spokes Bent/broken/missing. Check tension at top of wheel: "ring" is okay, "thud" means loose.
Cast Cracks or dents
Rims Out of round by more than 5mm. Spin the wheel against a stationary pointer
Bearings Grab the tire and flex it; no freeplay (click) between the hub and axle; no growl or squeak when spinning.
Seals Cracked or torn, no grease
Brakes Function Each brake alone can hold the bike stationary
Condition Worn pads or discs
Controls Handlebars Condition Bars are straight, turn freely, handgrips and bar ends are secure.
Brake Lever / Brake Pedal Condition Not broken/bent/cracked; adjusted properly.
Pivots Lubricated
Brake Hoses Condition No cuts/cracks/leaks/bulges/chafing/deterioration.
Routing No interference or pull at the steering head; no sharp angles; support clamps in place.
Throttle Operation Moves freely; snaps closed.
Lights & Electrics Headlamp/Running light Condition Turns on; no cracks; mounted securely; clean reflector.
Aim Just below horizontal and not skewed left or right.
Tail Lights Condition No cracks; clean and bright.
Operation Running light always on; brighter with front or rear brake pressed.
Switches Operation All switches function correctly: motor cut-out, hi/low beam, turn signal, hazard switch.
Turn signals Operation No cracks; flashes with left and right turn signal switch usage; resets per switch.
Mirrors Condition No cracks; clean, mount and swivel joints are tight
Aim Check/adjust while seated on the bike off the kickstand.
Wiring Condition No fraying or chafing; insulated.
Routing No pinching, interference, or pulling at the steering head or suspension; wire looms and ties in place; connectors tight and clean.
Oil & Fluids Hydraulic Fluid Level Check front and rear reservoirs
Cleanliness Check whether the fluid is very dark, foamed, or has water
Chassis Frame Condition No cracks at gussets or accessory mounts; no paint lifting
Steering-Head Bearings No detent or tight spots through full travel; raise front wheel and check for play by pulling/pushing forks.
Swingarm Bushings Raise the rear wheel and check for play by pulling/pushing swingarm.
Suspension Front Forks Smooth travel, equal air pressure/damping, anti-dive settings. Left & Right
Rear Shock Smooth travel, equal pre-load/air pressure/damping settings, linkage moves freely and is lubricated.
Belt Tension Check at tightest point
Alignment Check position on rear sprocket; spin the wheel to check changing position
Sprockets Teeth not hooked or chipped; clean and securely mounted
Fasteners Threaded Tight; none missing; check for corrosion
Clips and Pins None broken or missing
Stands Side Stand Condition No cracks; not bent; cutout switch equipped and working
Retention Springs into place; tension holds position up or down


Fastener Maintenance

To maintain the fasteners (bolts and screws), always check for loose or corroding bolts.

Torque
  • For torques, see Fastener Specifications, which gathers all the officially recommended torque and other settings for various fasteners.
Locking
  • Use blue Loctite threadlocker for non-conductive bolts.
Corrosion
TODO: recommend a corrosion inhibitor.


Frame/Bodywork

Frame

S Platform Frame

2013 S Platform Frame
2014-2016 S Platform Frame
2014S frame isometric
The 2013+ Zero frame for S/DS/SR/DSR bikes is made of anodized aluminum, weighs 23lbs, and is a combination of cast parts and welded square tubing of 1-inch outer width.
The frame slips onto the battery pack case over the top and attaches to it with four major bolts around the bottom. The charger is attached to the underside with a protective plate covering it (plastic for S/SR, aluminum for DS/DSR).
Attachment Points
The frame offers a number of rivet nut attachment points for the lower plastics.
The rivet nuts are sized to accept M5 bolts (a total depth of 20mm is available without marring the inside of the frame bar) with a 6mm shoulder to a depth of 5mm. (A longer shoulder and length are required for fastening a bracket beyond that.)
From 2015 onwards, the frame has extra attachment points made for the crash bars used for fleet/police models.
Two extra rivet nut holes on each side of the frame diagonal shoulder of the same size. They are 30mm apart (center to center).
The lower bash plate has similar modifications from that year - two rivet nut holes pre-made for M6 bolts and capped by threaded plastic inserts on each side for the lower mount. There is perhaps 10mm thread depth or allowance between the outer surface of the plate and the onboard charger enclosure.
On prior year models, the OEM or dealer would make these fittings.
Vertical Stanchions
Tail Horns
Neck and Shoulder
Battery Carrier Tray
Board Mounting Plate

Frame Tube

2018 SR Frame Tube Inner view

The frame has a tube running through the center of the bike where the tail horns meet the vertical stanchions and the main forward frame beams.

The tube functions as the anchor and hinge support for the rear shock.
For 2012-2014 models, this inner tube functions effectively as storage for the Charger Power Cord.
2015+ models have a brace in the center of the hole which reduces the diameter in that section.
The rough edges on this brace can abrade the power cord, so for these models, storing the cord there can wear it out over time.
Dimensions
Inner diameter (2015+) ~58mm
Center Brace minimum diameter (2015+) ~40mm
References
Re: Through-frame security aperture size?


Belly Pan

The Belly Pan AKA Skid Plate covers the onboard charger and is metallic on the DS/DSR and a very hard ABS plastic on the S/SR models.

