Difference between revisions of "Unofficial Service Manual"

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Line 108: Line 108:
 
Always check for loose or corroding bolts.
 
Always check for loose or corroding bolts.
  
Use blue Loctite threadlocker for non-conductive bolts.
+
;Torque
 +
* For torques, see [[Fastener Specifications]], which gathers all the officially recommended torque and other settings for various fasteners.
  
TODO: recommend a corrosion inhibitor.
+
;Locking
 +
* Use blue Loctite threadlocker for non-conductive bolts.
 +
 
 +
;Corrosion
 +
: TODO: recommend a corrosion inhibitor.
  
 
=Frame/Bodywork=
 
=Frame/Bodywork=
 
==Frame==
 
==Frame==
===[[S Platform Frame]]===
+
===[[SDS Platform/Frame|S Platform Frame]]===
 
{{:SDS Platform/Frame}}
 
{{:SDS Platform/Frame}}
  
Line 148: Line 153:
 
The X Platform tail is entirely of plastic; the top rack accessory connects in a different way (worth confirming to understand its dynamic loading limits).
 
The X Platform tail is entirely of plastic; the top rack accessory connects in a different way (worth confirming to understand its dynamic loading limits).
  
==Kickstand==
+
==[[Kickstand]]==
 +
{{:Kickstand}}
  
The kickstand is made from cast aluminum and swings outward from the left side.
+
==[[Footpegs]]==
 +
{{:Footpegs}}
  
There is a safety interlock Hall sensor [[#Kickstand_Switch|switch]] at the pivot that prevents the motor from operating when the kickstand is down.
+
==Seat==
 +
===S Platform Seat===
 +
[[File:2013-zero-s-seat-pan.png|thumb|400px|Zero S Seat Pan]]
 +
The S Platform seat is a proprietary design and fitment.
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
;Seat retaining features
|+ Kickstands
+
* A metal bracket with holes for retaining bolts that mount through the frame from the outside.
!Years
+
*: The bracket also serves to align the seat horizontally since the outer sides of the bracket must slide directly along the inside track of the frame.
!Model
+
*: [[File:2013-zero-s-seat-bracket.png|200px|Zero S Seat Bracket]][[File:2013-zero-s-seat-bracket-side.png|200px|Zero S Seat Bracket]]
!Length
+
*: The bracket's part number is 20-0508307 and when separately ordered has been observed to have slotted holes to join to the seat for some adjustability.
!Part no
+
* In front and center, a pair of catches engages the frame's [[#Y-Shaped Underseat Frame|Y-shaped centerpiece]] under a pair of pins.
|-
+
* In front on the lowest outside edge, a pair of tabs point downwards that should slide inside the frame rails.
|rowspan="4"|2013-2014?
+
*: Without some care, these easily wind up outside the frame, flexing the seat pan and scuffing the frame lightly with plastic debris.
|S/SR
 
|shorter than the DS/DSR
 
|20-05660 03
 
|-
 
|DS/DSR
 
|10.8" / 275mm
 
|20-05661 03
 
|-
 
|FX
 
|15.0" / 380mm
 
|20-05662 03
 
|-
 
|FXS
 
|
 
|
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|2015+
 
|FX
 
|13.5" / 343mm
 
|
 
|-
 
|FXS
 
|11.8" / 300mm
 
|
 
|}
 
  
Both DS and FX kickstands are identical from the spring screw up to the pivot, and should interchange.
+
;Under The Seat
 +
:[[File:dsr-under-seat.JPG|300px|thumb|2016 DSR tail layout]]
 +
* The large [[#Controller|controller]] dominates the space underneath the seat, on the lowest part of the tail structure.
 +
*: There's no room around the controller for anything but its cabling and a conduit for tail lighting.
 +
* In front, the 12V fuse block is the main item to access.
 +
*: There are cables between the battery and the controller; the MBB and DC-DC converter are beneath these cables.
 +
* Behind the [[#Controller|controller]] is the [[#Tail_Wiring|tail wiring]] area which has a little room for a tire patch kit or some tools.
 +
*: Of course, storing tools for removing the seat there is counter-productive.
  
All the 2013+ kickstands uses the same pivot pin & spring.
+
; Dimensions
 +
* Seat
 +
* Seat Bolts
 +
*: M8 with 1.25mm thread, 50mm long with a round end for aligning the seat bracket with the frame.
 +
*: With the top rack installed, the diameter of the hole around the head is slightly under 15mm, with a maximum offset of about 12mm.
 +
* Seat Bracket Bolts to Seat Pan
  
;References
+
===X Platform Seat===
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6640.msg53545#msg53545 Re: 2016 FXS Lowered Ride Height OEM Shock, Dual Use Tires, Drop Bars, Hand Guards,]
+
The FX/FXS seat is closer to an offroad "plank" seat, allowing the rider to pick their position forward or back.
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6800.msg54953#msg54953 Help needed: Kickstand "bent"]
+
[[File:2013-and-2018-fx-seats.jpg|thumb|2013 and 2018 FX seats]]
 +
[[File:2013-fx-seat.jpg|thumb|2013 FX seat]]
 +
[[File:2018-fx-seat.jpg|thumb|2018 FX seat]]
  
;Mounting
+
;Variants
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6800.msg55011#msg55011 3/8" E clip, Zero part no 90-0283700], also available generically.
+
* 2010-2013 X seat
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6800.msg55011#msg55011 Clevis pin custom, Zero part no 90-0279900].
+
*: This seat offers additional height and free movement front to back.
: Mounting bracket, custom
+
*: "The 2013 seat is also known as the off-road seat. p/n 24-01596 - SEAT ROODIN RD-M1231-K BLACK. Taller riders tend to like it as well if their butts hit the bump of the contoured seat." per [https://www.facebook.com/groups/zmcowners/permalink/1767787513290449/?comment_id=1768533619882505&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R0%22%7D comment on Facebook]
 +
* 2014-current X seat
 +
*: Has a cutout / dip.
 +
*: Tapers more at the back (pointy), and flows down the sides a bit more too. Basically it's more contoured to the bike.
 +
* Corbin made a low seat for 2010-2012 X platform models.
  
;Maintenance
+
Harlan at [[Hollywood Electrics]] reports that [https://www.facebook.com/groups/zmcowners/permalink/1384661314936406/?comment_id=1385815301487674&reply_comment_id=1385986874803850&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R4%22%7D the FX seat is an exact match] for the 2005-2007 Honda [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honda_CRF_series CRF-450].
: The official manual recommends keeping the pivot greased as necessary with a six-month check interval.
 
  
;[[Kickstand Replacement|Replacement]]
+
===[[Seat Removal]]===
{{:Kickstand Replacement}}
+
{{:Seat Removal}}
  
==Footpegs==
+
===[[Seat Install]]===
Zero footpegs are cast aluminum pieces, mounted on identical hinges so are interchangeable across models.
+
{{:Seat Install}}
  
;Mounting
+
==Panel Material==
: The mount bracket uses a custom clevis, secured with a retaining E-clip.
+
Zero body panels are made from [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acrylonitrile_butadiene_styrene ABS plastic].
  
;Repair
+
;2013-2016
: The footpegs' aluminum casting is relatively brittle, and the pegs tend to break rather than bend.
+
: The plastics' color is molded-in, and so it fades over time with sun exposure. On the other hand, they're relatively inexpensive to replace from Zero; ask your dealer.
: See [[Footpeg Replacement]].
+
: Some use [http://www.plexusplasticcleaner.com/about.html Plexus plastic cleaner] to keep them polished successfully.
 
+
: [http://owatrol.com/en/all-our-products/7932-polytrol.html POLYTROL Colour restorer] could help with [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6933.msg56801#msg56801 color restoration].
;Reference
+
: [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retr0bright Retr0bright] solution developed for restoring 1980's yellowed ABS personal computer chassis material ''may'' be of use, unconfirmed.
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7851.30 "The pegs are the exact same part used by the Buell XB models (except for the Ulysses), and as the passenger pegs on the 1125R models. They are "sacrificial lambs" to protect the rest of the frame."]
+
;2017+
 +
: The plastics as of this model year are painted rather than molded-in.
  
===Rider Footpegs===
+
==Tank Plastics==
{|
+
[[File:tank-plastics-sp-left.png|thumb|2014 SP Tank Plastics (left)]]
|
+
[[File:tank-plastics-sp-right.png|thumb|2014 SP Tank Plastics (right)]]
;Sport Footpegs
+
The 2013+ [[#S-Platform Frame|S platform]] features a "tank" area cradled by the two front frame spars and covered by plastic bodywork.
: Installed on S/SR/FXS models.
+
: As delivered, it offers a storage compartment, but can also accommodate systems accessories like the OEM Power Tank battery upgrade or chargers.
: Constructed as a cylindrical smooth-surfaced cast aluminum piece with a corrugated upper surface for some grip.
+
: All of the bodywork for this area serve the same ergonomic functions of a traditional motorcycle's fuel tank, allowing grip for maneuvering.
: They are spring-loaded.
+
: Most of this section covers the S platform bodywork, since the X platform's plastics are considerably simpler.
: There is a feeler stud measuring M6X16 with a DIN 1587 M6 18-8 cap/acorn nut.
+
The [[#X-Platform Frame|X platform]] features a minimal set of plastic bodywork ahead of the seat which covers 12V circuitry and other cabling.
  
;Dual Sport Footpegs
+
;Fasteners
: Installed on DS/DSR/FX models.
+
: Zero plastics all are fastened with blackened M5x15mm mushroom cap socket head bolts using a 3mm allen key wrench.
: Constructed as a mildly-cleated rough-finish cast aluminum piece with a wide flat surface mounted horizontally.
+
: All have black plastic washers with 5mm inner diameter, 10mm outer diameter, roughly 1mm thick.
: They are spring-loaded.
 
: Because of their construction, these actually offer less legroom than the sport footpegs.
 
|[[File:footpeg-comparison.gif|thumb|left|S and DS footpegs compared]]
 
|}
 
  
====[[Rider Footpeg Removal]]====
+
;Removal
{{:Rider Footpeg Removal}}
+
: See [[Tank Plastics Removal]]
  
===Passenger Footpegs===
+
;Construction
: Passenger footpegs are identical to the sport footpegs, since passenger geometry requires reduced legroom and a forward foot angle on the rest.
+
: All variants of the tank plastics for have identical side pieces and a black centerpiece in soft plastic with a relatively rough finish.
: They are not spring-loaded.
+
: The stock centerpiece for 2013-2016 models is a bin container with two drain holes for collected moisture, with a soft bin held together with a simple zipper that anchors via hook-and-loop patches at the bottom of the bin as well as a loop cord that hooks through the front helmet lock.
 +
: The bin delivered per model year is different and varies in quality. 2013 seemed to have better construction than 2014-2015 years, and 2016 is somewhere between.
 +
: As of 2017, the stock centerpiece is a locking storage container with a spring-loaded hinge at the front so it swings forward to open.
 +
: The Power Tank and Charge Tank have tank plastic options which can be bought separately or selected for color customization. Both use a relatively flat surface for the centerpiece, and the Charge Tank has a J1772-sized inlet hold with built in waterproof cover with a spring-loaded hinge.
  
====[[Passenger Footpeg Removal]]====
+
[[File:Zero Tank Plastics Dewelding.png|thumb|2014 SP plastics - dewelding]]
{{:Passenger Footpeg Removal}}
+
;Separating
 +
: The join between the centerpiece and side pieces of a Zero tank plastic assembly is made by plastic weld using a soldering iron into soft hollow plastic pins on the centerpiece that melt and flatten around a lock washer onto holes in the side pieces.
 +
: You can break these welds using a relatively careful use of a pair of pliers to basically grip hard and twist on them until they break.
 +
:: It's a slightly frustrating process but pretty quick to achieve, in about an hour. A soldering iron or extremely narrowly-focused heat gun can help the process but try not to risk damaging the plastics from overheating.
 +
: The original join process can be repeated for the new centerpiece.
 +
: Also, this means that the plastic centerpiece you remove will not be re-joinable.
  
==Seat==
+
;Repair
===S Platform Seat===
+
: See [[Tank Plastics Repair]] for a way to re-join tank plastics that have been de-welded.
[[File:2013-zero-s-seat-pan.png|thumb|400px|Zero S Seat Pan]]
 
The S Platform seat is a proprietary design and fitment.
 
  
;Seat retaining features
+
==Tail Plastics==
* A metal bracket with holes for retaining bolts that mount through the frame from the outside.
+
: '''Note:''' The author documented the reassembly; removal was inferred. Confirmation would be helpful.
*: The bracket also serves to align the seat horizontally since the outer sides of the bracket must slide directly along the inside track of the frame.
 
*: [[File:2013-zero-s-seat-bracket.png|200px|Zero S Seat Bracket]][[File:2013-zero-s-seat-bracket-side.png|200px|Zero S Seat Bracket]]
 
*: The bracket's part number is 20-0508307 and when separately ordered has been observed to have slotted holes to join to the seat for some adjustability.
 
* In front and center, a pair of catches engages the frame's [[#Y-Shaped Underseat Frame|Y-shaped centerpiece]] under a pair of pins.
 
* In front on the lowest outside edge, a pair of tabs point downwards that should slide inside the frame rails.
 
*: Without some care, these easily wind up outside the frame, flexing the seat pan and scuffing the frame lightly with plastic debris.
 
  
;Under The Seat
+
===[[Tail Plastics Removal]]===
:[[File:dsr-under-seat.JPG|300px|thumb|2016 DSR tail layout]]
+
{{:Tail Plastics Removal}}
* The large [[#Controller|controller]] dominates the space underneath the seat, on the lowest part of the tail structure.
 
*: There's no room around the controller for anything but its cabling and a conduit for tail lighting.
 
* In front, the 12V fuse block is the main item to access.
 
*: There are cables between the battery and the controller; the MBB and DC-DC converter are beneath these cables.
 
* Behind the [[#Controller|controller]] is the [[#Tail_Wiring|tail wiring]] area which has a little room for a tire patch kit or some tools.
 
*: Of course, storing tools for removing the seat there is counter-productive.
 
  
; Dimensions
+
==Lower Plastics==
* Seat
+
Lower plastics for the S-Platform involve two side pieces to direct air towards the motor, and one in front to cover the battery.
* Seat Bolts
+
: There is some provision for guarding the battery compartment against an impact from the front wheel in the case of a collision.
*: M8 with 1.25mm thread, 50mm long with a round end for aligning the seat bracket with the frame.
+
[[File:2017-zero-s-battery-front.jpg|thumb|2017 Zero S Lower Front Plastics]]
*: With the top rack installed, the diameter of the hole around the head is slightly under 15mm, with a maximum offset of about 12mm.
+
;2012-2013
* Seat Bracket Bolts to Seat Pan
+
: Relatively angular and have their own bolt mount pattern.
 +
;2014+
 +
: Lower plastics have a sculpted re-design to deliver more airflow to the motor for cooling.
 +
;2017+
 +
: Single longbrick models (ZF6.5 and ZF7.2) have lower plastics with a latch and swinging hinge to access the storage area behind the half-size battery compartment.
  
===X Platform Seat===
+
===[[Lower Plastics Removal]]===
The FX/FXS seat is closer to an offroad "plank" seat, allowing the rider to pick their position forward or back.
+
{{:Lower Plastics Removal}}
[[File:2013-and-2018-fx-seats.jpg|thumb|2013 and 2018 FX seats]]
+
 
[[File:2013-fx-seat.jpg|thumb|2013 FX seat]]
+
=Steering=
[[File:2018-fx-seat.jpg|thumb|2018 FX seat]]
 
  
;Variants
+
==Ignition Lock<span id="Ignition"></span>==
* 2010-2013 X seat
+
The ignition is mounted on the tripe clamp top in the center between the steering head and the dash.
*: This seat offers additional height and free movement front to back.
 
*: "The 2013 seat is also known as the off-road seat. p/n 24-01596 - SEAT ROODIN RD-M1231-K BLACK. Taller riders tend to like it as well if their butts hit the bump of the contoured seat." per [https://www.facebook.com/groups/zmcowners/permalink/1767787513290449/?comment_id=1768533619882505&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R0%22%7D comment on Facebook]
 
* 2014-current X seat
 
*: Has a cutout / dip.
 
*: Tapers more at the back (pointy), and flows down the sides a bit more too. Basically it's more contoured to the bike.
 
* Corbin made a low seat for 2010-2012 X platform models.
 
  
Harlan at [[Hollywood Electrics]] reports that [https://www.facebook.com/groups/zmcowners/permalink/1384661314936406/?comment_id=1385815301487674&reply_comment_id=1385986874803850&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R4%22%7D the FX seat is an exact match] for the 2005-2007 Honda [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Honda_CRF_series CRF-450].
+
The [[#Ignition_Switch|ignition wiring]] connects to a [http://www.zadi.com ZADI] motorcycle lock with a steering lock feature and parking light enable (although the parking light enable is not connected on the Zero).
  
===[[Seat Removal]]===
+
;Key Blanks
{{:Seat Removal}}
+
: Key blanks can typically be ordered from a dealer.
 +
: Key blanks appear to be available generically as [http://www.mrlock.com/jma-zadi-motorcycle-key-blanks/jma-key-blank-zadi-zd23rcp-za-9-p1 JMA ZA9P1 FOR ZADI ZD23RCP].
 +
: In USA, calling them "Triumph" keys may help a locksmith find the right blank.
  
===[[Seat Install]]===
+
;Maintenance
{{:Seat Install}}
+
Occasional lock lubrication is recommended, and inspection of the wires for startup enable on the underside of the lock for reliability.
  
==Panel Material==
+
;Troubleshooting
Zero body panels are made from [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acrylonitrile_butadiene_styrene ABS plastic].
+
: See [[#Faulty Ignition Switch|the faulty ignition switch troubleshooting guide]] for issues with this.
  
;2013-2016
+
==Tank Lock<span id="Lock"></span>==
: The plastics' color is molded-in, and so it fades over time with sun exposure. On the other hand, they're relatively inexpensive to replace from Zero; ask your dealer.
+
The lock for the tank bag (2013-2016) or tank compartment (2017+) and possibly a helmet is keyed the same as the [[#Ignition|ignition]].
: Some use [http://www.plexusplasticcleaner.com/about.html Plexus plastic cleaner] to keep them polished successfully.
 
: [http://owatrol.com/en/all-our-products/7932-polytrol.html POLYTROL Colour restorer] could help with [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6933.msg56801#msg56801 color restoration].
 
: [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Retr0bright Retr0bright] solution developed for restoring 1980's yellowed ABS personal computer chassis material ''may'' be of use, unconfirmed.
 
;2017+
 
: The plastics as of this model year are painted rather than molded-in.
 
  
==Tank Plastics==
+
;Mounting
[[File:tank-plastics-sp-left.png|thumb|2014 SP Tank Plastics (left)]]
+
: The tank bag lock (2013-2016) is mounted to the frame by two (M5?) bolts under the steering head.
[[File:tank-plastics-sp-right.png|thumb|2014 SP Tank Plastics (right)]]
+
: It's very difficult to access without taking much of the frontend apart (as it should be, for theft deterrence).
The 2013+ [[#S-Platform Frame|S platform]] features a "tank" area cradled by the two front frame spars and covered by plastic bodywork.
 
: As delivered, it offers a storage compartment, but can also accommodate systems accessories like the OEM Power Tank battery upgrade or chargers.
 
: All of the bodywork for this area serve the same ergonomic functions of a traditional motorcycle's fuel tank, allowing grip for maneuvering.
 
: Most of this section covers the S platform bodywork, since the X platform's plastics are considerably simpler.
 
The [[#X-Platform Frame|X platform]] features a minimal set of plastic bodywork ahead of the seat which covers 12V circuitry and other cabling.
 
  
;Fasteners
+
;References
: Zero plastics all are fastened with blackened M5x15mm mushroom cap socket head bolts using a 3mm allen key wrench.
+
: [https://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=9330 ZADI lock re-pin]
: All have black plastic washers with 5mm inner diameter, 10mm outer diameter, roughly 1mm thick.
 
  
;Removal
+
==Mirrors==
: See [[Tank Plastics Removal]]
+
{|
 +
|[[File:mirror-side-2012-ds.png|thumb|2012-2014 Mirrors (side) on a DS]]
 +
|[[File:mirror-side-2016-dsr.png|thumb|2015+ mirrors (side) on a DSR]]
 +
|}
 +
;Design
 +
: Pre-2015 Zeros use an angular mirror with a ball mount joint that allows rotating the mirrors 360 degrees.
 +
:: Many riders turn the mirrors upside down for a little wider visibility around the shoulder/arms.
 +
: 2015+ Zeros use a mirror stalk with an inboard ball mount with about 30 degrees of freedom from the stalk.
  
;Construction
+
;Mount
: All variants of the tank plastics for have identical side pieces and a black centerpiece in soft plastic with a relatively rough finish.
+
: Zero mirrors are mounted from the handlebars with Yamaha/Ducati-style bolt fitting.
: The stock centerpiece for 2013-2016 models is a bin container with two drain holes for collected moisture, with a soft bin held together with a simple zipper that anchors via hook-and-loop patches at the bottom of the bin as well as a loop cord that hooks through the front helmet lock.
+
: The bolt/thread specification is M10x1.25, left-hand-threaded on the right side and standard right-hand-threaded on the left side.
: The bin delivered per model year is different and varies in quality. 2013 seemed to have better construction than 2014-2015 years, and 2016 is somewhere between.
 
: As of 2017, the stock centerpiece is a locking storage container with a spring-loaded hinge at the front so it swings forward to open.
 
: The Power Tank and Charge Tank have tank plastic options which can be bought separately or selected for color customization. Both use a relatively flat surface for the centerpiece, and the Charge Tank has a J1772-sized inlet hold with built in waterproof cover with a spring-loaded hinge.
 
  
[[File:Zero Tank Plastics Dewelding.png|thumb|2014 SP plastics - dewelding]]
+
;Maintenance
;Separating
+
: (pre-2015) Check that the set screw holding mirror position holds it firmly.
: The join between the centerpiece and side pieces of a Zero tank plastic assembly is made by plastic weld using a soldering iron into soft hollow plastic pins on the centerpiece that melt and flatten around a lock washer onto holes in the side pieces.
+
: Use a corrosion inhibitor or thread-locker for the set screws and the mount threading since these are weather-exposed.
: You can break these welds using a relatively careful use of a pair of pliers to basically grip hard and twist on them until they break.
 
:: It's a slightly frustrating process but pretty quick to achieve, in about an hour. A soldering iron or extremely narrowly-focused heat gun can help the process but try not to risk damaging the plastics from overheating.
 
: The original join process can be repeated for the new centerpiece.
 
: Also, this means that the plastic centerpiece you remove will not be re-joinable.
 
  
==Tail Plastics==
+
See [[Common_Modifications#Third-Party_Mirrors|Third-Party Mirrors]] for workable/tested replacements.
: '''Note:''' The author documented the reassembly; removal was inferred. Confirmation would be helpful.
 
  
===[[Tail Plastics Removal]]===
+
==Handlebars==
{{:Tail Plastics Removal}}
+
Both S and DS style handlebars are standard through bars that are 1 1/8" (28mm) through the middle section and 7/8" (22mm) in the outer section.
 +
===Handlebar Clamps===
 +
: The handlebar clamps are 2" by 1 1/8" (28mm) for the entire line of models, clamped with M10 cap screw bolts (35mm length; possibly 50mm?).
  
==Lower Plastics==
+
===Handlebar Switch Assemblies===
Lower plastics for the S-Platform involve two side pieces to direct air towards the motor, and one in front to cover the battery.
+
: The switch assemblies are fastened with TT20 (1/4 inch) tamper-resistant Torx bolts through the underside.
: There is some provision for guarding the battery compartment against an impact from the front wheel in the case of a collision.
 
[[File:2017-zero-s-battery-front.jpg|thumb|2017 Zero S Lower Front Plastics]]
 
;2012-2013
 
: Relatively angular and have their own bolt mount pattern.
 
;2014+
 
: Lower plastics have a sculpted re-design to deliver more airflow to the motor for cooling.
 
;2017+
 
: Single longbrick models (ZF6.5 and ZF7.2) have lower plastics with a latch and swinging hinge to access the storage area behind the half-size battery compartment.
 
  
===[[Lower Plastics Removal]]===
+
===Handgrips===
{{:Lower Plastics Removal}}
+
Handgrips have a Zero logo on them but otherwise are reasonably good stock grips for the 7/8" (22mm) handlebar width at the end of the bars.
  
=Steering=
+
===Bar Ends===
 +
For 2014+ models, any bar end accessories that match the 14mm inner diameter will fit.
 +
: [[File:2016_end_plugs.png|thumb|2014+ stock bar end plugs]]
 +
: The stock bar ends are round plastic bumpers held in by plastic threads, so can be removed with a little twisting and pulling.
  
==Ignition==
+
;2013 models
The ignition is mounted on the tripe clamp top in the center between the steering head and the dash.
+
: Bar ends are covered by the grip so are not easily changed without changing the grips.
 +
: Zero did offer heated grips for these models but dropped them after changing the bars in 2014.
  
The [[#Ignition_Switch|ignition wiring]] connects to a [http://www.zadi.com ZADI] motorcycle lock with a steering lock feature and parking light enable (although the parking light enable is not connected on the Zero).
+
==Brake Lever==
 +
Zero motorcycles have a right-hand lever for the front brake, as is common for motorcycle designs.
  
;Key Blanks
+
;Primary adjustment
: Key blanks can typically be ordered from a dealer.
+
: The brake lever has a dial for adjusting the lever position relative to pad pressure and rider finger reach; set it however lets you operate it comfortably and safely.
: Key blanks appear to be available generically as [http://www.mrlock.com/jma-zadi-motorcycle-key-blanks/jma-key-blank-zadi-zd23rcp-za-9-p1 JMA ZA9P1 FOR ZADI ZD23RCP].
 
: In USA, calling them "Triumph" keys may help a locksmith find the right blank.
 
  
;Maintenance
+
;Micro-Switch and Set Screw
Occasional lock lubrication is recommended, and inspection of the wires for startup enable on the underside of the lock for reliability.
+
: A set screw on the inside of the lever adjusts how a micro-switch is depressed.
 +
: The micro-switch is what activates the rear brake light and the "braking regen" mode at the same time.
 +
: Any adjustment or replacement of the brake lever should be followed by recalibrating this set screw to get the desired effect.
 +
: Too much free play and the switch will activate when going over bumps and result in a slightly jerky ride.
 +
: There is some guidance on how to adjust this: [[Common_Modifications#Brake_Lever_Regens_before_Pad_Contact|Brake Lever Regens before Pad Contact]].
 +
: It seems like there's small difference in how this set screw is secured in stock lever compared to replacement lever (2016 SR), even though they look identical. I wasn't able to adjust this screw on stock lever, however replacement lever adjusts with no issues. You will need 7/64 SAE hex key to adjust.
 +
: Use some light threadlock compound (Blue Loctite will do) to fix the set screw in the desired position if it seems to move too freely out of the desired range.
  
;Troubleshooting
+
;Adjustment
: See [[#Faulty Ignition Switch|the faulty ignition switch troubleshooting guide]] for issues with this.
+
: See [[Front Brake Lever Adjustment]]
  
==Lock==
+
;Removal, Repair
The lock for the tank bag (2013-2016) or tank compartment (2017+) and possibly a helmet is keyed the same as the [[#Ignition|ignition]].
+
: See [[Front Brake Lever Replacement]]
  
The tank bag lock (2013-2016) is mounted to the frame by two (M5?) bolts under the steering head, very difficult to access without taking much of the frontend apart (as it should be, for theft deterrence).
+
==Triple Clamp==
 +
The [[wikipedia:Telescopic_fork#Triple_Tree|triple clamp tree]] attaches the fork tubes to the [[#Frame|frame]] via the [[#Steering_Head_Bearing|steering head bearing]].
  
==Mirrors==
+
The design and fitment changed from MY 2013-2014 to MY 2015+, when the forks changed from FastAce to Showa.
{|
 
|[[File:mirror-side-2012-ds.png|thumb|2012-2014 Mirrors (side) on a DS]]
 
|[[File:mirror-side-2016-dsr.png|thumb|2015+ mirrors (side) on a DSR]]
 
|}
 
;Design
 
: Pre-2015 Zeros use an angular mirror with a ball mount joint that allows rotating the mirrors 360 degrees.
 
:: Many riders turn the mirrors upside down for a little wider visibility around the shoulder/arms.
 
: 2015+ Zeros use a mirror stalk with an inboard ball mount with about 30 degrees of freedom from the stalk.
 
  
;Mount
+
;Upper Assembly
: Zero mirrors are mounted from the handlebars with Yamaha/Ducati-style bolt fitting.
+
: This sits atop the [[#Steering_Head|steering head]], joining the forks at the top, and supports the [[#Handlebars|handlebars]], [[#Ignition|ignition switch]], [[#Dash|dash]], and [[#Headlamp|headlamp]].
: The bolt/thread specification is M10x1.25, left-hand-threaded on the right side and standard right-hand-threaded on the left side.
 
  
;Maintenance
+
;Lower Assembly
: (pre-2015) Check that the set screw holding mirror position holds it firmly.
+
: This inserts upward through the [[#Steering_Head|steering head]] tube, joining the forks below the tube, and supports the [[#Headlamp|headlamp]] bracket and the high fender for DS/DSR/FX models.
: Use a corrosion inhibitor or thread-locker for the set screws and the mount threading since these are weather-exposed.
 
  
See [[Common_Modifications#Third-Party_Mirrors|Third-Party Mirrors]] for workable/tested replacements.
+
The upper assembly and lower assembly join around/through the [[#Steering_Head|steering head]].
  
==Handlebars==
+
==Steering Head==
Both S and DS style handlebars are standard through bars that are 1 1/8" (28mm) through the middle section and 7/8" (22mm) in the outer section.
+
This is the tube in the head of the [[#Frame|frame]] that mounts the fork steerer tube.
===Handlebar Clamps===
 
: The handlebar clamps are 2" by 1 1/8" (28mm) for the entire line of models, clamped with M10 cap screw bolts (35mm length; possibly 50mm?).
 
  
===Handlebar Switch Assemblies===
+
For 2014+ S and X-platform Zeros, the inner diameter of the steering head is 55mm for a steering tube size of 1in (25.4mm).
: The switch assemblies are fastened with TT20 (1/4 inch) tamper-resistant Torx bolts through the underside.
 
  
===Handgrips===
+
;Steering head fastener stack (top to bottom)
Handgrips have a Zero logo on them but otherwise are reasonably good stock grips for the 7/8" (22mm) handlebar width at the end of the bars.
+
# Steering Stem Thin Nut (M27⨉1.5mm, 8mm depth); apply a 41mm hex socket.
 
+
# Washer 41 - 27.5mm⌀, 2mm thickness (reportedly not present on 2018+ models)
===Bar Ends===
+
# Steering Stem Lock Nut (M30⨉1.5mm)
For 2014+ models, any bar end accessories that match the 14mm inner diameter will fit.
+
# Bearing Lip Seal (55mm OD)
: [[File:2016_end_plugs.png|thumb|2014+ stock bar end plugs]]
+
# [[#Steering_Head_Bearing|Steering Head Bearing]] (facing up)
: The stock bar ends are round plastic bumpers held in by plastic threads, so can be removed with a little twisting and pulling.
+
# Lower Triple Clamp Assembly Tube
 +
# [[#Steering_Head_Bearing|Steering Head Bearing]] (facing down)
 +
# Bearing Lip Seal (55mm OD)
  
;2013 models
+
===Steering Head Bearing===
: Bar ends are covered by the grip so are not easily changed without changing the grips.
+
This is a [[wikipedia:Rolling-element_bearing#Tapered_roller|tapered roller bearing]] in the [[#Frame|frame]]'s [[wikipedia:Head_tube|steering head tube]].
: Zero did offer heated grips for these models but dropped them after changing the bars in 2014.
 
  
==Brake Lever==
+
Steering stickiness or wobble may indicate an inadequately greased steering head bearing or a worn bearing.
Zero motorcycles have a right-hand lever for the front brake, as is common for motorcycle designs.
 
  
;Primary adjustment
+
{| class="wikitable"
: The brake lever has a dial for adjusting the lever position relative to pad pressure and rider finger reach; set it however lets you operate it comfortably and safely.
+
!Platform
 +
!Years
 +
!Dimensions
 +
!Stock Model
 +
!Part #
 +
!Description
 +
|-
 +
|S,X
 +
|2014-2018
 +
|
 +
: ID: 30mm
 +
: OD: 55mm
 +
: Width: 17mm
 +
| Koyo SAC3055-1
 +
| ZM20-06068
 +
| Angular-contact caged ball bearings
 +
|}
  
;Micro-Switch and Set Screw
+
;Replacement
: A set screw on the inside of the lever adjusts how a micro-switch is depressed.
+
: See [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7717 Steering stem bearing replacement ('14-'17, all models)] described for a 2014FX.
: The micro-switch is what activates the rear brake light and the "braking regen" mode at the same time.
 
: Any adjustment or replacement of the brake lever should be followed by recalibrating this set screw to get the desired effect.
 
: Too much free play and the switch will activate when going over bumps and result in a slightly jerky ride.
 
: There is some guidance on how to adjust this: [[Common_Modifications#Brake_Lever_Regens_before_Pad_Contact|Brake Lever Regens before Pad Contact]].
 
: It seems like there's small difference in how this set screw is secured in stock lever compared to replacement lever (2016 SR), even though they look identical. I wasn't able to adjust this screw on stock lever, however replacement lever adjusts with no issues. You will need 7/64 SAE hex key to adjust.
 
: Use some light threadlock compound (Blue Loctite will do) to fix the set screw in the desired position if it seems to move too freely out of the desired range.
 
  
;Adjustment
+
;Reference
: See [[Front Brake Lever Adjustment]]
+
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6762 ZeroDS head bearing (2015)]
 +
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7417 DSR 17 steering head bearings]
 +
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7717 Steering stem bearing replacement ('14-'17, all models)]
  
;Removal, Repair
+
==Front Fender==
: See [[Front Brake Lever Replacement]]
+
The S/SR front fender is a colored or painted panel like the [[#Tank_Plastics|tank plastics]] that hugs the tire. The DS/DSR/FX/FXS front fender is an ABS plastic dual sport high fender.
  
==Triple Clamp==
+
; Sport Fender
The [[wikipedia:Telescopic_fork#Triple_Tree|triple clamp tree]] attaches the fork tubes to the [[#Frame|frame]] via the [[#Steering_Head_Bearing|steering head bearing]].
+
: The S/SR front fender is a colored or painted panel like the [[#Tank_Plastics|tank plastics]] that hugs the (17") front tire.
 +
: It bolts directly onto the FXS' lower forks around its tire even though the FXS comes with a dual sport fender.
 +
: '''TODO:''' confirm fasteners and bolt pattern.
  
The design and fitment changed from MY 2013-2014 to MY 2015+, when the forks changed from FastAce to Showa.
+
; Dual Sport Fender
 +
: The dual sport fender attaches to the underside of the front fork triple tree.
 +
: This fender also fits a S/SR model.
 +
: 4 holes in a rectangular shape 58mm (2.3in) wide and 50mm (1.95in) front to back (center to center).
 +
: The bolts are M5x15mm button head socket screw for a 3mm Allen key.
 +
: A Honda or Yamaha dual sport fender should fit this pattern without modification.
  
;Upper Assembly
+
=Wheels=
: This sits atop the [[#Steering_Head|steering head]], joining the forks at the top, and supports the [[#Handlebars|handlebars]], [[#Ignition|ignition switch]], [[#Dash|dash]], and [[#Headlamp|headlamp]].
+
==Wheel Maintenance==
 +
===Check Tire Pressure===
 +
Maintain minimum pressure per the manual.
  
;Lower Assembly
+
;General guidelines
: This inserts upward through the [[#Steering_Head|steering head]] tube, joining the forks below the tube, and supports the [[#Headlamp|headlamp]] bracket and the high fender for DS/DSR/FX models.
+
: Higher tire pressures help stability and reduce rolling resistance with a passenger or a lot of luggage, but lower pressures help on rougher/gravel surfaces.
 +
: Official recommendations are for "cold" tires, which means when they haven't been ridden in a few hours.
 +
: As tires warm up from riding, pressure increases due to the interior air heating from friction and mechanical work on the tire by the road against the wheel.
 +
: Excessive tire pressure can make the tire too sensitive to sharp debris or potholes, and increases the risk of a puncture. 45psi is where this definitely becomes a concern; modulate depending on your riding, and definitely use much lower pressures for offroading.
  
The upper assembly and lower assembly join around/through the [[#Steering_Head|steering head]].
+
==Front Wheel==
 +
===[[Front Wheel Removal]]===
 +
{{:Front Wheel Removal}}
  
==Steering Head==
+
===Front Axle===
This is the tube in the head of the [[#Frame|frame]] that mounts the fork steerer tube.
+
;TODO measurements
  
For 2014+ S and X-platform Zeros, the inner diameter of the steering head is 55mm for a steering tube size of 1in (25.4mm).
+
===Front Tire===
 +
See [[Stock Tires]].
  
;Steering head fastener stack (top to bottom)
+
===Front Bearings===
# Steering Stem Thin Nut (M27⨉1.5mm, 8mm depth); apply a 41mm hex socket.
+
The front bearings are the same size as the [[#Rear_Bearings|rear bearings]] (see table there for sizing), although the front has only two bearings instead of 3 for the rear.
# Washer 41 - 27.5mm⌀, 2mm thickness (reportedly not present on 2018+ models)
 
# Steering Stem Lock Nut (M30⨉1.5mm)
 
# Bearing Lip Seal (55mm OD)
 
# [[#Steering_Head_Bearing|Steering Head Bearing]] (facing up)
 
# Lower Triple Clamp Assembly Tube
 
# [[#Steering_Head_Bearing|Steering Head Bearing]] (facing down)
 
# Bearing Lip Seal (55mm OD)
 
  
===Steering Head Bearing===
+
;TODO
This is a [[wikipedia:Rolling-element_bearing#Tapered_roller|tapered roller bearing]] in the [[#Frame|frame]]'s [[wikipedia:Head_tube|steering head tube]].
+
: Spacer specs
  
Steering stickiness or wobble may indicate an inadequately greased steering head bearing or a worn bearing.
+
===[[Front Bearing Replacement]]===
 +
{{:Front Bearing Replacement}}
 +
==Rear Wheel==
 +
===Rear Tire===
 +
See [[Stock Tires]].
 +
===[[Rear Wheel Removal]]===
 +
{{:Rear Wheel Removal}}
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
===[[Rear Wheel Install]]===
!Platform
+
{{:Rear Wheel Install}}
!Years
 
!Dimensions
 
!Stock Model
 
!Part #
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|S,X
 
|2014-2018
 
|
 
: ID: 30mm
 
: OD: 55mm
 
: Width: 17mm
 
| Koyo SAC3055-1
 
| ZM20-06068
 
| Angular-contact caged ball bearings
 
|}
 
  
;Replacement
+
===Rear Bearings===
: See [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7717 Steering stem bearing replacement ('14-'17, all models)] described for a 2014FX.
+
The rear wheel contains 3 bearings and dust shields.
  