DS Belly Pan / Skid Plate

Both variants are sturdy enough to support the bike on a centerlift.

Parts
S/SR: Hard plastic, part 24-07746.
DS/DSR: Aluminum alloy 5052-H32, part 26-08051 (was 20-05126).
Mounting
Fastened by 8 M5X16-8.8 button head bolts, 4 per side.
Forward corner bolts fasten into corner brackets (part 20-05307) that extend the lower frame square tubing.
Belly Pan Removal
Video Guide
How to Remove the Zero's Onboard Charger by NewZeroLand on YouTube from the beginning to 2 minutes in shows very clearly how to remove the pan from a Zero SR.
Tools
  • 3mm Allen key.
Steps
  1. (Optional) Place the bike upright on a front wheel stand if a vertical drop of the pan is suitable.
  2. Loosen each of the 8 bolts retaining the belly pan (4 per side), without removing.
  3. Remove each fastener in some suitable rotation so the pan isn't temporarily left dangling by one fastener.
    The pan is lightweight and can be manually suspended if convenient, or use a lift to catch the pan and lower it.
  4. Set the bolts aside with the pan for replacement later.


Y-Shaped Underseat Frame

2016 DSR underseat view

This frame piece spans the top of the frame between the part that sits behind the battery doghouse and the tail.

Functions
  • Support and anchor the seat by two pins extending from the forward center section.
  • Anchor the rear of the tank plastics.
  • Mount the 12V Fuse Block on the left rear leg.
  • Distributes the seat loading between the forward frame bracket arching over the monolith, and the horns of the rear tail.
    This protects underlying cabling, as well as dampens any load on the frame that would flex the tail relative to the forward part of the frame.
  • Removable (vs being frame-integrated or welded) for servicing everything above the motor (MBB, DC-DC converter, and cabling and wiring).
Mounting
  • Forward: 2x 10mm hex nylon locknuts, with washers.
  • Rear: 2x M5 socket cap bolts, 20mm length with a 2mm shoulder, 1mm depth, 6mm outer diameter, with washers.
Removal
Tools
  • 10mm hex socket wrench with at least 20mm of depth.
  • 5mm Allen key.
Steps
  1. Remove the seat.
  2. Use the 10mm socket wrench to loosen the locknuts anchoring the forward end of the washers.
  3. Use the 5mm Allen key to loosen the bolts at each of the rear ends of the frame piece.
  4. Remove the locknuts and the bolts in a coordinated pattern to avoid putting it under asymmetrical loading.
    • Take care not to lose the washers in the frame piece or in the bike's cabling areas underneath as each bolt and nut comes off.
Installation
  1. Ensure the underlying cabling is placed in its original orientation to avoid strain.
  2. Press the frame piece's fastener holes onto the corresponding threaded bolts on the frame arch over the rear of the battery.
  3. Align the rear ends of the frame piece with the corresponding frame holes, and thread the bolts with washers gently into position (without tightening) to secure the frame piece.
  4. Thread (without tightening) the front locknuts with washers onto the forward bolts.
  5. Tighten the two forward nuts and rear bolts in a coordinated pattern to settle the frame piece into the right load-bearing orientation.
    • Take care while tightening not to strain any cables or wiring underneath the frame piece.



Board Mounting Plate

Front
Rear

A vertical plate aft of the battery supports both the Main Bike Board and the DC-DC 12V Converter.

The plate varies between pre-2015 model years and the following model years, likely because of the DC converter upgrade in 2015 from 300W to 500W to support ABS braking equipment power requirements.

Attachments
  • The Main Bike Board is mounted to the rear face of the plate for 2013-2014 models, and to the rear face of the upper edge of the plate on 2015+ models.
  • The DC-DC 12V Converter is mounted to the forward face of the plate for 2013-2014 models, and to the lower rear face of the plate on 2015+ models.
  • The Accessory Charging Port is screwed to a flange at the bottom of the plate via two small M2.5 allen key bolts.
  • The rubber boot covering the Accessory Charging Port is attached to the flange via plastic push-rivet.
  • One cable run is zip-tied to a slot in the lower left corner of the plate, accessible under the frame arms forward of the onboard charging plug.
  • Another cable run is zip-tied a slot in the lower edge of the plate closer to the right side, accessible under the frame arms behind the battery.
Mounting
  • The bracket has side flanges that affix the plate to the left and right sides of the frame.
  • The top two corners of the flanges bend to the rear of the bike at a 45 degree angle, which mate to similarly-positioned flanges on the frame sides. The frame side flanges are above the plate flanges, which means when installing and removing the plate, the top must be angled towards the rear of the bike.
  • The bottom two corners of the flanges bend to the rear of the bike at a 90 degree angle. The bolts which affix these corners point upwards (cap head points down).
  • Fasteners
    • 4x M4 socket cap bolts, 12mm length, 0.75mm? depth, 5mm outer diameter, with washers.
    • 2x M2.5 socket cap bolts, 25mm length with a 6mm shoulder, 0.5mm? depth, 2.5mm outer diameter, with washers.
    • 2x M3 socket cap bolts, 10mm length, 0.75mm? depth, 4mm outer diameter, with washers.
Removal
Tools
  • 2.5mm, 3mm, 4mm Allen keys.
  • Low clearance (under 20mm) 3mm Allen key.
Steps
  1. Remove the seat.
  2. Remove the underseat Y-shaped frame piece.
  3. Detach the MBB by removing the two bolts holding it to the plate with a low-clearance 3mm Allen key.
    • The right side bolt will be extremely difficult to manipulate given the cables routed very close to it; consider displacing them.
  4. Push the MBB aside to the left without unplugging its connectors.
  5. Remove the two bolts attaching the upper left and right corners, facing 45 degrees up/forward, with a 2.5mm(?) Allen key.
  6. Remove the two bolts attaching the lower left and right corners.
    • Reach them from below the frame arms on each side of the bike, just forward of the stanchions.
    • Use a 2.5mm(?) Allen key (preferably a ratcheting socket).
    Lower edge cables
    Lower right bolt
    Lower right clip
    Lower right clip
  7. Snip the cable run zip tie on the lower left corner of the plate.
  8. Snip the cable run zip tie on the lower edge of the plate from the right side.
    • A long, narrow-bladed screwdriver can be suitable.
  9. Detach the Accessory Charging Port from the lower flange of the plate using a 2.5mm(?) Allen key on the two narrow bolts through the plug's body holes.
  10. Along the lower rear-facing edge bracket flange, push the cross-frame cable run off of the bracket.
    Board Plate Mounting Bracket (Left)
    Board Plate Mounting Bracket (Right)
  11. Pull the top edge of the plate to the rear of the bike so that the top mounting flange's corners clear the mating flanges on the frame.
  12. Gently pull the plate by the DC-DC converter up and aft, minding any cabling that can get snagged on the plate to avoid straining any wires.
    • It seems easiest to pull the left side of the plate up first, to avoid clearance issues around the hydraulic lines running along the right side towards the rear brake system.
Installation
  • (Still working on this; essentially reversing the removal but considering the various fitment dependencies ahead of time to avoid trouble).