;Reference
+
{{:Bearing Specifications}}
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6762 ZeroDS head bearing (2015)]
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7417 DSR 17 steering head bearings]
 
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7717 Steering stem bearing replacement ('14-'17, all models)]
 
  
==Front Fender==
+
;References
The S/SR front fender is a colored or painted panel like the [[#Tank_Plastics|tank plastics]] that hugs the tire. The DS/DSR/FX/FXS front fender is an ABS plastic dual sport high fender.
+
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6692 Precision bearings & replacement].
 +
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4967 Anyone know front wheel bearing size].
 +
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5612 Ceramic bearings] for a 2014SR, with success reported for at least as long as the original bearings.  The author is going back to steel.
 +
:; Per Terry Hershner:
 +
:: The 2012-2014 wheel bearings are 6904 bearings which are bicycle sized bearings.
 +
:: They lasted me about 20,000 miles per set.
 +
:: Best is to use a 2015 wheel on the 2014 which will work but requires modification of the spacers.
 +
:: I did it on my 2012. It now has 2015 wheels.
  
; Sport Fender
+
===[[Rear Bearings Replacement]]===
: The S/SR front fender is a colored or painted panel like the [[#Tank_Plastics|tank plastics]] that hugs the (17") front tire.
+
{{:Rear Bearings Replacement}}
: It bolts directly onto the FXS' lower forks around its tire even though the FXS comes with a dual sport fender.
 
: '''TODO:''' confirm fasteners and bolt pattern.
 
  
; Dual Sport Fender
+
=Suspension=
: The dual sport fender attaches to the underside of the front fork triple tree.
+
==Front Suspension==
: This fender also fits a S/SR model.
+
Zero's motorcycles all feature [[wikipedia:Telescopic_fork|telescoping fork]] front suspension.
: 4 holes in a rectangular shape 58mm (2.3in) wide and 50mm (1.95in) front to back (center to center).
 
: The bolts are M5x15mm button head socket screw for a 3mm Allen key.
 
: A Honda or Yamaha dual sport fender should fit this pattern without modification.
 
  
=Wheels=
+
===[[Front Suspension Specifications|Front Suspension Specs]]===
==Wheel Maintenance==
+
{{:Front Suspension Specifications}}
===Check Tire Pressure===
 
Maintain minimum pressure per the manual.
 
  
;General guidelines
+
===[[Fork Oil Change and Spring Replacement]]===
: Higher tire pressures help stability and reduce rolling resistance with a passenger or a lot of luggage, but lower pressures help on rougher/gravel surfaces.
+
{{:Fork Oil Change and Spring Replacement}}
: Official recommendations are for "cold" tires, which means when they haven't been ridden in a few hours.
 
: As tires warm up from riding, pressure increases due to the interior air heating from friction and mechanical work on the tire by the road against the wheel.
 
: Excessive tire pressure can make the tire too sensitive to sharp debris or potholes, and increases the risk of a puncture. 45psi is where this definitely becomes a concern; modulate depending on your riding, and definitely use much lower pressures for offroading.
 
  
==Front Wheel==
+
===Fork Cartridge Revalving===
===[[Front Wheel Removal]]===
+
[http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7737 Fast Ace fork revalving] by Ray Ivers
{{:Front Wheel Removal}}
 
  
===Front Axle===
+
The procedure is described in great detail for FastAce (2013-2014) suspension but could be adapted for the newer Showa suspension.
;TODO measurements
 
  
===Front Tire===
+
===[[Fork Spring Rate Verification|Verify Fork Spring Rate]]===
See [[Stock Tires]].
+
{{:Fork Spring Rate Verification}}
  
===Front Bearings===
+
==Rear Shock==
The front bearings are the same size as the [[#Rear_Bearings|rear bearings]] (see table there for sizing), although the front has only two bearings instead of 3 for the rear.
+
===Rear Shock Mounting===
 +
The rear shock fastens to the [[#Swingarm|Swingarm]] by an M10 bolt.
  
;TODO
+
The upper mount reaches the frame centertube ahead of the [[#Controller_Heatsink|controller heatsink]] area so is difficult to access.
: Spacer specs
 
  
===[[Front Bearing Replacement]]===
+
===[[Rear Shock Specifications]]===
{{:Front Bearing Replacement}}
+
{{:Rear Shock Specifications}}
==Rear Wheel==
 
===Rear Tire===
 
See [[Stock Tires]].
 
===[[Rear Wheel Removal]]===
 
{{:Rear Wheel Removal}}
 
  
===[[Rear Wheel Install]]===
+
===Rear Shock Substitions===
{{:Rear Wheel Install}}
+
{| class="wikitable"
 
+
|+Substitutions
===Rear Bearings===
+
!Years
The rear wheel contains 3 bearings and dust shields.
+
!Models
 +
!Worked?
 +
!Description
 +
|-
 +
|rowspan="8"| 2013-2014
 +
|rowspan="8"| S/SR
 +
| Yes
 +
|[https://www.jrishocks.com/shop/powersports/double-adjustable/ JRI Double-Adjustable Shocks] per [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6936 2014 SR shock absorber replacement by Doug S] with Harlan's help.
 +
|-
 +
| Yes (with machining)
 +
|Wotefusi [https://www.amazon.com/Wotefusi-Motorcycle-Absorber-Replacement-Universal/dp/B01A8HWKNE/ref=sr_1_16?ie=UTF8&qid=1516726305&sr=8-16&keywords=260mm+shock] 260mm Central Air Shock Absorber Universal Fit - fits when mounted upside down.  Need to cut/grind down the bushing.
 +
|-
 +
| Yes (with machining)
 +
|TDPRO 260mm 10.2 [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B01M0DE754/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o00_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1] Almost fits; the area on top of the spring is just slightly too large.  You can take a grinder and shave away some of the top to make it fit. [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7753.0]
 +
|-
 +
| NO
 +
| The Yamaha R3 has the same length rear shock, but the spring is too wide.
 +
|-
 +
| NO
 +
|Fastace Rear Shock BDA-51AR/58-AR has a weaker spring, and is rotated 90 degrees. [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B01B3Q2O8A/]
 +
|-
 +
| Mixed results - new orders may have all the kinks worked out.
 +
| IKON 3610-ZERO-S Shock Absorber [https://www.ikonshocksusa.com/products/3610-zero-s-shock-absorber?variant=28622432206908] - The spring is too wide at the top, and to be installed, the sping must be compressed.  When Installation is complete, the spring is always compressed by at least a couple centimeters.
 +
|-
 +
|  Mixed results - Get dimensions from Wilber's dealer before ordering - theirs is ~279mm
 +
| Wilbers Shock absorber Type 640 Road Part. No.: 640-1143-00 [https://www.wilbers-shop.de/en/Motorcycle/Zero-Motorcycles/Zero-S-Z1-M5/Shock-absorber-Type-640-Road.html?year=2014] Wilbers claims the shock fits "2011-2013 S M5" (which does not exist).  The M5 designation is buried in the VIN of the 2014 S; and may or may not be relevant.  This shock could be mislabeled for the DS.  Make sure to get full dimensions before ordering.
 +
|-
 +
| Yes - DO NOT BUY
 +
| ZXTDR Rear Shock Absorber Suspension Sensa-Trac Load Adjusting for Dirt Pit Bike Motorcycle 1200LBS. [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B074J3X2P5/] This shock phyisically fits, but underperforms.  It feels like you're riding on a trampoline.  You get what you pay for.
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===[[Rear Shock Adjustment]]===
 +
{{:Rear Shock Adjustment}}
  
{{:Bearing Specifications}}
+
=Final Drive=
  
;References
+
==Swingarm==
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6692 Precision bearings & replacement].
+
The swingarm is a dual-sided structure made in the same way as the [[#Frame|frame]]. It's very sturdily constructed for its light weight.
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4967 Anyone know front wheel bearing size].
+
[[File:Onlift.jpeg|thumb|Swingarm]]
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5612 Ceramic bearings] for a 2014SR, with success reported for at least as long as the original bearings.  The author is going back to steel.
+
The front pivots on the axis of the [[#Motor|motor]] to minimize [[#Belt|belt]] strain with suspension travel.
:; Per Terry Hershner:
 
:: The 2012-2014 wheel bearings are 6904 bearings which are bicycle sized bearings.
 
:: They lasted me about 20,000 miles per set.
 
:: Best is to use a 2015 wheel on the 2014 which will work but requires modification of the spacers.
 
:: I did it on my 2012. It now has 2015 wheels.
 
  
===[[Rear Bearings Replacement]]===
+
It has fitments for the [[#Rear_Axle|rear axle]] including belt tension adjustment.
{{:Rear Bearings Replacement}}
 
  
=Suspension=
+
;Mounting
==Front Suspension==
+
: The swingarm joins the frame at left and right pivot points.
Zero's motorcycles all feature [[wikipedia:Telescopic_fork|telescoping fork]] front suspension.
+
: The each side pivot has a stack of (from outside inward):
 +
:* A rubber cover
 +
:* A bolt with a 10mm hex drive.
 +
:* The bearing (6204; 6204RS for 2015+ models)
  
===[[Front Suspension Specifications|Front Suspension Specs]]===
+
===Swingarm Tube===
{{:Front Suspension Specifications}}
+
There is a hollow tube through the swingarm across the arms forming a join point for the [[#Rear_Shock|rear shock]] to the [[#Frame_Tube|frame tube]].
 +
[[File:2018-sr-swingarm-hole.png|thumb|Swingarm Tube with measurements]]
 +
: Its shape is flattened on the rear side, presumably to clear the largest-diameter potential tire.
 +
: It makes a reasonable storage tube ''if'' some padding or caps are used to secure the cargo there (like a charging cord).
  
===[[Fork Oil Change and Spring Replacement]]===
+
{| class="wikitable"
{{:Fork Oil Change and Spring Replacement}}
+
|+Measurements
 +
|-
 +
|Inner diameter||75mm||2.91"
 +
|-
 +
|Horizontal width to flat side||68mm||2.68"
 +
|-
 +
|Swingarm greatest width below tube||295mm||11.61"
 +
|}
  
===Fork Cartridge Revalving===
+
;References
[http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7737 Fast Ace fork revalving] by Ray Ivers
+
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=8163.msg68924#msg68924 Re: Through-frame security aperture size?]
 +
 
 +
===Swingarm Bearings===
 +
The swingarm bearings are generally the same as the [[#Rear_Bearings|wheel bearings]] (6204; 6204RS for 2015+ models).
 +
 
 +
===[[Swingarm Removal]]===
 +
{{:Swingarm Removal}}
 +
 
 +
==[[Rear Axle]]==
 +
{{:Rear Axle}}
  
The procedure is described in great detail for FastAce (2013-2014) suspension but could be adapted for the newer Showa suspension.
+
==[[Drive Belt|Belt]]==
 +
{{:Drive Belt}}
  
===[[Fork Spring Rate Verification|Verify Fork Spring Rate]]===
+
==Sprocket==
{{:Fork Spring Rate Verification}}
 
  
==Rear Shock==
+
===[[Sprocket Specifications]]===
===Rear Shock Mounting===
+
{{:Sprocket Specifications}}
The rear shock fastens to the [[#Swingarm|Swingarm]] by an M10 bolt.
 
  
The upper mount reaches the frame centertube ahead of the [[#Controller_Heatsink|controller heatsink]] area so is difficult to access.
+
===Sprocket Wear On Belt===
 +
Wear debris from the tire or the road can accumulate on sprocket teeth, putting pressure on the belt which can wear it out faster.
  
===[[Rear Shock Specifications]]===
+
;Recommendation
{{:Rear Shock Specifications}}
+
: Keep the sprocket teeth clean to minimize wear on the belt.
 +
: A non-abrasive brush should be effective.
  
===Rear Shock Substitions===
+
===[[Front Sprocket Replacement|Front Sprocket Removal / Swap]]===
{| class="wikitable"
+
{{:Front Sprocket Replacement}}
|+Substitutions
 
!Years
 
!Models
 
!Worked?
 
!Description
 
|-
 
|rowspan="8"| 2013-2014
 
|rowspan="8"| S/SR
 
| Yes
 
|[https://www.jrishocks.com/shop/powersports/double-adjustable/ JRI Double-Adjustable Shocks] per [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6936 2014 SR shock absorber replacement by Doug S] with Harlan's help.
 
|-
 
| Yes (with machining)
 
|Wotefusi [https://www.amazon.com/Wotefusi-Motorcycle-Absorber-Replacement-Universal/dp/B01A8HWKNE/ref=sr_1_16?ie=UTF8&qid=1516726305&sr=8-16&keywords=260mm+shock] 260mm Central Air Shock Absorber Universal Fit - fits when mounted upside down.  Need to cut/grind down the bushing.
 
|-
 
| Yes (with machining)
 
|TDPRO 260mm 10.2 [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B01M0DE754/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o00_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1] Almost fits; the area on top of the spring is just slightly too large.  A harness can be made so that it fits, but the rear of the motorcycle will be slightly raised. [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7753.0]
 
|-
 
| NO
 
| The Yamaha R3 has the same length rear shock, but the spring is too wide.
 
|-
 
| NO
 
|Fastace Rear Shock BDA-51AR/58-AR has a weaker spring, and is rotated 90 degrees. [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B01B3Q2O8A/ref=oh_aui_detailpage_o05_s00?ie=UTF8&psc=1]
 
|-
 
| Yes - not perfectly
 
| IKON 3610-ZERO-S Shock Absorber [https://www.ikonshocksusa.com/products/3610-zero-s-shock-absorber?variant=28622432206908] - The spring is too wide at the top, and to be installed, the sping must be compressed.  When Installation is complete, the spring is always compressed by at least a couple centimeters.
 
|-
 
| Unverified
 
| Wilbers Shock absorber Type 640 Road Part. No.: 640-1143-00 [https://www.wilbers-shop.de/en/Motorcycle/Zero-Motorcycles/Zero-S-Z1-M5/Shock-absorber-Type-640-Road.html?year=2014]
 
|-
 
| Yes - DO NOT BUY
 
| ZXTDR Rear Shock Absorber Suspension Sensa-Trac Load Adjusting for Dirt Pit Bike Motorcycle 1200LBS. [https://www.amazon.com/gp/product/B074J3X2P5/] This shock phyisically fits, but underperforms.  It feels like you're riding on a trampoline.  You get what you pay for.
 
|}
 
  
===[[Rear Shock Adjustment]]===
+
=Brakes=
{{:Rear Shock Adjustment}}
+
Zero motorcycles so far have had single-disc brakes for front and rear systems.
  
==Rear Brake Actuator==
+
It is only a question of time when Zero will add dual front disk brakes in the road bikes range. Single disk is not recommended for the kind of speeds/overall weight the new models are reaching.
The rear brake is manipulated by a dirt-bike style pedal around the right [[#Footpegs|footpeg]], a common motorcycle configuration.
 
: [[File:footpeg-comparison.gif|thumb|S and DS foot pedals compared]]
 
: The rear brake has its own master cylinder behind the rear footpeg on the right.
 
  
;Pedal Construction
+
;Rear Brake Spring (Suggestion)
: Cast aluminum with a powder coat finish.
+
* Remove the rear brake spring or replace it with a lighter spring.
: On pre-2015 models, the pedal is made from a single piece.
+
*: On most models, there is a spring suitable for a dirt bike that is over-designed for a street bike.
: On 2015+ models, the pedal toe actuator is bolted on (M6X20-8.8) and may be replaced or have an S vs DS toe actuator swap.
+
*: There is a kind of spring inside the brake pump, so the external one is just to keep the foot-pedal without rattling.
 +
*: Test the rear brake after doing this.
  
;Rear Brake Lever/Pedal
+
==Brake Maintenance==
: The threaded rod from the brake lever to the master cylinder adjusts lever height.
+
* Check for pad wear or debris.
 +
*: Keep the pads and discs clean.
 +
*: An occasional brushing of the disc holes is worth doing maybe once a year.
 +
* Check hydraulic fluid level.
 +
*: Make sure the brake fluid is in good shape and the type/specs you need.
 +
*: If in doubt, replace with fresh fluid (not from an already opened bottle).
 +
* Make sure the brake fluid reservoir is not over-filled (top).
 +
*: There has to be some empty space, or your bike will be lightly "braked" and your disk/pads will deteriorate prematurely...and you will get less range.
  
;Rear Brake Switch
+
==Brake Systems==
: The rear brake switch is activated hydraulically by pressure in the rear brake system.
+
{| class="wikitable"
: The rear brake switch is built into top banjo bolt.
+
|+Brake Systems
 
+
!
Ref. [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6618.msg52588#msg52588]
+
!colspan="3"|Front
 
+
!colspan="3"|Rear
=Final Drive=
+
!
 
+
|-
==Swingarm==
+
!Year
The swingarm is a dual-sided structure made in the same way as the [[#Frame|frame]]. It's very sturdily constructed for its light weight.
+
!Manufacturer
[[File:Onlift.jpeg|thumb|Swingarm]]
+
!Rotor
The front pivots on the axis of the [[#Motor|motor]] to minimize [[#Belt|belt]] strain with suspension travel.
+
!Caliper
 
+
!Manufacturer
It has fitments for the [[#Rear_Axle|rear axle]] including belt tension adjustment.
+
!Rotor
 
+
!Caliper
;Mounting
+
!Notes
: The swingarm joins the frame at left and right pivot points.
 
: The each side pivot has a stack of (from outside inward):
 
:* A rubber cover
 
:* A bolt with a 10mm hex drive.
 
:* The bearing (6204; 6204RS for 2015+ models)
 
 
 
===Swingarm Tube===
 
There is a hollow tube through the swingarm across the arms forming a join point for the [[#Rear_Shock|rear shock]] to the [[#Frame_Tube|frame tube]].
 
[[File:2018-sr-swingarm-hole.png|thumb|Swingarm Tube with measurements]]
 
: Its shape is flattened on the rear side, presumably to clear the largest-diameter potential tire.
 
: It makes a reasonable storage tube ''if'' some padding or caps are used to secure the cargo there (like a charging cord).
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+Measurements
 
 
|-
 
|-
|Inner diameter||75mm||2.91"
+
|2013
 +
|rowspan="2"|Nissin
 +
|rowspan="2"|
 +
: 313mm (listed) / 310mm (actual) ⌀
 +
* floating
 +
* matches KTM 450SMR
 +
|rowspan="2"|
 +
|Nissin
 +
|221mm ⌀
 +
* fixed
 +
|
 +
|relatively weak
 +
[http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/shop/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=15_6&products_id=211 J Juan upgrade] available for rear brake.
 
|-
 
|-
|Horizontal width to flat side||68mm||2.68"
+
|2014
|-
+
|rowspan="4"|J Juan
|Swingarm greatest width below tube||295mm||11.61"
+
|rowspan="4"|240mm ⌀
 +
|rowspan="4"|
 +
: S: 34mm
 +
: X: 30mm
 +
|Same pad sizes as 2013.
 +
|-
 +
|2015
 +
|rowspan="3"|J Juan
 +
|rowspan="3"|
 +
: 320mm ⌀
 +
* non-floating
 +
: M8x23mm shoulder screw fasteners
 +
|rowspan="3"|
 +
: S: 32/30mm
 +
: X: 27mm
 +
|Bosch Gen 9 ABS; New pad sizes.
 +
|-
 +
|2016
 +
|rowspan="2"|Bosch Gen 9 ABS
 +
|-
 +
|2017
 
|}
 
|}
  
;References
+
==Brake Hydraulics==
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=8163.msg68924#msg68924 Re: Through-frame security aperture size?]
 
 
 
===Swingarm Bearings===
 
The swingarm bearings are generally the same as the [[#Rear_Bearings|wheel bearings]] (6204; 6204RS for 2015+ models).
 
 
 
===[[Swingarm Removal]]===
 
{{:Swingarm Removal}}
 
 
 
==Rear Axle==
 
The rear axle is hollow, threaded on the right side and capped on the left for swingarm fitment.
 
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
|+ Axle measurements
+
!colspan="2"|Models
 +
!colspan="3"|Front
 +
|-
 +
!Platform
 
!Years
 
!Years
!Inner Diameter
+
!Caliper Piston Area
!Outer Diameter
+
!MC Piston Area
!Pitch
+
!Hydraulic-Advantage Ratio
|-
+
|-
|2013-2014
+
|rowspan="3"|S
|
+
|2015
|
+
|rowspan="3"|1509 mm&sup2; (total)
|
+
|rowspan="3"|126 mm&sup2;
 +
|rowspan="3"|11.9:1
 +
|-
 +
|2016
 
|-
 
|-
|2015+
+
|2017
|11mm
 
|20mm
 
|1.25mm
 
 
|}
 
|}
  
===[[Rear Axle Removal]]===
+
;[http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6631.msg52829#msg52829 Regarding Brake Upgrades:]
{{:Rear Axle Removal}}
+
: A 9.5mm-piston master cylinder  - like the Nissin 3/8 I put on my 'MX' bike - would give the SR a 21.1:1 ratio, or @ 78% more pad pressure than the OEM 12.7mm master cylinder.
 +
: Any Brembo, Nissin, etc. 9.5mm / .375" master cylinder w/switch should drop right in and make a huge difference, and you won't have to touch anything else.
 +
: On the rear, the 11mm master cylinder from the FX (Zero part# 25-06731) has 49mm M6 bolt spacing / rear reservoir hose / top output / clevis, and should give @ 19% more pad pressure than the SR 12mm master cylinder.
 +
: This won't be a night-and-day difference like the front master cylinder change, but it should still be very noticeable.
  
===[[Rear Axle Install]]===
+
==Rear Brake Actuator==
See [[Rear Wheel Install|Rear Wheel Install]]
+
The rear brake is manipulated by a dirt-bike style pedal around the right [[#Footpegs|footpeg]], a common motorcycle configuration.
 +
: [[File:footpeg-comparison.gif|thumb|S and DS foot pedals compared]]
 +
: The rear brake has its own master cylinder behind the rear footpeg on the right.
  
==Belt==
+
;Pedal Construction
Zero uses a belt for primary transmission of torque to the rear wheel. It's quiet and lightweight but is a proprietary design that can wear out. If you plan to put a lot of miles on a Zero or risk the belt often, buy a spare belt ahead of time and mind its maintenance.
+
: Cast aluminum with a powder coat finish.
 +
: On pre-2015 models, the pedal is made from a single piece.
 +
: On 2015+ models, the pedal toe actuator is bolted on (M6X20-8.8) and may be replaced or have an S vs DS toe actuator swap.
  
===Belt Risks===
+
;Rear Brake Switch
Belts fail by snapping or by stripping the teeth.
+
: The rear brake switch is activated hydraulically by pressure in the rear brake system.
 +
: The rear brake switch is built into top banjo bolt.
  
;On Landing
+
;Rear Brake Pedal
: The most common situation for a belt snap is when going over a major bump or jump where the rear wheel leaves the ground.
+
: The threaded rod from the brake lever to the master cylinder adjusts lever height.
:*If, while airborne, the throttle is not immediately relaxed, the rear wheel will rapidly spin up.
 
:*A wheel that is moving extremely quickly in the air will get jerked back to its regular speed on landing. This is transmitted to the belt through the rear sprocket and can easily strip teeth.
 
  
;From Debris
+
;Rear Brake Pedal Adjustment
: Gravel or sand that gets thrown between sprocket teeth and the belt will force the belt to expand quickly under load, and can cause it to snap.
+
: The rear brake pedal is adjustable at the clevis.
: Reportedly, sand is a much more reliable path to belt failure than gravel.
+
# Remove the pin.
: The sprocket tooth design is meant to deflect gravel to the inside of the swingarm towards the wheel.
+
# Loosen the actuator shaft locknut above the clevis.
: The bike has an upper debris guard made of soft ABS plastic, but does not have a lower guard.
+
# Grip the shaft firmly with (say) long heavy-duty needle-nose pliers.
 +
# Rotate the shaft back toward the rear of the bike to lower the pedal foot (or towards the front to raise the pedal foot), repeating as needed.
  
;From Mis-Alignment
+
;References
: An unaligned belt can wear really badly and break sooner.
+
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6618.msg52588#msg52588 Re: [2016 FXS] Rear brake light comes on way too late]
 +
: [https://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=9424 Is there an adjustable pedal brake lever?]
 +
: [https://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7266 Rear Brake Pedal mods]
  
===Belt Specifications===
+
==ABS System==
Zero's final drive is a custom-designed [http://www.gates.com/ Gates] [http://www.gates.com/products/industrial/industrial-belts/synchronous-belts/powergrip-htd-belts HTD (high torque drive)] [http://www.gates.com/products/industrial/industrial-belts/synchronous-belts/poly-chain-htd-belts Poly Chain Carbon] toothed carbon fiber belt.
+
2015+ models have a Bosch ABS system installed.
* It's never been available outside of Zero's parts system.
 
* It's been the same part for 2012-2016 models.
 
*: 2017 models shifted to a wider belt that can accommodate more torque/loading.
 
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
===ABS Unit===
!Years
 
!Width
 
!Pitch
 
!Models
 
!Sprockets
 
!Number of Teeth
 
!Length
 
!OEM Part No.
 
!Photo
 
|-
 
|[http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7439.0 2010-2011]
 
|rowspan="3"|14mm
 
|rowspan="3"|8mm
 
|S/DS
 
|98T / 28T
 
|200
 
|
 
|
 
:30-02641
 
|
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|2012-2016
 
|S/SR
 
|132T / 28T
 
|rowspan="3"|220
 
|rowspan="3"|
 
|rowspan="3"|
 
: 30-03673 (old logo)
 
: 30-08084 (new logo)
 
|rowspan="3"|[[File:ZM30-08084.png|300px|reference photo of belt]]
 
|-
 
|DS/DSR
 
|130T / 28T
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|2017-2018
 
|rowspan="2"|17mm
 
|rowspan="2"|14mm
 
|S 13.0
 
|130T / 28T
 
|-
 
|
 
: FX/FXS
 
: DS/DSR
 
: SR/S6.5
 
|90T / 20T
 
|158
 
|
 
|
 
:30-08086
 
|[[File:ZM30-08086.png|300px|reference photo of wide belt]]
 
|}
 
  
;Part
+
===ABS Wheel Sensors===
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5846 Gates GT Carbon, 14mm wide, 8mm pitch, 220 teeth].  It's only available from Zero.
 
: P/N's are 30-03673 ("Belt Drive, 220T, 8mm Pitch, 14mm Wide") and also 30-08084 (same belt w/new Zero logo).
 
: One rough match for reference: [http://www.biedlers-belts.com/gates-8mgt-1760-12-belt.html Gates 8MGT-1760-12 Belt]
 
  
===[[Belt Tension Check]]===
+
==Brake Pads==
{{:Belt Tension Check}}
 
  
===[[Belt Adjustment]]===
+
;General Reading Material
An unaligned or mis-tensioned belt can wear really badly and break sooner.
+
: [http://www.bikebandit.com/blog/post/top-10-questions-about-motorcycle-brake-pads Top 10 Questions About Motorcycle Brake Pads]
 +
: [http://www.bikebandit.com/blog/post/motorcycle-brake-pads-and-rotors-explained-by-galfer-usa Motorcycle Brake Pads & Rotors Explained, by Galfer USA]
 +
: [http://powersports-blog.denniskirk.com/5573/powersports/motorcycle-brake-pads-sintered-vs-organic/ Sintered vs Organic Brake Pads]
  
{{:Belt Adjustment}}
+
;General Brake Pad Replacement Suggestions
 
+
: 2013+: Try to not use synthetics pads or "sintered", but organic or semi sintered ones.
===Belt Wear===
+
:: Sintered are better for very aggressive riding/braking, but are generally noisier.
Generally, watch for belt damage and try to anticipate when to replace the belt to avoid an incident on the road where the belt snaps.
+
: 2012 and earlier: Keep the sintered pads
 
+
:: Brake pump is very weak on these models; you need all the braking power you can get in spite of noise.
;What to Check
+
: Sand the pads.
* Check the teeth for wear and cracks.
+
: Grease the back of the pads lightly with copper grease.
*: If you see cracks in the tooth forming, the belt is getting old.
+
: Check caliper position.
*: If you see deep cracks starting, it's time to [[#Belt_Replacement|replace the belt]] ASAP.
+
: Check caliper springs, if any.
 
+
: Check the wheel for trueness.
;When to Replace
+
: Sand the disk; it could have lightly crystalized.
* When it snaps.
+
: Make sure all the bolts in the system (including wheel) are properly tightened.
* When any teeth have been ground off.
+
: After all of this has been preformed and before riding, clean everything exposed to dirt/grease with isopropyl alcohol
 
+
: When riding again, try to not brake very aggressively the firsts 20-30 miles.
;Hard Skips
 
* If the belt experiences a "hard skip" from debris between the belt and a sprocket, it is likely to fail soon after. Watch it carefully if this happens.
 
 
 
;Tension with aging
 
: Apparently, [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5693.msg42069#msg42069 per forum user JaimeC], belts don't wear like chains.
 
: As they get older they'll actually get tighter, not looser like a chain.
 
:* When a chain ages, the little bearing points between the links and rollers wear causing the chain to hang looser.
 
:* When a belt ages, the rubber on the inner/toothed side begins to swell.
 
: Since the Kevlar belt on the outer circumference won't stretch, the inner circumference will shrink making the belt tighter around the sprockets.
 
: Generally, you want to make sure the belt hasn't gotten any tighter since you brought it home.
 
  
===[[Belt Replacement Procedure|Belt Replacement]]===
+
===Brake Problems===
{{:Belt Replacement Procedure}}
+
;Squeak
 +
: Brake ''squeak'' (pad front against the disc) happens occasionally and is relatively quiet and noticeable but not anomalous.
 +
;Squeal
 +
: Brake ''squeal'' (pad back resonating against caliper cylinder) can be very loud and annoying. Squeal does not technically impact performance but it's very unpleasant and might cause the rider to hesitate before fully braking which is a safety issue.
 +
;Solutions
 +
* Clean the pads and/or discs for squeaking.
 +
* Try a different brake pad (attractive if you want a different pad feel or performance in the first place).
 +
* LocTite Disc Brake Quiet stick applicator for the backs of the pads.
 +
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/zmcowners/permalink/1329769437092261/?comment_id=1334269306642274&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R%22%7D Chamfer the brake pads]
 +
*: File the edges of the pad to put a 45 degree edge on them
 +
*: You only need 1-2mm
  
==Sprocket==
+
===Brake Pad Fit===
 +
;Nissin (2013 on rear, and 2013/2014 front)
 +
:
 +
;J Juan (2014+ on rear, 2015+ on front)
 +
: [http://ecat.ferodoracing.com/motorcycle/brake-pads-and-shoes/FDB892 Front pad shape FDB892]
 +
: [http://ecat.ferodoracing.com/motorcycle/brake-pads-and-shoes/FDB539 Rear pad shape FDB539]
  
===[[Sprocket Specifications]]===
+
Past forum threads of highly varying quality / ability to clarify:
{{:Sprocket Specifications}}
+
* This [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5650 forum discussion] starts with the 14FX and brings up lots of issues.
 +
* Another forum thread on [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5829 brake pad alternatives to OEM/stock].
 +
* One [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=3370.msg18646#msg18646 exhaustive listing from Burton] which unfortunately have the wrong EBC fitment numbers.
  
===Sprocket Wear On Belt===
+
;EBC
Wear debris from the tire or the road can accumulate on sprocket teeth, putting pressure on the belt which can wear it out faster.
+
:The [https://ebcbrakes.com/Assets/ecatalogues/EBC_2017_US_MC_Catalog/EBC_2017_US_MC_Catalog.html#p=220 EBC brake catalog] covers Zero models.
 +
:However, it has always had the wrong shape recommendation for 2013-2014 models, and for the FX entirely! Double-check any recommendation.
 +
: Their Carbon X pads can eliminate front brake squeal. [https://ebcbrakes.com/product/carbon-x-or-tt-brakes/ EBC Carbon X page]
 +
;SBS
 +
:offers a [http://uk.sbs.dk/business-areas/motorcycle.aspx brake search engine] which covers Zero models.
 +
;Goldfren
 +
:offers a good [http://www.goldfrenusa.com/includes/pdf/GOLDFREN_BrakePadsCrossReference.pdf cross reference] between brands.
  
;Recommendation
+
;[http://moto.brembo.com/en/ Brembo]
: Keep the sprocket teeth clean to minimize wear on the belt.
+
: Brembo's [http://moto.brembo.com/en/ Motorcycle Brakes Configurator] has reasonably usable Zero model lookup.
: A non-abrasive brush should be effective.
+
: Their Carbon Ceramic pads are reported to resolve brake squeal issues.
  
===Front Sprocket Removal / Swap===
+
;[[Brake Pad Lookup]]:
: Some guidance from Terry in this [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6230 motor removal thread]:
+
{{:Brake Pad Lookup}}
:* Basically, if you are doing this to try to get more acceleration by moving from a 28 tooth to a 25 tooth, Harlan recommends trading in the DS on a 2015+ SR or 2016 DSR if you need the off road capabilities. You will get much much more acceleration and not hurt your top end performance.
 
:* On the drive belt side, the upper rear 5mm bolt takes '''extreme''' care to remove. It is tapered to locate the motor. There is a very strong chance of stripping the head and have to drill it out. Make sure to have a machine shop close by just in case.
 
:* On the other hand, removal of the motor may not be necessary.  See https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vqe9i2rZSMI
 
:* The other 7 bolts, 3 on the sprocket side and 4 on the rear brake side are the only thing simple and straight forward.
 
:*: You will need a special 3" or longer 6mm allen head socket for sticking in the hole through the frame at the front of the motor.
 
:*# Remove the rear brake pedal and assembly to get the heel guard out of the way of the top right rear motor bolt.
 
:*#: Be careful not to strip these bolts either.
 
:*#: They have Loctite; use a torch.
 
:*#: And make sure your local hardware store has these replacement bolts handy in case you have to drill them out.
 
:*#: The rear brake pedal needs to move anyway to get the right swingarm bolt out.
 
:* Also the sprocket bolt itself, as well as removing and installing the new sprocket on the shaft can be very difficult. Some of the best professionals have had trouble.
 
:*: Loctite has been used on everything and you will need a torch to remove them.
 
:*: Even so, you will need a strap wrench with an old belt as the strap to hold the sprocket and a high power impact wrench. 
 
:* Even with all that right, you have a chance of stripping or breaking the bolt. The sprocket is pressed pretty tight.
 
:* Be very careful not to permanently damage the motor bearings by prying between the motor itself and the sprocket to try to remove it, and also by tapping with a hammer to try to fit the new one on.  You will be tempted to do both, but you need to find another way.
 
:*: A gear puller would be much better.
 
:* There are other things to watch for:
 
:** Mark your phase leads and pay special attention to the routing.
 
:** Don't over-tighten the motor jack nuts and bolts until you have the swingarm back in place as it can pull the frame together slightly making it impossible to get the swingarm in place.
 
:** Make sure you unplug the 8 way motor encoder harness and it doesn't get yanked and pull a wire.
 
:** The top shock mounting bolt is a 15 and 17 mm and can be done with ratchet wrenches 1/32 of a turn at a time, or without ratchet wrenches if you are known to have extreme patience. It can take a while. The 2014 is a little easier and is (seems to be a) dual 17mm bolt and nut.
 
:** The swingarm bolts are 10mm allen head and can be extremely hard to relocate even when working with someone else, a rubber hammer, and a flashlight. Those who have replaced their own belt before can vouch for this.
 
:* Again, I doubt too many on this forum have done this, and those who did I'll bet agree with me that it makes more sense after they did it and perhaps had their bike out of commission to work through the things that didn't go right, and would agree to just upgrade to the SR or DSR first vs trying to change the front sprocket.
 
:* Also the 25 tooth sprocket will break belts easier as less teeth are engaged than the 28 tooth, which can make it more likely to sheer teeth in the event of a wheelspin, and it bends the belt at a sharper radius which can possibly fatigue the carbon strands more.  The SR actually uses a 30 tooth front sprocket which is even nicer to the belt than the 28 tooth.
 
  
=Brakes=
+
;References
Zero motorcycles so far have had single-disc brakes for front and rear systems.
+
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4099.0 Honda / Nissin front brake shoes; goodbye screech, hello stoppies]
 +
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4715.0 2015 FX Brake Pads?]
 +
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5650.0 Brake pads] for 2014 SR
 +
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5650.0 Brake pads] for 2015 FX, 2016 FXS
 +
 
 +
===[[Front Brake Pad Replacement]]===
  
It is only a question of time when Zero will add dual front disk brakes in the road bikes range. Single disk is not recommended for the kind of speeds/overall weight the new models are reaching.
+
{{:Front Brake Pad Replacement}}
  
;Rear Brake Spring (Suggestion)
+
===[[Rear Brake Pad Replacement]]===
* Remove the rear brake spring or replace it with a lighter spring.
+
{{:Rear Brake Pad Replacement}}
*: On most models, there is a spring suitable for a dirt bike that is over-designed for a street bike.
 
*: There is a kind of spring inside the brake pump, so the external one is just to keep the foot-pedal without rattling.
 
*: Test the rear brake after doing this.
 