X Platform Frame

2013 X Platform Frame
2014-2016 X Platform Frame
The 2013+ Zero frame for FX/FXS (and X/MX/XU) bikes is made of anodized aluminum, weighs 20lbs, and is a combination of cast parts and welded square tubing of 1-inch outer width.
The frame fits two power pack modules, one Long Brick module (2017), or one module and an empty space for carrying small cargo.
The FXP fleet model has a crash guard mount option like the SP/DSP models but is smaller and mounted lower.
Paint matching
All models have the same anodized aluminum with a black finish/paint.
Some paint repair suggestions on this thread are worth examining: FX frame touch up
Iterations by Year
Each year's frame from 2013 onward is incrementally improved and stronger than the prior year.
The 2014 frame changed up the way the side plastics bolt on and provides for the power tank via the carrier bracket.
The 2015 frame included pre-drilled holes for the crash guards for fleet/police models.
The 2016 frame seems to be a little more built-up and has additional members bracing the diagonals to the main beams behind the shoulder.
Common Frame Components
The Swingarm is at least superficially the same as on S Platform models for the same year/generation.
The Steering head tube seems to be the same as on S Platform models for the same year/generation.
Frontend geometry for FX may match DS/DSR, and FXS may match S/SR.


Tail Subassembly

S Platform Tail Subassembly

On the SDS Platform models, there is a separate aluminum assembly supporting the tail plastics, tail extension for the license plate, and the top rack accessory that bolts into the "horns" at the aft end of the frame just after the Sevcon controller.

Zero S tail subframe with upper plastics removed


X Platform Tail Subassembly

The X Platform tail is entirely of plastic.

The top rack accessory only connects to the tail subframe, implying a lower dynamic loading limit than for SDS platform models.


Tail Extension

S Platform Tail Extension

The SDS Platform tail extension supports the license plate, turn signals, and reflectors at a distance from the underside of the tail.

Construction
The extension is made of two cast aluminum pieces, upper and lower, that fasten together.
Wiring
12V wiring runs through holes in the bracket's bolted mounting to the underside of the tail to each turn signal.
The barrel connector pins for the turn signals are part of the wiring inside the tail behind the seat.
12V wiring runs through the extension to the license plate support bracket to power a low level illuminator bulb.
Mounting
The tail extension bolts into the tail subframe using a pattern of 4 M5×15 bolts with washers.
The bolts fasten upwards into the tail subframe; use a 4mm Allen key wrench to remove or replace.
License Plate Bulb

This bulb illuminates the license plate as required by law enforcement agencies.

It appears to be common across all Zero models and platforms, but do confirm and correct as needed.
Specification
This appears to be a T3.25 Wedge 12v (4-5w) bulb.
See 2016 Zero DS(R)/S(R) License Plate Light Bulb Spec. Info Requested


X Platform Tail Extension

The XMX Platform tail extension supports the license plate, turn signals, and reflectors from the underside of the tail.

The extension runs along the inside/underside of the tail plastics.
Construction
The extension is made of two cast aluminum pieces, upper and lower, that fasten together.
Wiring
12V wiring runs through holes in the bracket's bolted mounting to the underside of the tail to each turn signal.
The barrel connector pins for the turn signals are part of the wiring inside the tail behind the seat.
12V wiring runs through the extension to the license plate support bracket to power a low level illuminator bulb.


Kickstand

Zero's models' kickstands are made from cast aluminum and swings outward from the left side.

There is a safety interlock Hall sensor switch at the pivot that prevents the motor from operating when the kickstand is down.