  
==Brake Maintenance==
+
=Powertrain=
* Check for pad wear or debris.
+
The powertrain includes all of Zero's power storage and delivery components including the battery, but this section focuses on the [[#Motor|motor]], power delivery via the [[#Controller|controller]], and their inputs via [[#Throttle|throttle]] and drive mode configurations.
*: Keep the pads and discs clean.
+
 
*: An occasional brushing of the disc holes is worth doing maybe once a year.
+
;Licensing
* Check hydraulic fluid level.
+
* For a time, Zero openly offered powertrain components in a licensed manner for prototyping and other uses.
*: Make sure the brake fluid is in good shape and the type/specs you need.
+
* Currently, probably for reasons of liability and support overhead, this is not publicly offered but does seem available on request for companies wanting to develop products where Zero's powertrain is a good fit.
*: If in doubt, replace with fresh fluid (not from an already opened bottle).
+
* See Zero's [https://www.zeromotorcycles.com/powertrains/ Z-Force Powertrain Solutions] page which has a contact form.
* Make sure the brake fluid reservoir is not over-filled (top).
+
 
*: There has to be some empty space, or your bike will be lightly "braked" and your disk/pads will deteriorate prematurely...and you will get less range.
+
==Throttle==
 +
The Zero throttle is a very straightforward twist-grip motorcycle control that operates a sensor instead of pulling on a mechanical cable or operating hydraulics.
 +
 
 +
Zero switched the throttle supplier from a [[#Magura_Throttle|Magura]] with a linear potentiometer to a [[#Bitron_Throttle|Bitron]] with a Hall-effect sensor in 2015 which changed how the wiring works.
 +
 
 +
;Connections
 +
:The Zero throttle connects directly to the [[#Controller|controller]], so anything you do related to the throttle signal can compromise the operation of the bike if there's an electrical fault or discrepancy.
 +
: '''Example:''' [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6548 Sudden braking followed by no motor/throttle response on highway[2016 FXS]]
  
==Brake Systems==
+
;Customization
{| class="wikitable"
+
: See [[Unofficial_Service_Manual#Drive_Modes|Drive modes]] to customize throttle input interpretation as an owner.
|+Brake Systems
+
: Use the mode control for "Custom" mode on 2014+ or "Eco" on earlier models to set the maximum torque the throttle applies.
!
+
:: This also directly changes how quickly torque ramps up for a given throttle twist/position.
!colspan="3"|Front
+
 
!colspan="3"|Rear
+
;Advanced Customization
!
+
: The Sevcon motor [[#Controller|controller]] settings are where most of the throttle interpretation happens.
|-
+
 
!Year
+
;Replacement
!Manufacturer
+
:TODO...
!Rotor
+
 
!Caliper
+
;Assembly
!Manufacturer
+
: The return spring cannot be tensioned while disassembled throttle is on the handlebar. Throttle must be removed to place the spring end correctly.  see video from Harlan Flagg: https://www.facebook.com/harlanflagg/videos/1364143910276196/
!Rotor
+
 
!Caliper
+
;Troubleshooting
!Notes
+
:[http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6382.msg49746#msg49746 One report of a "snatchy" throttle] turned out to have this explanation:
|-
+
:: There is a black adjusting screw which holds the pinion gear of the throttle in place or for adjustment.
|2013
+
:: The pinion gear had moved to the right and caused the spring clip for throttle return to pop out of the slot.
|rowspan="2"|Nissin
+
:: This was clicking through the gears and causing a notchy throttle feel.
|rowspan="2"|
+
:: Resolution: Reset the pinion location and tighten the screw.
: 313mm (listed) / 310mm (actual) ⌀
+
 
* floating
+
===Magura Throttle===
* matches KTM 450SMR
+
The 2012-2014 stock throttle is a [http://www.evdrives.com/product_p/thr-magura-assy.htm 5kOhm Magura throttle]
|rowspan="2"|
+
 
|Nissin
+
;Basic details
|221mm ⌀
+
: The Magura Twist Throttle has a 0-5kΩ output.
* fixed
+
: Comes with matching grip for opposite side.
|
+
: 7/8" (22mm) handle bar fit
|relatively weak
+
: 68" long control cable
[http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/shop/index.php?main_page=product_info&cPath=15_6&products_id=211 J Juan upgrade] available for rear brake.
+
: Weight: 0.5 lbs
|-
 
|2014
 
|rowspan="4"|J Juan
 
|rowspan="4"|240mm ⌀
 
|rowspan="4"|
 
: S: 34mm
 
: X: 30mm
 
|Same pad sizes as 2013.
 
|-
 
|2015
 
|rowspan="3"|J Juan
 
|rowspan="3"|
 
: 320mm ⌀
 
* non-floating
 
: M8x23mm shoulder screw fasteners
 
|rowspan="3"|
 
: S: 32/30mm
 
: X: 27mm
 
|Bosch Gen 9 ABS; New pad sizes.
 
|-
 
|2016
 
|rowspan="2"|Bosch Gen 9 ABS
 
|-
 
|2017
 
|}
 
  
==Brake Hydraulics==
+
;Connectors
 +
: Three wire output directly to the [[#Controller|controller]].
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
!colspan="2"|Models
+
|+ Magura Throttle Connectors
!colspan="3"|Front
+
! Wire
 +
! Function
 +
! Destination
 +
! Illustration
 
|-
 
|-
!Platform
+
| Blue
!Years
+
| Throttle High
!Caliper Piston Area
+
| Sevcon Pin 34
!MC Piston Area
+
|rowspan="3"|[[File:throttle-magura-connector.png|400px]]
!Hydraulic-Advantage Ratio
 
 
|-
 
|-
|rowspan="3"|S
+
| Brown
|2015
+
| Wiper
|rowspan="3"|1509 mm&sup2; (total)
+
| Sevcon Pin 22 (analog)
|rowspan="3"|126 mm&sup2;
 
|rowspan="3"|11.9:1
 
 
|-
 
|-
|2016
+
| Orange/Black
|-
+
| Throttle Low
|2017
+
| B- Sevcon terminal
 
|}
 
|}
  
;[http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6631.msg52829#msg52829 Regarding Brake Upgrades:]
+
===Bitron Throttle===
: A 9.5mm-piston master cylinder  - like the Nissin 3/8 I put on my 'MX' bike - would give the SR a 21.1:1 ratio, or @ 78% more pad pressure than the OEM 12.7mm master cylinder.
+
2015+ models use a new HAL-based (Hall-effect active device) sensor from [http://www.bitron.net Bitron] which can't be replaced easily by Domino or similar
: Any Brembo, Nissin, etc. 9.5mm / .375" master cylinder w/switch should drop right in and make a huge difference, and you won't have to touch anything else.
+
: Product reference: [http://www.bitron.net/index.php?option=com_k2&view=itemlist&task=tag&tag=accelescooter&Itemid=231 Bitron HAL-based throttle]
: On the rear, the 11mm master cylinder from the FX (Zero part# 25-06731) has 49mm M6 bolt spacing / rear reservoir hose / top output / clevis, and should give @ 19% more pad pressure than the SR 12mm master cylinder.
 
: This won't be a night-and-day difference like the front master cylinder change, but it should still be very noticeable.
 
  
==ABS System==
+
;Connectors
2015+ models have a Bosch ABS system installed.
+
: Via [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6966.msg57299#msg57299 Keith's investigation]
 +
: 8 wire output, bundled into two pairs of 3 wires for potentiometer outputs.
 +
: [[File:throttle-wiring-bitron.png|400px]]
 +
: [http://prd.sws.co.jp/components/en/detail.php?number_s=61880779 Sumitomo connector 6188-0779]
 +
: [http://prd.sws.co.jp/components/en/detail.php?number_s=61891240 Sumitomo connector 6189-1240]
 +
: The hall-effect sensor may be a potentiometer wired up as a voltage divider as follows:
 +
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 +
|+ Measured voltages
 +
!Wire
 +
!Twist
 +
!Voltage
 +
|-
 +
|rowspan="2"|Brown
 +
|None
 +
|0.5
 +
|-
 +
|Full
 +
|4.5
 +
|-
 +
|rowspan="2"|Brown/Red
 +
|None
 +
|4.5
 +
|-
 +
|Full
 +
|0.5
 +
|}
  
===ABS Unit===
+
==Regen==
 +
The Sevcon [[#Controller|controller]] can enter a regeneration mode where it captures momentum from the motor and charges the battery.
  
===ABS Wheel Sensors===
+
;Operating Range
 +
: Regen for Zeros operates between 12mph (where the motor cannot produce enough voltage to naturally power through the controller) and 4500 RPM (70mph in default gearing).
 +
: This band can be adjusted in [[MBB Console#Settings|MBB settings]].
  
==Brake Pads==
+
;Level
 +
: Regen levels are defined/set in terms of percentage of maximum allowable levels, so 0-100%.
 +
: That 100% maps to a 40A recharge limit setting in the Sevcon controller, equivalent to 10% of the maximum discharge rate of a Gen4 size 4 controller.
 +
: The 100% setting also corresponds to 60% of the 72Nm torque limit also specified.
 +
: The recharge limit may be set up to 91A via Sevcon setting or higher by a dummy value (65535?).
 +
: Zero sets regen levels to preclude rear wheel lockup, so raising the limit is a risk that ABS cannot directly control.
 +
: Regen has the same effect for SR/DSR models as for S/DS.
  
;General Reading Material
+
;Efficiency
: [http://www.bikebandit.com/blog/post/top-10-questions-about-motorcycle-brake-pads Top 10 Questions About Motorcycle Brake Pads]
+
: The recharge efficiency of regen is typically that 10% of the energy used to climb an incline can be returned on the corresponding descent.
: [http://www.bikebandit.com/blog/post/motorcycle-brake-pads-and-rotors-explained-by-galfer-usa Motorcycle Brake Pads & Rotors Explained, by Galfer USA]
 
: [http://powersports-blog.denniskirk.com/5573/powersports/motorcycle-brake-pads-sintered-vs-organic/ Sintered vs Organic Brake Pads]
 
  
;General Brake Pad Replacement Suggestions
+
;Triggers
: 2013+: Try to not use synthetics pads or "sintered", but organic or semi sintered ones.
+
*Normal regen is triggered by relaxing the throttle.
:: Sintered are better for very aggressive riding/braking, but are generally noisier.
+
*: There is a position just above the resting position where an actual neutral torque is achievable.
: 2012 and earlier: Keep the sintered pads
+
*: The [[MBB Console#Settings|MBB has a setting]] in mV for the potentiometer output of the throttle to trigger regen.
:: Brake pump is very weak on these models; you need all the braking power you can get in spite of noise.
+
*: Adjusting this is not normally effective unless changing throttle types.
: Sand the pads.
+
*Brake regen is triggered by the same signal that turns on the brake light:
: Grease the back of the pads lightly with copper grease.
+
*: A contact switch against the front brake lever will engage the brake light (and regen); the hydraulic piston and the switch engage simultaneously by default.
: Check caliper position.
+
*: Rear brakes engage pad contact and the brake light (and regen) simultaneously, but require some amount of travel before they engage.
: Check caliper springs, if any.
 
: Check the wheel for trueness.
 
: Sand the disk; it could have lightly crystalized.
 
: Make sure all the bolts in the system (including wheel) are properly tightened.
 
: After all of this has been preformed and before riding, clean everything exposed to dirt/grease with isopropyl alcohol
 
: When riding again, try to not brake very aggressively the firsts 20-30 miles.
 
  
===Brake Problems===
+
==Drive Modes==
;Squeak
+
{{:Drive Modes}}
: Brake ''squeak'' (pad front against the disc) happens occasionally and is relatively quiet and noticeable but not anomalous.
 
;Squeal
 
: Brake ''squeal'' (pad back resonating against caliper cylinder) can be very loud and annoying. Squeal does not technically impact performance but it's very unpleasant and might cause the rider to hesitate before fully braking which is a safety issue.
 
;Solutions
 
* Clean the pads and/or discs for squeaking.
 
* Try a different brake pad (attractive if you want a different pad feel or performance in the first place).
 
* LocTite Disc Brake Quiet stick applicator for the backs of the pads.
 
* [https://www.facebook.com/groups/zmcowners/permalink/1329769437092261/?comment_id=1334269306642274&comment_tracking=%7B%22tn%22%3A%22R%22%7D Chamfer the brake pads]
 
*: File the edges of the pad to put a 45 degree edge on them
 
*: You only need 1-2mm
 
  
===Brake Pad Fit===
+
==Motor==
;Nissin (2013 on rear, and 2013/2014 front)
+
All of Zero's motors are air-cooled and mounted on a shaft that is aligned with the front pivot of the swingarm so that transmission tension is perfectly aligned with swingarm movement.
:
 
;J Juan (2014+ on rear, 2015+ on front)
 
: [http://ecat.ferodoracing.com/motorcycle/brake-pads-and-shoes/FDB892 Front pad shape FDB892]
 
: [http://ecat.ferodoracing.com/motorcycle/brake-pads-and-shoes/FDB539 Rear pad shape FDB539]
 
  
Past forum threads of highly varying quality / ability to clarify:
+
{| class="wikitable"
* This [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5650 forum discussion] starts with the 14FX and brings up lots of issues.
+
|+ Motors by Model
* Another forum thread on [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5829 brake pad alternatives to OEM/stock].
+
!Brand
* One [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=3370.msg18646#msg18646 exhaustive listing from Burton] which unfortunately have the wrong EBC fitment numbers.
+
!Designation
 
+
!Years
;EBC
+
!Models
:The [https://ebcbrakes.com/Assets/ecatalogues/EBC_2017_US_MC_Catalog/EBC_2017_US_MC_Catalog.html#p=220 EBC brake catalog] covers Zero models.
+
|-
:However, it has always had the wrong shape recommendation for 2013-2014 models, and for the FX entirely! Double-check any recommendation.
+
|[http://www.saiettaengineering.com/motors/ Agni/Saietta]
: Their Carbon X pads can eliminate front brake squeal. [https://ebcbrakes.com/product/carbon-x-or-tt-brakes/ EBC Carbon X page]
+
|[http://www.robotcombat.com/products/EMS-AGNI-B-95R.html 95-R] [http://www.asmokarts.com/index.cfm?pageID=24 alt]
;SBS
+
|2009-2011
:offers a [http://uk.sbs.dk/business-areas/motorcycle.aspx brake search engine] which covers Zero models.
+
|S/DS/X/MX
;Goldfren
+
|-
:offers a good [http://www.goldfrenusa.com/includes/pdf/GOLDFREN_BrakePadsCrossReference.pdf cross reference] between brands.
+
|rowspan="2"|[[Motenergy]]
 
+
|[http://www.evdrives.com/product_p/mot-me0810.htm ME0810]
;[http://moto.brembo.com/en/ Brembo]
+
|2011-2012
: Brembo's [http://moto.brembo.com/en/ Motorcycle Brakes Configurator] has reasonably usable Zero model lookup.
+
|X/MX
: Their Carbon Ceramic pads are reported to resolve brake squeal issues.
+
|-
 
+
|[http://www.motenergy.com/me0913.html ME0913]
;[[Brake Pad Lookup]]:
+
|2012
{{:Brake Pad Lookup}}
+
|S/DS
 
+
|-
;References
+
|rowspan="8"|[http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/technology/ Z-Force]
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4099.0 Honda / Nissin front brake shoes; goodbye screech, hello stoppies]
+
|rowspan="3"|[[#Z-Force Motor|75-5]]
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4715.0 2015 FX Brake Pads?]
+
|2013
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5650.0 Brake pads] for 2014 SR
+
|FX/MX/XU
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5650.0 Brake pads] for 2015 FX, 2016 FXS
+
|-
 
+
|2014-2015
===[[Front Brake Pad Replacement]]===
+
|FX
 +
|-
 +
|2016
 +
|FX/FXS
 +
|-
 +
|[[#Z-Force Motor|75-5]] ([[#Z-Force Motor IPM Update|IPM]])
 +
|2017
 +
|FX/FXS/S ZF6.5/DS ZF6.5
 +
|-
 +
|[[#Z-Force Motor|75-7]]
 +
|2013-2016
 +
|S/DS/MMX
 +
|-
 +
|[[#Z-Force Motor|75-7]] ([[#Z-Force Motor IPM Update|IPM]])
 +
|2017
 +
|S/DS/MMX
 +
|-
 +
|[[#Z-Force Motor R-Variant|75-7R]]
 +
|2014-2015
 +
|SR
 +
|-
 +
|[[#Z-Force Motor R-Variant|75-7R]] ([[#Z-Force Motor IPM Update|IPM]])
 +
|2016-2017
 +
|SR/DSR
 +
|}
  
{{:Front Brake Pad Replacement}}
+
===Agni Motor===
 +
: [[File:AgniMotor.jpeg|right|300px]]
 +
: From 2009 to 2012, Zero used brushed DC [http://www.saiettaengineering.com/motors/ Agni/Saietta] [http://www.robotcombat.com/products/EMS-AGNI-B-95R.html 95-R] motors.
 +
: These have known quality issues after time and Zero offers many owners a [[#Z-Force Motor|Z-Force motor]] upgrade or complete trade-in for remaining 2014 models.
  
===[[Rear Brake Pad Replacement]]===
+
;Basic Facts
{{:Rear Brake Pad Replacement}}
+
: Shaft ⌀19mm
 +
: 6mm keyway
  
=Powertrain=
+
;Chain Specs
The powertrain includes all of Zero's power storage and delivery components including the battery, but this section focuses on the [[#Motor|motor]], power delivery via the [[#Controller|controller]], and their inputs via [[#Throttle|throttle]] and drive mode configurations.
+
: 420 chain specs: .500" pitch / .3125" roller diameter / .250" roller width / .227" sprocket width.
 +
: #41 sprocket teeth will engage 420 chain links, but they're made for .306" dia. rollers and a #41 sprocket / 420 chain combo will wear quickly.
 +
: Some sprocket places sell '41/420' sprockets, but there's no such thing.
  
;Licensing
+
;References
* For a time, Zero openly offered powertrain components in a licensed manner for prototyping and other uses.
+
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5123 2012 to 2013 motor upgrade info]
* Currently, probably for reasons of liability and support overhead, this is not publicly offered but does seem available on request for companies wanting to develop products where Zero's powertrain is a good fit.
+
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7168.0 Jack Shaft sprocket source]
* See Zero's [https://www.zeromotorcycles.com/powertrains/ Z-Force Powertrain Solutions] page which has a contact form.
 
  
==Throttle==
+
===Z-Force Motor===
The Zero throttle is a very straightforward twist-grip motorcycle control that operates a sensor instead of pulling on a mechanical cable or operating hydraulics.
+
: [[File:motor-illustrated.png|right|400px|link=http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/technology/|Z-Force™ Motor]]
 +
: [[File:z-force-motor-opened.png|right|400px]]
 +
: For the 2013+ models, Zero has [http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/technology/ their own motor design], trademarked "Z-Force".
  
Zero switched the throttle supplier from a [[#Magura_Throttle|Magura]] with a linear potentiometer to a [[#Bitron_Throttle|Bitron]] with a Hall-effect sensor in 2015 which changed how the wiring works.
+
; Features
 +
* Sealed
 +
* Air-cooled (via finned casing)
 +
* Brushless
 +
* Permanent-magnet rotor
  
;Connections
+
; Operation
:The Zero throttle connects directly to the [[#Controller|controller]], so anything you do related to the throttle signal can compromise the operation of the bike if there's an electrical fault or discrepancy.
+
: It is a 3-phase [[wikipedia:Brushless DC electric motor|''brushless DC'' (BLDC) electric motor]] which is [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=3640 roughly described] as a ''permanent magnet AC synchronous'' (PMAC) motor since the controller is continuously adjusting the phase angle of the field to the rotor's current position and speed.
: '''Example:''' [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6548 Sudden braking followed by no motor/throttle response on highway[2016 FXS]]
+
: The field must apply synchronously to the rotor, so the calibration between the position sensor and the [[#Controller|controller]] is critical for efficiency, minimizing wear on the bearings, and minimizing heating of the windings and magnets.
  
;Customization
+
; Motenergy's Clone
: See [[Unofficial_Service_Manual#Drive_Modes|Drive modes]] to customize throttle input interpretation as an owner.
+
: [http://www.motenergy.com/ Motenergy] makes [http://www.motenergy.com/mepmbrmo.html an unlicensed generic derivative], the [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/motors/motenergy-me1507.html ME1507], of the same form factor, rated for much lower outputs and seems to differ from Zero's motor in key ways.
: Use the mode control for "Custom" mode on 2014+ or "Eco" on earlier models to set the maximum torque the throttle applies.
+
: From [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/motors/motenergy-me1507.html Motenergy's ME1507 product page], it's clear that they're advertising a model on par with the 2016 IPM update:
:: This also directly changes how quickly torque ramps up for a given throttle twist/position.
+
<blockquote>The ME1507 is an Radial Air Gap, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) with an Internal Permanent Magnet Rotor (IPM). Designed for battery pack voltages of 100 VDC or less. Maximum rotor speed of 6000 rpm. Continuous current of 200 amps, and continuous power of 17 kw. Weight of 44 pounds.</blockquote>
  
;Advanced Customization
+
; Motor theory
: The Sevcon motor [[#Controller|controller]] settings are where most of the throttle interpretation happens.
+
: [http://www.motioncontrolonline.org/content-detail.cfm/Motion-Control-Technical-Features/Interior-Permanent-Magnet-Motors-Power-Traction-Motor-Applications/content_id/789 IPM vs SPM] for a different motor control regime but some principles translate to the Z-Force motor.
  
;Replacement
+
;Efficiency
:TODO...
+
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4070 forum thread]
 +
: [http://ptruchon.pagekite.me/wiki/rangevsspped Range vs Speed by Patrick Truchon] discusses the theory and measurements in depth.
 +
: [http://ptruchon.pagekite.me/wiki/blog/2015-09-19/does_gear_size_affect_range Does Gear Size Affect Range? by Patrick Truchon] with more theory!
  
;Assembly
+
====Z-Force Motor 75-5====
: The return spring cannot be tensioned while disassembled throttle is on the handlebar. Throttle must be removed to place the spring end correctly.  see video from Harlan Flagg: https://www.facebook.com/harlanflagg/videos/1364143910276196/
+
The [[#X Platform|X platform]] uses the 75-5 variant.
  
;Troubleshooting
+
====Z-Force Motor 75-7====
:[http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6382.msg49746#msg49746 One report of a "snatchy" throttle] turned out to have this explanation:
+
The [[#S Platform|S platform]] uses the 75-7 variant.
:: There is a black adjusting screw which holds the pinion gear of the throttle in place or for adjustment.
 
:: The pinion gear had moved to the right and caused the spring clip for throttle return to pop out of the slot.
 
:: This was clicking through the gears and causing a notchy throttle feel.
 
:: Resolution: Reset the pinion location and tighten the screw.
 
  
===Magura Throttle===
+
====Z-Force Motor R-Variant====
The 2012-2014 stock throttle is a [http://www.evdrives.com/product_p/thr-magura-assy.htm 5kOhm Magura throttle]
+
The 75-7R motor was introduced in 2014 with high-temperature magnets.
 +
: These require Sevcon Gen4 size 6 controllers to deliver more current and torque
 +
: SR (2014+) and DSR (2016+) models use these motors.
  
;Basic details
+
====Z-Force Motor IPM Update====
: The Magura Twist Throttle has a 0-5kΩ output.
+
In 2016, Zero introduced an interior permanent magnet (IPM) design as distinguished from a surface permanent magnet (SPM) design of the original motor introduced in 2013.
: Comes with matching grip for opposite side.
+
: The IPM design reduces the heating associated with developing magnetic flux and distributes the heat produced more evenly.
: 7/8" (22mm) handle bar fit
+
:: This allows the motor to operate at higher outputs while producing less heat overall and concentrating heat production where it dissipates more easily.
: 68" long control cable
+
:: In practice, this avoids hitting thermal limits which require cutbacks to protect the motor windings.
: Weight: 0.5 lbs
+
: 2016 models S/DS/SR/DSR/FXS have the IPM design.
 +
: FX and S/DS models with a 3-brick battery retained the SPM design (presumably to be phased out with inventory).
 +
: [http://livestream.com/accounts/14139273/events/4442461 Zero livestream announcing 2016 upgrades]
 +
: [http://livestream.com/accounts/14139273/events/4534534 Zero livestream presentation with Ryan Biffard about the Z-Force motor IPM upgrade]
 +
: The IPM design motor apparently involves custom Zero programming of the Sevcon controller for the encoder, so off the shelf DVT software cannot perform alignment/commissioning but can apply settings / DCF files and restore them.
  
;Connectors
+
====Z-Force Motor Mount/Torque Update====
: Three wire output directly to the [[#Controller|controller]].
+
In 2017, the Sevcon [[#Controller|controllers]] were updated ("4.5" is the unofficial revision) to support more current to the motor.
{| class="wikitable"
+
: The [[#Belt|belt]] was also reinforced and widened to apply more torque through the transmission and be more robust against interference.
|+ Magura Throttle Connectors
+
: Accordingly, the motor shaft is now splined instead of keyed so the motors and sprockets are not compatible across the 2016-2017 year-line.
! Wire
 
! Function
 
! Destination
 
! Illustration
 
|-
 
| Blue
 
| Throttle High
 
| Sevcon Pin 34
 
|rowspan="3"|[[File:throttle-magura-connector.png|400px]]
 
|-
 
| Brown
 
| Wiper
 
| Sevcon Pin 22 (analog)
 
|-
 
| Orange/Black
 
| Throttle Low
 
| B- Sevcon terminal
 
|}
 
  
===Bitron Throttle===
+
====Z-Force Motor 75-10====
2015+ models use a new HAL-based (Hall-effect active device) sensor from [http://www.bitron.net Bitron] which can't be replaced easily by Domino or similar
+
The [[#FST Platform|FST platform]] uses the 75-10 variant, which has a new construction in addition to being wider.
: Product reference: [http://www.bitron.net/index.php?option=com_k2&view=itemlist&task=tag&tag=accelescooter&Itemid=231 Bitron HAL-based throttle]
+
* Cooling ridges run along the circumference of the cylinder rather than axially parallel to the shaft.
 +
*: These ridges align with directional airflow from under the frame where the motor controller enclosure guides it.
 +
* The construction therefore is no longer an extrusion as in previous casings.
 +
*: Possibly there are lathe-like methods involved in machining.
 +
* The finish in the first model with the motor is bronze, probably indicating something about an alloy change.
  
;Connectors
+
;Features
: Via [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6966.msg57299#msg57299 Keith's investigation]
+
* The motor encoder position sensor is now housed in a servicing-accessible enclosure, opposite the shaft, on the right side.
: 8 wire output, bundled into two pairs of 3 wires for potentiometer outputs.
+
* The motor mounts are now more structural, joining the swingarm to the rear of the main frame.
: [[File:throttle-wiring-bitron.png|400px]]
+
*: TODO review for a better structural description.
: [http://prd.sws.co.jp/components/en/detail.php?number_s=61880779 Sumitomo connector 6188-0779]
 
: [http://prd.sws.co.jp/components/en/detail.php?number_s=61891240 Sumitomo connector 6189-1240]
 
: The hall-effect sensor may be a potentiometer wired up as a voltage divider as follows:
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|+ Measured voltages
 
!Wire
 
!Twist
 
!Voltage
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|Brown
 
|None
 
|0.5
 
|-
 
|Full
 
|4.5
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|Brown/Red
 
|None
 
|4.5
 
|-
 
|Full
 
|0.5
 
|}
 
  
==Regen==
+
===Motor Mounting===
The Sevcon [[#Controller|controller]] can enter a regeneration mode where it captures momentum from the motor and charges the battery.
+
On the motor there are 8 M8 bolts holding the motor in place: 4 on the drive side, 4 on the rear side.
 +
: Those bolts only have about 12Nm of torque on them.
  
;Operating Range
+
;References
: Regen for Zeros operates between 12mph (where the motor cannot produce enough voltage to naturally power through the controller) and 4500 RPM (70mph in default gearing).
+
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5218 Burton's 2013 to 2014 motor swap thread] shows the most detail about the physical mounting of the motor.
: This band can be adjusted in [[MBB Console#Settings|MBB settings]].
 
  
;Level
+
===[[Motor Removal]]===
: Regen levels are defined/set in terms of percentage of maximum allowable levels, so 0-100%.
+
{{:Motor Removal}}
: That 100% maps to a 40A recharge limit setting in the Sevcon controller, equivalent to 10% of the maximum discharge rate of a Gen4 size 4 controller.
 
: The 100% setting also corresponds to 60% of the 72Nm torque limit also specified.
 
: The recharge limit may be set up to 91A via Sevcon setting or higher by a dummy value (65535?).
 
: Zero sets regen levels to preclude rear wheel lockup, so raising the limit is a risk that ABS cannot directly control.
 
: Regen has the same effect for SR/DSR models as for S/DS.
 
  
;Efficiency
+
===[[Motor Bearing Replacement]]===
: The recharge efficiency of regen is typically that 10% of the energy used to climb an incline can be returned on the corresponding descent.
+
{{:Motor Bearing Replacement}}
  
;Triggers
+
===Motor Shaft===
*Normal regen is triggered by relaxing the throttle.
+
;Pre-2017
*: There is a position just above the resting position where an actual neutral torque is achievable.
+
: The motor shaft is keyed; the key has a square cross section.
*: The [[MBB Console#Settings|MBB has a setting]] in mV for the potentiometer output of the throttle to trigger regen.
+
:;Measurements
*: Adjusting this is not normally effective unless changing throttle types.
+
:* Dimensions seem to be ¼” square ⨉ 2.0” length (expressed in metric on drawings).
*Brake regen is triggered by the same signal that turns on the brake light:
+
:* Ends 5mm from shaft end.
*: A contact switch against the front brake lever will engage the brake light (and regen); the hydraulic piston and the switch engage simultaneously by default.
+
:* Shaft diameter is ⌀28.275mm+0-0.021
*: Rear brakes engage pad contact and the brake light (and regen) simultaneously, but require some amount of travel before they engage.
+
:* Shaft length extends 66.675mm beyond the motor face minus 4mm for raised parts of the face.
 +
: 2013 models had a minor [[Recalls|recall]] about the shaft key coming loose, but this was a design revision that has not recurred.
 +
;2017+
 +
: The motor shaft is splined to allow higher torque transmission.
 +
: Rumor has it (via [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7010.msg59925#msg59925 Harlan at Hollywood Electrics]) that the spline is supposed to match a Kawasaki KX250F as well as a Yamaha YZ450F.
  
==Drive Modes==
+
===Motor Sounds===
{{:Drive Modes}}
 
  
==Motor==
+
====[[Motor Whirring]]====
All of Zero's motors are air-cooled and mounted on a shaft that is aligned with the front pivot of the swingarm so that transmission tension is perfectly aligned with swingarm movement.
+
:{{:Motor Whirring}}
 +
 
 +
====[[Motor Whine]]====
 +
: While moving, the motor tends to make a solid smooth tone resonant with the RPMs the motor is rotating at, usually noticeable around 15-30mph (30-50kph).
 +
 
 +
===Motor Wiring===
 +
The motor's stator is connected to the [[#Controller|controller]] for power and position feedback.
  
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
|+ Motors by Model
+
|+Power Inputs
!Brand
 
!Designation
 
!Years
 
!Models
 
 
|-
 
|-
|[http://www.saiettaengineering.com/motors/ Agni/Saietta]
+
|3-phase / Y-shaped (120° phase offset) power inputs from the controller.
|[http://www.robotcombat.com/products/EMS-AGNI-B-95R.html 95-R] [http://www.asmokarts.com/index.cfm?pageID=24 alt]
+
# A (M1)
|2009-2011
+
# B (M2)
|S/DS/X/MX
+
# C (M3)
 +
|[[File:motor-controller.png|thumb|Motor-controller power connections]]
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
{| class="wikitable"
 +
|+Sensor Connections
 
|-
 
|-
|rowspan="2"|[[Motenergy]]
+
|8-pin Metri-Pack 150 ([http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Delphi-Connection-Systems/12047937/ Mouser p/n 829-12047937])
|[http://www.evdrives.com/product_p/mot-me0810.htm ME0810]
+
:* Terminal: [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Delphi-Connection-Systems/12084200/ Mouser p/n 829-12084200]
|2011-2012
+
:* Retainer: [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Delphi-Connection-Systems/15324525/ Mouser p/n 829-15324525]
|X/MX
+
:* Seal: [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Delphi-Connection-Systems/15324973/ Mouser p/n 829-15324973]
|-
+
:* Seal: [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Delphi-Connection-Systems/12059168-B/ Mouser p/n 829-12059168-B]
|[http://www.motenergy.com/me0913.html ME0913]
+
# Motor Position (Cosine) / white
|2012
+
# Motor Position (Sine) / blue
|S/DS
+
# Motor Position (Ground) / black
|-
+
# ''unused''
|rowspan="8"|[http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/technology/ Z-Force]
+
# [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IC_power-supply_pin V<sub>DD</sub>] (5V) / red
|rowspan="3"|[[#Z-Force Motor|75-5]]
+
# Shield / green
|2013
+
# Temperature (negative) / yellow
|FX/MX/XU
+
# Temperature (positive) / yellow
|-
+
|[[File:motor-signals-connector.png|thumb|2013 motor sensor connectors]]
|2014-2015
+
|}
|FX
+
 
|-
+
===Motor Alignment===
|2016
+
The back side of the motor (encoder side) has screw jack bolts that let you tweak the motor position. Mostly this is only needed when (re)installing the motor.
|FX/FXS
+
 
|-
+
;Procedure
|[[#Z-Force Motor|75-5]] ([[#Z-Force Motor IPM Update|IPM]])
+
# Loosen the four M6 socket head screws.
|2017
+
# Adjust the portion of the silver nut that is not wedged into the slot on the motor.
|FX/FXS/S ZF6.5/DS ZF6.5
+
 
|-
+
===Motor Commissioning===
|[[#Z-Force Motor|75-7]]
+
Motor commissioning refers to aligning the controller's sine wave programming against the motor using its position sensors.
|2013-2016
 
|S/DS/MMX
 
|-
 
|[[#Z-Force Motor|75-7]] ([[#Z-Force Motor IPM Update|IPM]])
 
|2017
 
|S/DS/MMX
 
|-
 
|[[#Z-Force Motor R-Variant|75-7R]]
 
|2014-2015
 
|SR
 
|-
 
|[[#Z-Force Motor R-Variant|75-7R]] ([[#Z-Force Motor IPM Update|IPM]])
 
|2016-2017
 
|SR/DSR
 
|}
 
  
===Agni Motor===
+
;Benefits
: From 2009 to 2012, Zero used brushed DC [http://www.saiettaengineering.com/motors/ Agni/Saietta] [http://www.robotcombat.com/products/EMS-AGNI-B-95R.html 95-R] motors.
+
: Maximum efficiency (avoids current applied wastefully)
: These have known quality issues after time and Zero offers many owners a [[#Z-Force Motor|Z-Force motor]] upgrade or complete trade-in for remaining 2014 models.
+
: Avoid any slippage.
 +
: Avoid misapplied torque which might wear on the bearings.
  
;Basic Facts
+
===Motor Limits===
: Shaft ⌀19mm
+
The following regards what engineering constraints limit the power and RPM of the (IPM) Z-Force motor. Pre-IPM motors generated more heat for a given amount of power, so cooling was usually the first concern, but the IPM design pushes the frontier further so the topic is worth addressing.
: 6mm keyway
 
  
;Chain Specs
+
;RPM
: 420 chain specs: .500" pitch / .3125" roller diameter / .250" roller width / .227" sprocket width.
+
: The Z-Force motor is design-limited to 6,000 RPM as follows.
: #41 sprocket teeth will engage 420 chain links, but they're made for .306" dia. rollers and a #41 sprocket / 420 chain combo will wear quickly.
+
: RPM is primarily limited by the inductance of the motor windings.
: Some sprocket places sell '41/420' sprockets, but there's no such thing.
+
: At low RPM, under full throttle, the current through the driven phase(s) of the motor ramps up from 0 to the maximum allowed by the controller pretty quickly, and you get full torque because you've got full current.
 +
: But the faster the motor turns, the faster the motor controller has to cycle the phases of the motor on and off, and eventually, you reach a point where there's not enough time (because of the inductance of the motor windings) for the current to ramp up to maximum before that phase has to be turned off and the next phase cycled on.
 +
: At that point, power starts to drop off, so very shortly after that, the motor won't have enough torque or power left to drive the load.
 +
: The mechanics of the motor could easily have been designed for higher RPM, but there's no point since you'll be current-limited anyhow.
 +
 
 +
;Torque / Power
 +
: The easiest way to get more torque, and thereby more power (since power is proportional to torque times RPM), is to pump more current through the motor.
 +
: Several things can bottleneck that effort:
 +
:* First, the motor windings have a DC resistance because they're copper wires with fixed gauges and lengths.
 +
:* The bike's wiring external to the motor also has some DC resistance in it.
 +
:* If you apply more voltage to a fixed DC resistance, you'll get more current, but the batteries only give you ~110VDC to play with....and of course, the battery has a current limit of its own.
 +
:* You'll need to be sure the controller can handle the current as well; you won't go very fast once you smoke the controller.
 +
:* Since the motor rotates and therefore the windings have to be commutated (driven on and off in the proper sequence and speed), the motor's inductance also comes into play as discussed above about RPM.
 +
:* You could change some of this stuff fairly easily (higher-gauge wiring is pretty simple, though might be tough to fit in some of the tight confines the Zero's wiring is routed through), but other things are more difficult.
 +
:* To reduce the motor winding's DC resistance, you'd want to use heavier wire, but you wouldn't be able to get as many turns onto the same coil form.
 +
:* Fewer turns would create less inductance, which also helps allow higher current levels, but fewer turns also results in a weaker magnetic field for the same current, so you might actually reduce the torque the motor puts out.
 +
:* Then you'd also need to be sure you don't over-current the controller, or the batteries, and cooling everything involved becomes an additional topic.
 +
: It's kind of like asking what's the highest VO2 max an athlete can put out.
 +
:* It's not just about his lungs, it's about his heart, his muscles, his metabolism at a microscopic level, even about his mental attitude.
 +
:* Tweak any one thing and the system's whole balance shifts.
 +
:* That's why engineers make the medium-sized bucks!
 +
 
 +
;Speed
 +
: Vehicle top speed can only be altered by the gearing (sprocket ratios).
 +
: Power output is not affected by gearing; only torque is.
 +
: So, a ratio yielding a higher top speed will result in lower torques throughout the range, resulting in slower accelerations from start.
  
 
;References
 
;References
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5123 2012 to 2013 motor upgrade info]
+
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7208.0 What is the limit of a Zero motor?]
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7168.0 Jack Shaft sprocket source]
 
  
===Z-Force Motor===
+
==Controller==
: [[File:motor-illustrated.png|right|400px|link=http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/technology/|Z-Force™ Motor]]
+
This takes power from DC battery bus, encoding three-phase sine waves to match the motor's position sensor to apply torque precisely to the motor.
: [[File:z-force-motor-opened.png|right|400px]]
+
: The power is applied to the motor in synchronization with the current speed and position of the rotor.
: For the 2013+ models, Zero has [http://www.zeromotorcycles.com/technology/ their own motor design], trademarked "Z-Force".
+
: Controller alignment ([[#Motor_Commissioning|motor commissioning]]) is the process of tuning all of this for maximum efficiency and to avoid any slippage.
 