Kickstands
Years Model Length Part no
2013-2014? S/SR shorter than the DS/DSR 20-05660 03
DS/DSR 10.8" / 275mm 20-05661 03
FX 15.0" / 380mm 20-05662 03
FXS
2015+ FX 13.5" / 343mm
FXS 11.8" / 300mm

Both DS and FX kickstands are identical from the spring screw up to the pivot, and should interchange.

All the 2013+ kickstands uses the same pivot pin & spring.

References
Re: 2016 FXS Lowered Ride Height OEM Shock, Dual Use Tires, Drop Bars, Hand Guards,
Help needed: Kickstand "bent"
Mounting
3/8" E clip, Zero part no 90-0283700, also available generically.
Clevis pin custom, Zero part no 90-0279900.
Mounting bracket, custom
Maintenance
The official manual recommends keeping the pivot greased as necessary with a six-month check interval.
Problems
A Loose Kickstand can result from inadequate greasing over time.
Replacement

This replaces the Kickstand.

See Kickstand Removal and Kickstand Install for now.


Install
Tools
  • Center lift or stand.
  • Large flat-blade screwdriver or specialized tool like drum brake spring pliers for spring removal and replacement.
  • E-clip tool (or needlenose pliers) for the 3/8" E-clip.
Steps
  1. (When replacing) Remove the allen bolt securing the springs to the old kickstand.
  2. (When replacing) Transfer the 2 bronze bushings from the old kickstand:
    1. Remove the 2 bronze bushings from the old kickstand.
    2. Clean and grease bushings.
    3. Insert bushings into new kickstand and replace chamfered bolt with springs.
      My chamfered bolt was not very tight and I assume it was being held in from the spring tension.
      I went to tighten it all the way in but that seemed to push the springs out too far.
      I put blue Loctite on it and threaded it about half way in.
      I will check this after a few rides to ensure it does not fall out!
  3. Place the new kickstand onto the pivot.
  4. Install the pin and spring
    Pin Before Spring
    1. Insert the pin.
    2. Raise the kickstand to its stowed/horizontal position.
      This minimizes the amount of force/extension to install the new spring.
    3. Install the spring over the kickstand hook with a suitable tool (see tools requirements).
    Spring before pin
    Have the pin and a tapered punch that fits nicely in the hole ready to go.
    1. Clean the pin and apply fresh grease to it.
    2. Hook the springs onto the frame, grip the kickstand with both hands, put your shoulder into the bike so it won’t tip.
    3. While pushing straight down on the kickstand, get it onto the frame and insert the tapered punch.
    4. Now raise the kickstand into the stowed/horizontal position.
    5. Remove punch.
      The hole will be almost aligned.
    6. Insert the pin as far as it will go, mine stopped at the frame.
    7. With the kickstand still in the up position, tap the bottom of the kickstand pivot area up towards the frame with a dead blow hammer while pushing the pin in.
      This should align the hole and allow the pin to go right in.
      Insert the pin and fasten it with a new 3/8" E-clip.
    Note: This is the most difficult and dangerous part of the job.
    Use eye protection while doing this and ensure your hands won't be damaged if the spring flies back while getting it over the hook.
    Focus on applying steady force with as much leverage as possible to extend the spring back along the swingarm.
    • One trick is to use a strong line looped through the hook as a pulley.
    • Another trick is to bend the spring enough back and forth to insert pennies between the coils, which holds it in an extended position.
      Then loop the spring over the hook and pull the pennies out with pliers.
  5. Check the operation of the kickstand a few times.
    Ensure that it operates smoothly.
    Ensure the kickstand sensor detects the position of the kickstand, by checking the interlock indication on the dash while the bike is keyed on.
  6. Put the kickstand down before letting the motorcycle off the lift to rest on it.


Removal
Tools
  • Center lift or stand.
  • Large flat-blade screwdriver or specialized tool like drum brake spring pliers for spring removal and replacement.
  • E-clip tool (or needlenose pliers) for the 3/8" E-clip.
Steps
  1. Place the motorcycle on a center lift or stand.
Spring Before Pin
  1. Pull the spring off of the kickstand hook with a large flat blade screwdriver or a specialized kickstand spring release tool.
    Raise the kickstand to the stowed/horizontal position, to reduce spring tension.
    Warning Warning: Be extremely careful working with the kickstand spring as it is under high tension.
    A specialized tool makes this easier.
  2. Remove the pivot pin.
  3. Remove the kickstand.
Pin Before Spring
  1. Remove the pivot pin.
    1. Pull the E-clip off of the inside of the pivot.
    2. Raise the kickstand to the stowed/horizontal position, to reduce spring tension.
    3. Go to the left side of bike.
    4. Wiggle the kickstand while tapping the pivot pin from underneath with for example a soft faced hammer.
    5. Continue to wiggle the kickstand while gripping the pin until it slides out.
      Often comes out by hand with a rag.
  2. Carefully slide kickstand away from frame and unhook springs from frame.
    The kickstand will still be under some tension from both springs, inner and outer.


Footpegs

Zero footpegs are cast aluminum pieces, mounted on identical hinges so are interchangeable across models.

Mounting
The mount bracket uses a custom clevis (10mm ⌀ with 40mm working length and 45mm overall length), secured with a retaining E-clip (3/8" or 9.5mm inner ⌀).
Rider footpeg mount spring Rider footpeg clevis pin
Repair
The footpegs' aluminum casting is relatively brittle, and the pegs tend to break rather than bend.
See Footpeg Replacement.
Reference
"The pegs are the exact same part used by the Buell XB models (except for the Ulysses), and as the passenger pegs on the 1125R models. They are "sacrificial lambs" to protect the rest of the frame."
"Any pegs made for the 2008-2009 Suzuki RMZ450 should fit the DS,DSR,FX models"


Rider Footpegs

These Footpegs are only installed for the rider, versus Passenger Footpegs.

Sport Footpegs
Installed on S/SR/FXS models.
Constructed as a cylindrical smooth-surfaced cast aluminum piece with a corrugated upper surface for some grip.
They are spring-loaded.
There is a hole at the end of the rider footpegs, with/for feeler stud measuring M6X16 with a DIN 1587 M6 18-8 cap/acorn nut.
Sport Footpegs underside
Dual Sport Footpegs
Installed on DS/DSR/FX models.
Constructed as a mildly-cleated rough-finish cast aluminum piece with a wide flat surface mounted horizontally.
They are spring-loaded.
Because of their construction, these actually offer less legroom than the sport footpegs.
S and DS footpegs compared
Rider footpegs mounting bracket


Rider Footpeg Removal

footpeg retaining clip and tool
Tools
  • Snap Ring / E-Ring pliers (needlenose pliers are a common if less easy substitute).
  • (Optional) 7mm Allen key to remove the clevis bracket from the frame.
Steps
  1. Gently spread the gap in the retaining E-ring using the pliers until it slides over the end of the pin, and remove it.
    This clip is on the lower end of the footpeg retaining pin.
  2. Pull the retaining pin up and out.
    Hold and pull the pin spring and footpeg as the pin comes out.
  3. (Optional) Use the 7mm Allen key to remove the bolt through the clevis bracket that fastens it to the frame.
References
How to Remove Zero Footpegs + Relocation Ideas by NewZeroLand on Youtube


Passenger Footpegs

Passenger footpegs are ergonomically identical to the sport rider footpegs, since passenger geometry requires reduced legroom and a forward foot angle on the rest.

They are not spring-loaded.
They lack the hole for the feeler stud that the rider footpegs use.
Sport Rider Footpegs vs Passenger Footpegs
Passenger Footpegs Stowed
Mounting
The passenger footpegs hinge on the passenger footpeg bracket which mounts to the frame.
They use an additional installed pin and custom clip plate to secure the passenger pegs in either the stowed or out position (vertical and horizontal, respectively).


Passenger Footpeg Removal

footpeg retaining clip and tool
Tools
  • Snap Ring / E-Ring pliers (needlenose pliers are a common if less easy substitute).
  • 13mm hex side or socket wrench (for the bracket).
Steps
  1. Gently spread the gap in the retaining E-ring using the pliers until it slides over the end of the pin, and remove it.
    This clip is on the lower end of the footpeg retaining pin.
  2. Pull the retaining pin up and out.
    Hold and pull the pin spring and footpeg as the pin comes out.
  3. (Optional) Remove the bracket
    1. Loosen the upper bolts mounting the footpeg brackets to the frame.
      S-platform: Reaching these bolts from the rear is easiest since they are on the inside of the frame.
    2. Loosen the lower bolts mounting the footpeg brackets to the frame.
      S-platform: These face the motor and allow very low overhead.
      A side wrench is recommended, and a ratcheting version preferred.
    3. Remove the bolts and then the brackets.
References
How to Remove Zero Footpegs + Relocation Ideas by NewZeroLand on Youtube


Seat

S Platform Seat

Zero S Seat Pan

The S Platform seat is a proprietary design and fitment.

Seat retaining features
  • A metal bracket with holes for retaining bolts that mount through the frame from the outside.
    The bracket also serves to align the seat horizontally since the outer sides of the bracket must slide directly along the inside track of the frame.
    Zero S Seat BracketZero S Seat Bracket
    The bracket's part number is 20-0508307 and when separately ordered has been observed to have slotted holes to join to the seat for some adjustability.
  • In front and center, a pair of catches engages the frame's Y-shaped centerpiece under a pair of pins.
  • In front on the lowest outside edge, a pair of tabs point downwards that should slide inside the frame rails.
    Without some care, these easily wind up outside the frame, flexing the seat pan and scuffing the frame lightly with plastic debris.
Under The Seat
2016 DSR tail layout
  • The large controller dominates the space underneath the seat, on the lowest part of the tail structure.
    There's no room around the controller for anything but its cabling and a conduit for tail lighting.
  • In front, the 12V fuse block is the main item to access.
    There are cables between the battery and the controller; the MBB and DC-DC converter are beneath these cables.
  • Behind the controller is the tail wiring area which has a little room for a tire patch kit or some tools.
    Of course, storing tools for removing the seat there is counter-productive.
Dimensions
  • Seat
  • Seat Bolts
    M8 with 1.25mm thread, 50mm long with a round end for aligning the seat bracket with the frame.
    With the top rack installed, the diameter of the hole around the head is slightly under 15mm, with a maximum offset of about 12mm.
  • Seat Bracket Bolts to Seat Pan


X Platform Seat

The FX/FXS seat is closer to an offroad "plank" seat, allowing the rider to pick their position forward or back.