+
[[File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top]]
; Features
 
* Sealed
 
* Air-cooled (via finned casing)
 
* Brushless
 
* Permanent-magnet rotor
 
  
; Operation
+
===Controller Operation===
: It is a 3-phase [[wikipedia:Brushless DC electric motor|''brushless DC'' (BLDC) electric motor]] which is [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=3640 roughly described] as a ''permanent magnet AC synchronous'' (PMAC) motor since the controller is continuously adjusting the phase angle of the field to the rotor's current position and speed.
+
The controller is a switching [[wikipedia:MOSFET|MOSFET]] power supply that creates 3 phased sine wave outputs to drive the motor via [[wikipedia:Pulse-width modulation|Pulse-width modulation]] (PWM).
: The field must apply synchronously to the rotor, so the calibration between the position sensor and the [[#Controller|controller]] is critical for efficiency, minimizing wear on the bearings, and minimizing heating of the windings and magnets.
+
: The switching attempts to produce a smooth sine wave to each output terminal via [[wikipedia:Space vector modulation|Space vector modulation]] strategy of PWM.
 +
: The motor has 3 stator (casing-embedded) windings at 120° equally spaced offsets around the circumference.
 +
:* Each winding pulls from one motor terminal's output from the controller.
 +
:* Each winding electromagnetically pulls on the rotor.
 +
:* The forces need to balance out, not leading to a net lateral force on the rotor and shaft.
 +
:* It also shouldn’t precess or wobble or slip.
 +
: The process of making the sine waves is “encoding”.
 +
[[File:my2017sr-sevcon-scope.jpg|thumb|MY2017 Zero SR.  Scope at Sevcon M3 Output Terminal]]
  
; Motenergy's Clone
+
===Controller Alignment===
: [http://www.motenergy.com/ Motenergy] makes [http://www.motenergy.com/mepmbrmo.html an unlicensed generic derivative], the [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/motors/motenergy-me1507.html ME1507], of the same form factor, rated for much lower outputs and seems to differ from Zero's motor in key ways.
+
Alignment is the calibration of the controller sine wave production to match the controller output to the motor's position precisely.
: From [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/motors/motenergy-me1507.html Motenergy's ME1507 product page], it's clear that they're advertising a model on par with the 2016 IPM update:
+
* This is performed once/first by Zero's [[#Motor_Commissioning|motor commissioning]] process and then repeated later as a recalibration.
<blockquote>The ME1507 is an Radial Air Gap, Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor (PMSM) with an Internal Permanent Magnet Rotor (IPM). Designed for battery pack voltages of 100 VDC or less. Maximum rotor speed of 6000 rpm. Continuous current of 200 amps, and continuous power of 17 kw. Weight of 44 pounds.</blockquote>
+
* It should generally be performed periodically as a preventative maintenance step.
  
; Motor theory
+
The motor has sensors for encoder alignment to tell the exact angle of rotation of the rotor.
: [http://www.motioncontrolonline.org/content-detail.cfm/Motion-Control-Technical-Features/Interior-Permanent-Magnet-Motors-Power-Traction-Motor-Applications/content_id/789 IPM vs SPM] for a different motor control regime but some principles translate to the Z-Force motor.
+
* If those sensors are inaccurate, encoding can be rough or fail entirely.
 +
* The sensors are embedded within the motor so for owners they just compensate in the controller for the drift, or swap the motor if the signal is bad enough that the controller can’t work with it.
  
;Efficiency
+
===Controller Versions===
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4070 forum thread]
+
{| class="wikitable sortable"
: [http://ptruchon.pagekite.me/wiki/rangevsspped Range vs Speed by Patrick Truchon] discusses the theory and measurements in depth.
+
!colspan="2"|Bike
: [http://ptruchon.pagekite.me/wiki/blog/2015-09-19/does_gear_size_affect_range Does Gear Size Affect Range? by Patrick Truchon] with more theory!
+
!colspan="2"|Controller
 
+
!colspan="2"|Limits
====Z-Force Motor 75-5====
+
|-
The [[#X Platform|X platform]] uses the 75-5 variant.
+
! Years
 
+
! Models
====Z-Force Motor 75-7====
+
! Manufacturer
The [[#S Platform|S platform]] uses the 75-7 variant.
+
! Model
 
+
! Input Voltage
====Z-Force Motor R-Variant====
+
! Phase Current
The 75-7R motor was introduced in 2014 with high-temperature magnets.
+
|-
: These require Sevcon Gen4 size 6 controllers to deliver more current and torque
+
|2009-2011
: SR (2014+) and DSR (2016+) models use these motors.
+
|S/DS
 
+
|[http://www.alltraxinc.com/ Alltrax]
====Z-Force Motor IPM Update====
+
|[http://www.alltraxinc.com/Products_AXE.html AXE4855] refs: [http://www.evdrives.com/product_p/con-axe4855.htm] [http://www.electricmotorsport.com/alltrax-axe4855-24-48v-500a.html]
In 2016, Zero introduced an interior permanent magnet (IPM) design as distinguished from a surface permanent magnet (SPM) design of the original motor introduced in 2013.
+
|48V
: The IPM design reduces the heating associated with developing magnetic flux and distributes the heat produced more evenly.
+
|500A
:: This allows the motor to operate at higher outputs while producing less heat overall and concentrating heat production where it dissipates more easily.
+
|-
:: In practice, this avoids hitting thermal limits which require cutbacks to protect the motor windings.
+
|rowspan="3"|2012
: 2016 models S/DS/SR/DSR/FXS have the IPM design.
+
|XU
: FX and S/DS models with a 3-brick battery retained the SPM design (presumably to be phased out with inventory).
+
|rowspan="2"|[[Sevcon]]
: [http://livestream.com/accounts/14139273/events/4442461 Zero livestream announcing 2016 upgrades]
+
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4] [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-2-80v.html Size 2]
: [http://livestream.com/accounts/14139273/events/4534534 Zero livestream presentation with Ryan Biffard about the Z-Force motor IPM upgrade]
+
|rowspan="2"|120V
: The IPM design motor apparently involves custom Zero programming of the Sevcon controller for the encoder, so off the shelf DVT software cannot perform alignment/commissioning but can apply settings / DCF files and restore them.
+
|220A
 
+
|-
====Z-Force Motor Mount/Torque Update====
+
|S/DS
In 2017, the Sevcon [[#Controller|controllers]] were updated ("4.5" is the unofficial revision) to support more current to the motor.
+
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4] [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-4-80v.html Size 4]
: The [[#Belt|belt]] was also reinforced and widened to apply more torque through the transmission and be more robust against interference.
+
|420A
: Accordingly, the motor shaft is now splined instead of keyed so the motors and sprockets are not compatible across the 2016-2017 year-line.
+
|-
 
+
|X/MX
===Motor Mounting===
+
|[http://www.alltraxinc.com/ Alltrax]
On the motor there are 8 M8 bolts holding the motor in place: 4 on the drive side, 4 on the rear side.
+
|[http://www.alltraxinc.com/Products_AXE.html AXE7245] refs: [http://www.evdrives.com/product_p/con-axe7245.htm] [http://www.electricmotorsport.com/alltrax-axe7245-24-72v-450a.html]
: Those bolts only have about 12Nm of torque on them.
+
|72V
 
+
|450A
;References
+
|-
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=5218 Burton's 2013 to 2014 motor swap thread] shows the most detail about the physical mounting of the motor.
+
|rowspan="3"|2013-2016
 +
|XU
 +
|rowspan="5"|[[Sevcon]]
 +
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4] [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-2-80v.html Size 2]
 +
|rowspan="5"|120V
 +
|220A
 +
|-
 +
|S/DS/FX/FXS/MMX
 +
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4] [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-4-80v.html Size 4]
 +
|420A
 +
|-
 +
|SR/DSR
 +
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4] [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-6-80v.html Size 6]
 +
|660A
 +
|-
 +
|rowspan="2"|2017+
 +
|S/DS/FX/FXS/MMX
 +
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4].5 [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-4-80v.html Size 4]
 +
|550A
 +
|-
 +
|SR/DSR
 +
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4].5 [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-6-80v.html Size 6]
 +
|775A
 +
|}
  
===[[Motor Removal]]===
+
;2017 “Gen4.5”
{{:Motor Removal}}
+
: 2017 models reference higher current ratings without publicized evidence of a Sevcon model change.
 +
: These improvements seem to be in choosing [http://www.mouser.com/new/Infineon-Technologies/infineon-optimos-5/ MOSFETs] with increased power switching efficiencies to allow higher continuous and peak current levels.
 +
: “Gen4.5” has been a term heard describing these improvements.
  
===[[Motor Bearing Replacement]]===
+
;Gen4 Size 6 Controller
{{:Motor Bearing Replacement}}
+
<gallery mode="packed">
 
+
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top
===Motor Shaft===
+
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top Connections.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top Terminals
;Pre-2017
+
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connectors Left Side.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Terminals Left Side
: The motor shaft is keyed; the key has a square cross section.
+
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connector.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connector
:;Measurements
+
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Left Side.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Left Side
:* Dimensions seem to be ¼” square ⨉ 2.0” length (expressed in metric on drawings).
+
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Front.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Front
:* Ends 5mm from shaft end.
+
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Rear.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Rear
:* Shaft diameter is ⌀28.275mm+0-0.021
+
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Bottom.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Bottom
:* Shaft length extends 66.675mm beyond the motor face minus 4mm for raised parts of the face.
+
</gallery>
: 2013 models had a minor [[Recalls|recall]] about the shaft key coming loose, but this was a design revision that has not recurred.
+
;Gen4 Size 6 Controller Internals
;2017+
+
<gallery mode="packed">
: The motor shaft is splined to allow higher torque transmission.
+
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connection Front (Uncovered).png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connection Front
: Rumor has it (via [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7010.msg59925#msg59925 Harlan at Hollywood Electrics]) that the spline is supposed to match a Kawasaki KX250F as well as a Yamaha YZ450F.
+
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connections Profile (Uncovered).png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connections Profile
 +
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connectors Left Side (Uncovered).png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connectors Left Side
 +
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Cover (Underside).png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Casing
 +
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top (Uncovered).png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top
 +
</gallery>
  
===Motor Sounds===
+
===Controller Mounting===
 +
;S Platform Location
 +
: The controller is located beneath the seat at the front of the tail assembly.
 +
: The baseplate is fastened from the underside of the tail of the frame, between the frame "horns".
 +
;X Platform Location
 +
: The controller is mounted to the forward downward face of the frame at the bottom.
 +
: The baseplate is fastened from the outside of the frame face.
  
====[[Motor Whirring]]====
+
; Fasteners
:{{:Motor Whirring}}
+
: A [[#Controller Cover|plastic sheet cover]] is fastened across the top of the controller by a Phillips head screw (PH1).
 +
: A [[#Controller Heatsink|heatsink]] is fastened to its surface for radiative cooling, with a thermal paste between to maximize heat transfer via contact/conduction.
 +
: 4 M6 bolts secure the controller baseplate to the frame.
 +
:* For size 2 and size 4 controllers, the base plate is 12mm thick.
 +
:* For size 6 controllers (S platform only), the base plate is 20mm thick.
  
====[[Motor Whine]]====
+
===[[Controller Uncovering]]===
: While moving, the motor tends to make a solid smooth tone resonant with the RPMs the motor is rotating at, usually noticeable around 15-30mph (30-50kph).
+
{{warning|This exposes high-voltage terminals that can damage tools, equipment, or cause injury or death if not de-energized.
 +
Ensure the bike is fully de-energized or that you are using professional methods and safety precautions.}}
 +
{{:Controller Uncovering}}
  
===Motor Wiring===
+
===Controller Heatsink===
The motor's stator is connected to the [[#Controller|controller]] for power and position feedback.
+
The underside face of the controller is directly covered by a finned heatsink that faces downwards toward the rear wheel and swingarm.
 +
* The heatsink varies in size with the size of the controller.
 +
* A thermal paste is applied between the heatsink and baseplate to maximize heat transfer via contact/conduction.
 +
* The rear shock connects just ahead of the heatsink to the frame center tube.
  
 +
===Controller Connections===
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
{| class="wikitable"
|+Power Inputs
+
|+ Controller Connectors
 
|-
 
|-
|3-phase / Y-shaped (120° phase offset) power inputs from the controller.
+
| Main terminals are, in order from front to rear: M1, B-, M2, B+, M3.
# A (M1)
+
: For Size 4 and Size 6, the bolts are all M8 with a torque setting of 11Nm±2Nm; bolts should engage a minimum of 10mm and thread depth is 15mm.
# B (M2)
+
: For Size 2 (2013XU), the bolts are all M6 with a torque settings of 7Nm±2Nm.
# C (M3)
+
* M-terminals supply the motor with its rotating field in three phases. Each gets a sine wave that is offset by 0, 120, 240 degrees.
 +
* B+ and B- connect to the battery power at positive and negative, respectively.
 
|[[File:motor-controller.png|thumb|Motor-controller power connections]]
 
|[[File:motor-controller.png|thumb|Motor-controller power connections]]
 +
|-
 +
| [http://www.te.com/usa-en/product-1-776163-1.html Connector info] (see AMPSEAL Automotive Plug Connector and Header Assembly (PDF, English))
 +
: [http://www.mouser.com/Search/ProductDetail.aspx?qs=YqNA2qefETAUziSpjzx9mg%3d%3d More connector info] (look at bottom for pins)
 +
|[[File:controller-connector.png|thumb|2013 Gen4 Size 4 Controller signal connector]]
 
|}
 
|}
  
{| class="wikitable"
+
;Diagnostic Cables
|+Sensor Connections
+
: [[File:cable-harness-sevcon-prog-all.png|400px|Sevcon programming cable harness]][[File:cable-harness-sevcon-prog-ampseal-34-rear.png|300px|Connections to Sevcon for programming]][[File:cable-harness-sevcon-prog-ampseal-34.png|200px|34-pin AMPSeal connector]]
|-
+
: Zero Sevcon programming cables are part #86-06747 connected as follows:
|8-pin Metri-Pack 150 ([http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Delphi-Connection-Systems/12047937/ Mouser p/n 829-12047937])
+
:* Pin 1 is "Key Switch In": power for the logic circuits.
:* Terminal: [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Delphi-Connection-Systems/12084200/ Mouser p/n 829-12084200]
+
:* Pin 2 is linked to pin 24 via 120Ω resistor to tell the Sevcon that it's at the CANBus termination.
:* Retainer: [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Delphi-Connection-Systems/15324525/ Mouser p/n 829-15324525]
+
:* Pin 13 is "CAN High".
:* Seal: [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Delphi-Connection-Systems/15324973/ Mouser p/n 829-15324973]
+
:* Pin 27 is "CAN Low" in the Sevcon manual (pin 24 also is, unless used for termination signal).
:* Seal: [http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Delphi-Connection-Systems/12059168-B/ Mouser p/n 829-12059168-B]
 
# Motor Position (Cosine) / white
 
# Motor Position (Sine) / blue
 
# Motor Position (Ground) / black
 
# ''unused''
 
# [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IC_power-supply_pin V<sub>DD</sub>] (5V) / red
 
# Shield / green
 
# Temperature (negative) / yellow
 
# Temperature (positive) / yellow
 
|[[File:motor-signals-connector.png|thumb|2013 motor sensor connectors]]
 
|}
 
  
===Motor Alignment===
+
===Controller Feature Usage===
The back side of the motor (encoder side) has screw jack bolts that let you tweak the motor position. Mostly this is only needed when (re)installing the motor.
 
  
;Procedure
+
;Throttle
# Loosen the four M6 socket head screws.
+
:[[Sevcon]] provides the [[#Throttle|throttle]] with two mappings:
# Adjust the portion of the silver nut that is not wedged into the slot on the motor.
+
:# Mapping voltage to value in the first place (separately for forward and reverse)
 
+
:# An "input characteristic" profile which has linear, curved, crawl, and user-defined segmented options.
===Motor Commissioning===
+
:The controller also supports:
Motor commissioning refers to aligning the controller's sine wave programming against the motor using its position sensors.
+
:*Control modes targeting speed (used through 2012) versus torque (used in 2013+).
 
+
:*:The control mode translates the throttle signal into motor operation, so it makes the throttle target a speed or a level of torque.
;Benefits
+
:*Dual throttle inputs.
: Maximum efficiency (avoids current applied wastefully)
+
:*Regen proportional to the throttle.
: Avoid any slippage.
+
:*Directional throttle.
: Avoid misapplied torque which might wear on the bearings.
+
:*Speed limit proportional to throttle.
 +
:*Reverse speed limit.
 +
 
 +
;Regen
 +
:The [[Sevcon]] controller manual refers to regen as braking, and has a number of recommendations and features disabled to help prevent wheel lockup for "on-highway applications".
 +
;Braking
 +
: The Sevcon can also apply reverse torque as braking or a reverse gear, and supports separate speed and torque limits while the motor is rotating in reverse, very important if used on a Zero since motorcycles are unstable when reversed so must operate within human walking speeds.
  
===Motor Limits===
+
;OEM Programming
The following regards what engineering constraints limit the power and RPM of the (IPM) Z-Force motor. Pre-IPM motors generated more heat for a given amount of power, so cooling was usually the first concern, but the IPM design pushes the frontier further so the topic is worth addressing.
+
: Zero programs the Sevcon controller for their needs, above and beyond DOT, NHTSA, and EU vehicle manufacturing standards.
 +
: Some of this is a bunch of settings and some of this seems to be a custom version of the firmware code.
 +
: The new IPM motor may have demanded further customization than previous models, where custom firmware code is particularly relevant.
 +
: ''Settings'' can be changed and restored, but not ''code'' without some OEM-supported technical assistance.
  
;RPM
+
===[[Sevcon Controller CAN Diagnostics|Controller CAN Diagnostics]]===
: The Z-Force motor is design-limited to 6,000 RPM as follows.
+
{{:Sevcon Controller CAN Diagnostics}}
: RPM is primarily limited by the inductance of the motor windings.
 
: At low RPM, under full throttle, the current through the driven phase(s) of the motor ramps up from 0 to the maximum allowed by the controller pretty quickly, and you get full torque because you've got full current.
 
: But the faster the motor turns, the faster the motor controller has to cycle the phases of the motor on and off, and eventually, you reach a point where there's not enough time (because of the inductance of the motor windings) for the current to ramp up to maximum before that phase has to be turned off and the next phase cycled on.
 
: At that point, power starts to drop off, so very shortly after that, the motor won't have enough torque or power left to drive the load.
 
: The mechanics of the motor could easily have been designed for higher RPM, but there's no point since you'll be current-limited anyhow.
 
  
;Torque / Power
+
===Controller Configuration===
: The easiest way to get more torque, and thereby more power (since power is proportional to torque times RPM), is to pump more current through the motor.
+
The controller's configuration implements a number of Zero features:
: Several things can bottleneck that effort:
+
* Speed calculations.
:* First, the motor windings have a DC resistance because they're copper wires with fixed gauges and lengths.
+
* Distance calculations.
:* The bike's wiring external to the motor also has some DC resistance in it.
+
* Over-voltage limits to protect the battery by cutting out regen or refusing to operate.
:* If you apply more voltage to a fixed DC resistance, you'll get more current, but the batteries only give you ~110VDC to play with....and of course, the battery has a current limit of its own.
+
* Under-voltage limits to protect the battery charge state.
:* You'll need to be sure the controller can handle the current as well; you won't go very fast once you smoke the controller.
+
* Current limits to protect the battery.
:* Since the motor rotates and therefore the windings have to be commutated (driven on and off in the proper sequence and speed), the motor's inductance also comes into play as discussed above about RPM.
+
* Delay before regen toggles on or off.
:* You could change some of this stuff fairly easily (higher-gauge wiring is pretty simple, though might be tough to fit in some of the tight confines the Zero's wiring is routed through), but other things are more difficult.
+
* Driving modes like Eco/Custom/Sport which include speed and torque limits and speed ramping limits to prevent wheel lockup.
:* To reduce the motor winding's DC resistance, you'd want to use heavier wire, but you wouldn't be able to get as many turns onto the same coil form.
 