2013 and 2018 FX seats
2013 FX seat
2018 FX seat
Variants
  • 2010-2013 X seat
    This seat offers additional height and free movement front to back.
    "The 2013 seat is also known as the off-road seat. p/n 24-01596 - SEAT ROODIN RD-M1231-K BLACK. Taller riders tend to like it as well if their butts hit the bump of the contoured seat." per comment on Facebook
  • 2014-current X seat
    Has a cutout / dip.
    Tapers more at the back (pointy), and flows down the sides a bit more too. Basically it's more contoured to the bike.
  • Corbin made a low seat for 2010-2012 X platform models.
Mounting
M8×25 bolts are listed as the bolts that run through the tail subframe to the bracket at the rear of the seat to hold it in place.
Replacement Fitments
Harlan at Hollywood Electrics reports that the FX seat is an exact match for the 2005-2007 Honda CRF-450.


Seat Removal

This removes the seat from SDS Platform bikes.

Video Guide
Zero motorcycle - How to remove your seat by Alternative Standard on YouTube
Notes
  • Unload any luggage racks before taking the seat off for an extended period of time to avoid stressing the racks.
    When luggage racks are installed, the seat bolts are load bearing (or at least damping).
  • An M8-1.25×55mm socket cap bolt with a 6mm Allen head can be used if the kit bolt is lost.
Tools
  • 2015+: T45 Torx wrench (for seat bolts).
  • 2013-2014 (with top or side racks): 5mm Allen key (for seat bolts).
Steps
  1. When luggage racks are installed Remove the top case and/or side cases to ensure the rack is unloaded.
  2. Remove the M8-1.25×55 seat bolts.
    Push the seat down and forward as needed to help ease out the bolts.
    Seat Fasteners
    Seat Fasteners with Top Rack Installed
  3. Pull the seat back a couple of inches and then upwards.


Seat Install

This installs the SDS Platform models' seat.

Tools
  • 2015+: T45 Torx wrench (for seat bolts).
  • 2013-2014 (with top or side racks): 5mm Allen key (for seat bolts).
Steps
  1. When luggage racks are installed Remove the top case and/or side cases to ensure the rack is unloaded.
  2. Place the seat on the tail slightly to the rear of where it will sit.
    Ensure that the pan's horn-shaped catches will slip under the frame's Y-shaped centerpiece pins.
  3. Push the seat forward and down to sit in place.
  4. Visually align the holes of the seat bracket with the seat bolt holes.
    Align the seat's bracket with the frame holes to avoid wear.
    Align the seat's tabs between the frame rails to avoid stressing the seat pan and marring the frame.
    If the top rack is installed, too, check the alignment of that as well to avoid wear trying to thread the bolts.
  5. Insert the seat bolts, gently engaging while checking for cross-threading.
    Check for alignment again while the bolt head encounters the seat bracket.
    Press down and forward on the seat as needed to help align and tighten the bolts.
    Seat Fasteners
    Seat Fasteners with Top Rack Installed
  6. Tighten the bolt head against the frame surface to hold it in place but do not over-tighten.
  7. When luggage racks are installed Re-install the top case and/or side cases.


Panel Material

Gen2 body panels are made from ABS plastic.

2013-2016
The plastics' color is molded-in, and so it fades over time with sun exposure. On the other hand, they're relatively inexpensive to replace from Zero; ask your dealer.
Some use Plexus plastic cleaner to keep them polished successfully.
POLYTROL Colour restorer could help with color restoration.
Retr0bright solution developed for restoring 1980's yellowed ABS personal computer chassis material may be of use, unconfirmed.
2017+
The plastics as of this model year are painted rather than molded-in.


Tank Plastics

2014 SP Tank Plastics (left)
2014 SP Tank Plastics (right)

The 2013+ SDS Platform Frame features a "tank" area cradled by the two front frame spars and covered by plastic bodywork.

As delivered, it offers a storage compartment, but can also accommodate systems accessories like the OEM Power Tank battery upgrade or chargers.
All of the bodywork for this area serve the same ergonomic functions of a traditional motorcycle's fuel tank, allowing grip for maneuvering.
Fasteners
Zero plastics all are fastened with blackened M5x15mm mushroom cap socket head bolts using a 3mm allen key wrench.
All have black plastic washers with 5mm inner diameter, 10mm outer diameter, roughly 1mm thick.
Removal
See Tank Plastics Removal
Construction
All variants of the tank plastics for have identical side pieces and a black centerpiece in soft plastic with a relatively rough finish.
The stock centerpiece for 2013-2016 models is a bin container with two drain holes for collected moisture, with a soft bin held together with a simple zipper that anchors via hook-and-loop patches at the bottom of the bin as well as a loop cord that hooks through the front helmet lock.
The bin delivered per model year is different and varies in quality. 2013 seemed to have better construction than 2014-2015 years, and 2016 is somewhere between.
As of 2017, the stock centerpiece is a locking storage container with a spring-loaded hinge at the front so it swings forward to open.
The Power Tank and Charge Tank have tank plastic options which can be bought separately or selected for color customization. Both use a relatively flat surface for the centerpiece, and the Charge Tank has a cutout for a J1772 inlet hold with built in waterproof cover with a spring-loaded hinge.
2014 SP plastics - dewelding
Separating
The join between the centerpiece and side pieces of a Zero tank plastic assembly is made by plastic weld using a soldering iron into soft hollow plastic pins on the centerpiece that melt and flatten around a lock washer onto holes in the side pieces.
You can break these welds using a relatively careful use of a pair of pliers to basically grip hard and twist on them until they break.
It's a slightly frustrating process but pretty quick to achieve, in about an hour. A soldering iron or extremely narrowly-focused heat gun can help the process but try not to risk damaging the plastics from overheating.
The original join process can be repeated for the new centerpiece.
Also, this means that the plastic centerpiece you remove will not be re-joinable.
Repair
See Tank Plastics Repair for a way to re-join tank plastics that have been de-welded.


Tail Plastics

The tail plastics on the SDS platform enclose the tail subframe and support the rear brake/running lights and the license plate holder with its turn signals.


Tail Plastics Removal

This removes the S-Platform Tail Plastics from the bike.

Note: The author documented the reassembly; removal was inferred. Confirmation would be helpful.
Zero S tail subframe with upper plastics removed
Video Guide
Zero motorcycle - How to remove your tail plastic by Alternative Standard on YouTube
Notes
You'll be disconnecting the rear lighting wiring and removing the tail subassembly, and then removing the tail plastics from that.
The lower plastics removal are particularly difficult, even for dealers!
Tools
  • 3mm, 4mm, 6mm Allen wrenches.
  • For the seat bolts: T45 Torx wrench (without top rack) or 5mm Allen wrench (with top rack).
  • Phillips screwdrivers.
  • Needle nose pliers.
Steps
  1. Remove the seat.
  2. Remove the black seat pan bolts and nylon washers with the 3mm Allen wrench
    These are located lower on the side, near the hollow frame tube.
    There are 5 pairs of bolts to remove (documented via reassembly analysis):
    ZeroTail01.jpg ZeroTail02b.jpg
  3. Use a Philips screwdriver to unscrew the bolt holding down the rear of the plastic controller cover.
  4. Cut the cable ties around the signal wires on the left side of the seat area behind the controller.
  5. Disconnect the turn signal wires and brake light / plate light wires.
    Take a photo to record their connections for correct re-assembly.
    ZeroTail16.jpg ZeroTail17b.jpg
  6. Remove the 4 bolts that hold tail frame with a 6mm Allen wrench.
    This detaches the tail frame.
  7. Remove the tail extension using a 4mm Allen wrench. Mind the turn signal wires that go through holes here; draw them through.
    ZeroTail15.jpg
  8. Remove the black tail enclosure plastics from the cosmetic plastics via the tabs.
    There's also two clips at the end on top of the taillight.
    ZeroTail14.jpg
  9. Use a Philips screwdriver to remove 5 screws holding the cosmetic plastics to the frame from underneath.
    ZeroTail04.jpg
  10. Use a 3mm Allen wrench to remove the two screws holding the cosmetic plastics to the top of the frame.
    ZeroTail03.jpg
Reassembly
  1. With the tail light off, bolt the top plastic to the metal frame.
    ZeroTail03.jpg
  2. Clamp the bottom tail plastic and screw in the 5 screws that hold both pieces together
    ZeroTail04.jpg
  3. Here is how the black tail plastic fit with the tail light.
    Notice the "zipper" down the middle.
    There's also a very small one on top of the tail light.
    On the outside are the tabs that clip into the cosmetic plastics.
    ZeroTail05.jpg ZeroTail06.jpg
  4. Loosely bolt the end of the black tail plastic to the frame.
    Note the small nut that's between two fins of the controller.
    It can easily be held with a pair of pliers.
    ZeroTail07.jpg
  5. Rotate the pieces up and temporarily (and loosely) attach them to the frame.
    ZeroTail08.jpg ZeroTail09.jpg
  6. Bolt the tail light:
    1. Remove the temporary bolts from the previous step.
    2. Push a driver down through the plastic (because of the angle of the taillight bolts).
    ZeroTail10.jpg ZeroTail11.jpg
  7. "Zip" the plastic back together.
    There's also a tab on top of the tail light that must be fitted properly.
    ZeroTail12b.jpg
    I added duck tape to seal the interior of the compartment to keep it cleaner.
    ZeroTail13b.jpg
  8. Snap the clips on the cosmetic plastic.
    NOTE: It's not the cosmetic piece that should move but the black piece
    I found it helped to have one hand inside and one hand outside to fit the pieces together.
    There's also two clips at the end on top of the taillight.
    ZeroTail14.jpg
  9. Loosely bolt the tail and fit the wires back through the small hole.
    ZeroTail15.jpg
  10. Add a new zap strap and tidy things up.
    ZeroTail16.jpg ZeroTail17b.jpg
    Note that before disconnecting the wires, I took a picture of the set up to be able to match the colours.
    In my case, red goes with green and white goes with grey (confirm locally). In the case of a 2018 SR, it was red/black to red and green/white to white.
  11. Fasten all the loose bolts.
    ZeroTail18.jpg
  12. (If applicable) Re-attach the top and side racks.
    ZeroTail19.jpg


Lower Plastics

Lower plastics for the SDS Platform involve two side pieces to direct air towards the motor, and one in front to cover the battery.

There is some provision for guarding the battery compartment against an impact from the front wheel in the case of a collision.
2017 Zero S Lower Front Plastics
2012-2013
Relatively angular and have their own bolt mount pattern.
2014+
Lower plastics have a sculpted re-design to deliver more airflow to the motor for cooling.
2017+
Single longbrick models (ZF6.5 and ZF7.2) have lower plastics with a latch and swinging hinge to access the storage area behind the half-size battery compartment.


Lower Plastics Removal

This removes the lower side panel plastics from 2012+ S platform models.

Tools
  • 3mm Allen key
  • (2012-2013) Ball-point pen or similar for plastic push rivets.
  • (2019+) PH2 phillips head screwdriver for the front panel.
Steps
  1. Use the 3mm Allen key to remove the three M5 bolts holding each side panel: one at the top front corner, and one at each corner near the lower edge.
    Top Front Corner bolt (2014+)
    Lower Rear bolt (2014+)
    Lower Front bolt (2014+)
  2. Remove each side panel.
    Removing the bolts
    Side panel removed
  3. (Optional) Remove the 2 bolts on each side holding the front panel on and remove it.
    2012-2013: Use the ball-point pen or similar non-scratching pointed tool to push the center pin to release the plastic rivets on the front panel and remove it.
    2013-2018: Use the 3mm Allen key
    2019+: Use the PH2 Phillips head screwdriver to gently remove the plastic screws from the pop rivet, then pull the pop rivet out from the side slot.
References
Adapted from this forum post.


Steering

Ignition Lock

The ignition lock operates the Ignition Switch.

Location
The ignition lock is mounted on the tripe clamp top in the center between the steering head and the dash.

The Ignition Switch connects to a ZADI motorcycle lock with a steering lock feature and parking light enable (although the parking light enable is not connected on the Zero).

Key Blanks
Key blanks can typically be ordered from a dealer.
Key blanks appear to be available generically as JMA ZA9P1 FOR ZADI ZD23RCP.
In USA, calling them "Triumph" keys may help a locksmith find the right blank.
Maintenance

Occasional lock lubrication is recommended, and inspection of the wires for startup enable on the underside of the lock for reliability.

Troubleshooting
See the faulty ignition switch troubleshooting guide for issues with this.


Tank Lock

The lock for the tank bag (2013-2016) or tank compartment (2017+) and possibly a helmet is keyed the same as the Ignition Lock.

Mounting
The tank bag lock (2013-2016) is mounted to the frame by two (M5?) bolts under the steering head.
It's very difficult to access without taking much of the frontend apart (as it should be, for theft deterrence).
References
ZADI lock re-pin


Mirrors

2012-2014 Mirrors (side) on a DS
2015+ mirrors (side) on a DSR
Design
Pre-2015 (Gen1) Zeros use an angular mirror with a ball mount joint that allows rotating the mirrors 360 degrees.
Many riders turn the mirrors upside down for a little wider visibility around the shoulder/arms.
2015+ (Gen2 and Gen3) Zeros use a mirror stalk with an inboard ball mount with about 30 degrees of freedom from the stalk.
Mount
Zero mirrors are mounted from the handlebars with Yamaha/Ducati-style bolt fitting.
The bolt/thread specification is M10x1.25, left-hand-threaded on the right side and standard right-hand-threaded on the left side.
Maintenance
(pre-2015) Check that the set screw holding mirror position holds it firmly.
Use a corrosion inhibitor or thread-locker for the set screws and the mount threading since these are weather-exposed.

See Third-Party Mirrors for workable/tested replacements.


Handlebar

Zero's models all steer with a handlebar.

S/SR and FXS models share a shorter, sportier handlebar shape.
DS/DSR and FX models share a wider, straighter handlebar shape.
Both S/FXS and DS/FX style handlebars are standard through-bars.
Diameters
  • 1 1/8" (28mm) ⌀ center bar.
  • 7/8" (22mm) ⌀ outer bar.
Dimensions
Models Years Width Rise Pullback
S,SR,FXS 2013-present
DS,DSR,FX 2013-present
SRF,SRS 2020-present
Control-Indexing Holes
  • (1) 3/16" ⌀ on the left for the switchgear, 6.5" from the end of the bar.
  • (1) 3/16" ⌀ on the right inner for the throttle, 7 3/16" from the bar end.
  • (1) 5/32" ⌀ on the right outer for the switches, 6" from the bar end.
References

Handlebar Clamps

The SDS and XMX platform handlebar clamps are 2" by 1 1/8" (28mm) for the entire line of models, clamped with M10 cap screw bolts (35mm length; possibly 50mm?).

Handlebar Switch Assemblies

The switch assemblies are fastened with TT20 (1/4") tamper-resistant Torx bolts through the underside.

Handgrips

Handgrips have a Zero logo on them but otherwise are reasonably good stock grips for the 7/8" (22mm) handlebar width at the end of the bars.

Bar Ends

For 2014+ models, any bar end accessories that match the 14mm inner diameter will fit.

2014+ stock bar end plugs
The stock bar ends are round plastic bumpers held in by plastic threads, so can be removed with a little twisting and pulling.
2013 models
Bar ends are covered by the grip so are not easily changed without changing the grips.
Zero did offer heated grips for these models but dropped them after changing the bars in 2014.


Brake Lever

Zero motorcycles have a right-hand lever for the front brake, as is common for motorcycle designs.

Brake