:* Fewer turns would create less inductance, which also helps allow higher current levels, but fewer turns also results in a weaker magnetic field for the same current, so you might actually reduce the torque the motor puts out.
 
:* Then you'd also need to be sure you don't over-current the controller, or the batteries, and cooling everything involved becomes an additional topic.
 
: It's kind of like asking what's the highest VO2 max an athlete can put out.
 
:* It's not just about his lungs, it's about his heart, his muscles, his metabolism at a microscopic level, even about his mental attitude.
 
:* Tweak any one thing and the system's whole balance shifts.
 
:* That's why engineers make the medium-sized bucks!
 
 
 
;Speed
 
: Vehicle top speed can only be altered by the gearing (sprocket ratios).
 
: Power output is not affected by gearing; only torque is.
 
: So, a ratio yielding a higher top speed will result in lower torques throughout the range, resulting in slower accelerations from start.
 
  
 
;References
 
;References
: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7208.0 What is the limit of a Zero motor?]
+
: [http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Sevcon Gen4 product page] (formerly at [http://www.sevcon.com/ac-controllers/gen4%E2%84%A2.aspx])
 +
: [http://www.sevcon.com/media/78433/gen4_size_2_4_6_may_2016.pdf Gen4 data sheet] (no longer available without request form with contact details)
 +
: [http://www.thunderstruck-ev.com/Manuals/Gen4_Product_Manual_V3.0.pdf Gen4 reference Manual]
  
==Controller==
+
; Configuration
This takes power from DC battery bus, encoding three-phase sine waves to match the motor's position sensor to apply torque precisely to the motor.
+
: Some MBB settings direct the Sevcon controller; look to the MBB first.
: The power is applied to the motor in synchronization with the current speed and position of the rotor.
+
: The MBB can also provide a dump of Sevcon diagnostics and logs.
: Controller alignment ([[#Motor_Commissioning|motor commissioning]]) is the process of tuning all of this for maximum efficiency and to avoid any slippage.
+
: DVT software to maintain the Sevcon programming is available but recent versions require a license and the cabling is not cheap. The older unlicensed versions may have trouble maintaining newer programming by Zero.
[[File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top]]
 
  
===Controller Operation===
+
; [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4297 Direct diagnostics]
The controller is a switching [[wikipedia:MOSFET|MOSFET]] power supply that creates 3 phased sine wave outputs to drive the motor via [[wikipedia:Pulse-width modulation|Pulse-width modulation]] (PWM).
+
: For those interested in better understanding your Zero's motor controller setup, you'll need some specific cables and software.
: The switching attempts to produce a smooth sine wave to each output terminal via [[wikipedia:Space vector modulation|Space vector modulation]] strategy of PWM.
+
:: These will allow you to browse the current controller configuration as well as make changes such as increasing regeneration rates, customising sport or eco modes etc.
: The motor has 3 stator (casing-embedded) windings at 120° equally spaced offsets around the circumference.
+
: This is what you'll need:
:* Each winding pulls from one motor terminal's output from the controller.
+
:# An IXXAT CAN-USB compact adaptor v1.5 (v1.01.0087.10100) or v1.6
:* Each winding electromagnetically pulls on the rotor.
+
:#:approx USD300 but you may find it cheaper on eBay or borrow/rent it from another forum member or dealer.
:* The forces need to balance out, not leading to a net lateral force on the rotor and shaft.
+
:#: You cannot buy these anymore, you must get them off ebay or part of a [http://www.thunderstruck-ev.com/sevcon-gen4-pc-based-programming-kit.html Thunderstruck EV $900 kit].
:* It also shouldn’t precess or wobble or slip.
+
:#: You cannot use a new version of the IXXAT CAN-USB either as it will not work with an unlicensed copy of the software. And to get a license you have to own a business.
: The process of making the sine waves is “encoding”.
+
:# A DB2 female to OBDII male cable with a specific pin mapping (not the most common one).
[[File:my2017sr-sevcon-scope.jpg|thumb|MY2017 Zero SR. Scope at Sevcon M3 Output Terminal]]
+
:#:[http://www.easysync-ltd.com/ Easysync] make a [http://www.easysync-ltd.com/product/577/obd-m-db9-f-es.html DB9 female to OBD male cable] that has the correct pin configuration - about USD25
 
+
:# Sevcon DVT Customer software
===Controller Alignment===
+
:#:It has to be version 1.03c or lower to use unlicensed (Google is your friend, as is Dropbox in this case).
Alignment is the calibration of the controller sine wave production to match the controller output to the motor's position precisely.
+
:#:Good luck saving your DCF files with it.
* This is performed once/first by Zero's [[#Motor_Commissioning|motor commissioning]] process and then repeated later as a recalibration.
+
:#:You need to write down your settings before making big changes.
* It should generally be performed periodically as a preventative maintenance step.
+
:#:Even if you bought the new version and got a license you would have to use a NEW IXXAT USB-CAN as the old one isn't compatible.
 
+
:#:The Sevcon software will run on Windows XP, 7 and 8.
The motor has sensors for encoder alignment to tell the exact angle of rotation of the rotor.
+
:#:There are manuals and getting started guides on the Internet (Google again) on how to use the DVT software including one at [https://www.thunderstruck-ev.com/images/DVT%20Tutorial.pdf Thunderstruck EV].
* If those sensors are inaccurate, encoding can be rough or fail entirely.
+
: {{Warning| Do not link any files as they have been removed multiple times in the past.}}
* The sensors are embedded within the motor so for owners they just compensate in the controller for the drift, or swap the motor if the signal is bad enough that the controller can’t work with it.
+
:* One of the dropbox links you will find will have at least 3 different versions.
 +
:* If you install any new versions completely remove everything from the previous versions.
 +
:* If you find the program wont start up and it isn't 1.02 then install a "merge" installation of TCL and it should work.
 +
: {{Warning|You can brick your controller temporarily by making changes.}}
 +
:: It would be nice to have a backup but these online versions of "free" sevcon software all have issues with saving.
 +
:: I have tested 1.00 1.01 1.02 (which never ran) and 1.03c so far.
 +
:: If you brick your device you will need someone to give you a DCF file to return your device to working order.
 +
:: But good luck getting it from a form member who doesn't work for a dealer as stated it is next to impossible to export the file.
 +
: Sevcon is very much against this use of their product and software, and have issued takedown notices for publicly available files.
 +
: You will not get official support and people will be reluctant to post details publicly.
 +
:: Get the 200 page DVT / SEVCON GEN 4 manual from the manufacture's webpage and read it a couple times.
 +
:: Try contacting knowledgeable people privately.
 +
: You really need to understand what you are doing when you start to make changes.
 +
:: This isn't a toy you are going to be remotely piloting, it is a vehicle you are risking your life on!
 +
: Zero has specific programming to customize the Sevcon controller.
 +
:: So it is not clear whether customer customization is achievable beyond basic modification of settings or performing an alignment using DVT.
 +
 
 +
; Recovery
 +
: [https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewtopic.php?f=30&t=88205&p=1287062#p1287062 DoctorBass has documented a backdoor method of recovering a Sevcon controller if its firmware is in an unusable state]
 +
: Using the IXXAT connection, issue the following command:
 +
can send "0x7FA 0x48 0x65 0x79 0x73 0x6c 0x69 0x70"
 +
: This byte sequence is also apparently available as "BD" (for "backdoor", presumably).
 +
 
 +
===Controller Cover===
 +
The Sevcon Controller has a sheet installed over it for EMI protection to the rider that is probably also helpful at keeping dust and moisture off.
  
===Controller Versions===
+
;Mounting
{| class="wikitable sortable"
+
: The cover is anchored in front of the controller in a recessed area under the arms of the Y-shaped seat underframe.
!colspan="2"|Bike
+
: The cover is anchored to the rear of the controller with a single screw.
!colspan="2"|Controller
+
 
!colspan="2"|Limits
+
====[[Controller Uncovering|Controller Cover Removal]]====
|-
+
{{:Controller Uncovering}}
! Years
+
 
! Models
+
====[[Controller Cover Replacement]]====
! Manufacturer
+
{{:Controller Cover Replacement}}
! Model
+
 
! Input Voltage
+
=Electronic Systems=
! Phase Current
+
 
|-
+
==Instrument Cluster==
|2009-2011
+
Until 2014, Zero used branded versions of generic Koso instrument clusters, mapping the fuel level indicator to battery state of charge.
|S/DS
+
 
|[http://www.alltraxinc.com/ Alltrax]
+
===Koso XR-SR===
|[http://www.alltraxinc.com/Products_AXE.html AXE4855] refs: [http://www.evdrives.com/product_p/con-axe4855.htm] [http://www.electricmotorsport.com/alltrax-axe4855-24-48v-500a.html]
+
For years 2008-2011
|48V
+
 
|500A
+
;References
|-
+
* [http://kosonorthamerica.com/shop/motorcycle-mx/xr-sr-multi-functions/ Koso XR-SR product page]
|rowspan="3"|2012
+
* [http://www.kosonorthamerica.com/instructions/BB017B00.pdf instructions]
|XU
 
|rowspan="2"|[[Sevcon]]
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4] [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-2-80v.html Size 2]
 
|rowspan="2"|120V
 
|220A
 
|-
 
|S/DS
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4] [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-4-80v.html Size 4]
 
|420A
 
|-
 
|X/MX
 
|[http://www.alltraxinc.com/ Alltrax]
 
|[http://www.alltraxinc.com/Products_AXE.html AXE7245] refs: [http://www.evdrives.com/product_p/con-axe7245.htm] [http://www.electricmotorsport.com/alltrax-axe7245-24-72v-450a.html]
 
|72V
 
|450A
 
|-
 
|rowspan="3"|2013-2016
 
|XU
 
|rowspan="5"|[[Sevcon]]
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4] [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-2-80v.html Size 2]
 
|rowspan="5"|120V
 
|220A
 
|-
 
|S/DS/FX/FXS/MMX
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4] [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-4-80v.html Size 4]
 
|420A
 
|-
 
|SR/DSR
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4] [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-6-80v.html Size 6]
 
|660A
 
|-
 
|rowspan="2"|2017+
 
|S/DS/FX/FXS/MMX
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4].5 [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-4-80v.html Size 4]
 
|550A
 
|-
 
|SR/DSR
 
|[http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Gen4].5 [http://ev-power.com.au/webstore/sevcon/gen-4-size-6-80v.html Size 6]
 
|775A
 
|}
 
  
;2017 “Gen4.5”
+
===Koso RX-1N===
: 2017 models reference higher current ratings without publicized evidence of a Sevcon model change.
+
For years 2012-2013
: These improvements seem to be in choosing [http://www.mouser.com/new/Infineon-Technologies/infineon-optimos-5/ MOSFETs] with increased power switching efficiencies to allow higher continuous and peak current levels.
+
[[File:koso-rx-1n.png|thumb|Koso RX-1N (retail)]] [[File:2013-instrument-cluster-Koso-RX-1N-front.png|thumb|Zero's Koso RX-1N cluster (front)]][[File:2013-instrument-cluster-Koso-RX-1N-rear.png|thumb|Zero's Koso RX-1N cluster (rear)]]
: “Gen4.5” has been a term heard describing these improvements.
 
  
;Gen4 Size 6 Controller
+
;References
<gallery mode="packed">
+
* [http://kosonorthamerica.com/shop/motorcycle-mx/rx-1n/ Koso RX-1N]
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top
+
* [http://www.kosonorthamerica.com/instructions/BA011B02.pdf Instructions]
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top Connections.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top Terminals
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connectors Left Side.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Terminals Left Side
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connector.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connector
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Left Side.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Left Side
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Front.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Front
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Rear.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Rear
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Bottom.png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Bottom
 
</gallery>
 
;Gen4 Size 6 Controller Internals
 
<gallery mode="packed">
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connection Front (Uncovered).png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connection Front
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connections Profile (Uncovered).png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connections Profile
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connectors Left Side (Uncovered).png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Connectors Left Side
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Cover (Underside).png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Casing
 
File:Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top (Uncovered).png|thumb|Sevcon Gen4 Size 6 Controller Top
 
</gallery>
 
  
===Controller Mounting===
+
;Features
;S Platform Location
+
: The 2012-2013 RX-1N shows battery level in 11 increments.
: The controller is located beneath the seat at the front of the tail assembly.
+
: It's relatively effective to treat each increment as representing 9% of charge state, and do a little mental math to figure out that each increment could represent 6-12 miles (for say 2013), and work out the remaining range / speed tradeoff from that.
: The baseplate is fastened from the underside of the tail of the frame, between the frame "horns".
+
:* go slower to get closer to 12 miles of range per increment
;X Platform Location
+
:* go faster if you can afford to burn off the battery to reach your destination in time.
: The controller is mounted to the forward downward face of the frame at the bottom.
+
: The Koso instructions linked below show how to operate it.
: The baseplate is fastened from the outside of the frame face.
 
  
; Fasteners
+
; Speedometer Adjustment Quick How-To
: A [[#Controller Cover|plastic sheet cover]] is fastened across the top of the controller by a Phillips head screw (PH1).
+
* [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7755 Reference]
: A [[#Controller Heatsink|heatsink]] is fastened to its surface for radiative cooling, with a thermal paste between to maximize heat transfer via contact/conduction.
+
# Turn on motorcycle.
: 4 M6 bolts secure the controller baseplate to the frame.
+
# Press and hold the Select + Adjust buttons simultaneously for 3 seconds.
:* For size 2 and size 4 controllers, the base plate is 12mm thick.
+
# Use the "adjust" button to increment the digit, and the "select" button to navigate to the next digit.
:* For size 6 controllers (S platform only), the base plate is 20mm thick.
+
:* The stock setting is ''1972 28-132 2P''.
 +
:* The previous setting was ''1972 25-128 2P''.
 +
 
 +
;Connections
 +
: Koso connectors are much simpler than Zero's connectors to its own custom dash.
 +
:: Interchanging them would be a significant project.
 +
: [[File:koso-display-connector.png|200px|2013 S/DS Koso Display connections]]
  
===[[Controller Uncovering]]===
+
===Zero 2014 Instrument Cluster===
{{warning|This exposes high-voltage terminals that can damage tools, equipment, or cause injury or death if not de-energized.
+
{{:2014 Instrument Cluster}}
Ensure the bike is fully de-energized or that you are using professional methods and safety precautions.}}
 
{{:Controller Uncovering}}
 
  
===Controller Heatsink===
+
==Charger==
The underside face of the controller is directly covered by a finned heatsink that faces downwards toward the rear wheel and swingarm.
+
Zero motorcycles have a stock [[Wikipedia:SAE_J1772#Charging|Level 1 charger]] built in, accepting single-phase AC from common household outlets (100V to 240V).
* The heatsink varies in size with the size of the controller.
 
* A thermal paste is applied between the heatsink and baseplate to maximize heat transfer via contact/conduction.
 
* The rear shock connects just ahead of the heatsink to the frame center tube.
 
  
===Controller Connections===
+
;Location
{| class="wikitable"
+
: [[File:2016-dsr-calex-1200-battery-underside.JPG|thumb|2016 DSR battery case bottom with charger removed]]
|+ Controller Connectors
+
: Bolted onto the underside of frame under the battery pack.
|-
+
: Protected by a metal belly pan on the DS/DSR/FX and very hard ABS plastic on the S/SR/FXS.
| Main terminals are, in order from front to rear: M1, B-, M2, B+, M3.
 
: For Size 4 and Size 6, the bolts are all M8 with a torque setting of 11Nm±2Nm; bolts should engage a minimum of 10mm and thread depth is 15mm.
 
: For Size 2 (2013XU), the bolts are all M6 with a torque settings of 7Nm±2Nm.
 
* M-terminals supply the motor with its rotating field in three phases. Each gets a sine wave that is offset by 0, 120, 240 degrees.
 
* B+ and B- connect to the battery power at positive and negative, respectively.
 
|[[File:motor-controller.png|thumb|Motor-controller power connections]]
 
|-
 
| [http://www.te.com/usa-en/product-1-776163-1.html Connector info] (see AMPSEAL Automotive Plug Connector and Header Assembly (PDF, English))
 
: [http://www.mouser.com/Search/ProductDetail.aspx?qs=YqNA2qefETAUziSpjzx9mg%3d%3d More connector info] (look at bottom for pins)
 
|[[File:controller-connector.png|thumb|2013 Gen4 Size 4 Controller signal connector]]
 
|}
 
  
;Diagnostic Cables
+
;Inlet
: [[File:cable-harness-sevcon-prog-all.png|400px|Sevcon programming cable harness]][[File:cable-harness-sevcon-prog-ampseal-34-rear.png|300px|Connections to Sevcon for programming]][[File:cable-harness-sevcon-prog-ampseal-34.png|200px|34-pin AMPSeal connector]]
+
:S Models - Located on the left side of the frame above the footpeg with a rubber boot attached.
: Zero Sevcon programming cables are part #86-06747 connected as follows:
+
:X Models - Located in the front below the right "batwing".
:* Pin 1 is "Key Switch In": power for the logic circuits.
+
: The inlet is an [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEC_60320#C13.2FC14_coupler IEC 60320 C14 inlet] for a cord ending in a C13.
:* Pin 2 is linked to pin 24 via 120Ω resistor to tell the Sevcon that it's at the CANBus termination.
+
: The bike comes with a tethered C13-shaped rubber dust cover for the inlet, P/N 45-04864.
:* Pin 13 is "CAN High".
+
:: It protects the inlet from dirt which would create resistance and heat in power connections, eventually damaging the inlet and/or the onboard charger.
:* Pin 27 is "CAN Low" in the Sevcon manual (pin 24 also is, unless used for termination signal).
+
:: Press the dust cover in firmly after unplugging the cord to minimize wear on the inlet and charger.
 +
:: It's very cheap to replace but seems proprietary so far.
  
===Controller Feature Usage===
+
;Connections
 +
: Charger electrical connections face the rear towards the motor; cables run upward.
  
;Throttle
+
;Power
:[[Sevcon]] provides the [[#Throttle|throttle]] with two mappings:
+
: The onboard charger for Zero motorcycles is rated to use 100V to 240V AC but is limited in capacity to the 110V power rating, so operates at half current at 220V.
:# Mapping voltage to value in the first place (separately for forward and reverse)
+
: Efficiency should be a little bit higher at higher voltages because of the reduction in current.
:# An "input characteristic" profile which has linear, curved, crawl, and user-defined segmented options.
 
:The controller also supports:
 
:*Control modes targeting speed (used through 2012) versus torque (used in 2013+).
 
:*:The control mode translates the throttle signal into motor operation, so it makes the throttle target a speed or a level of torque.
 
:*Dual throttle inputs.
 
:*Regen proportional to the throttle.
 
:*Directional throttle.
 
:*Speed limit proportional to throttle.
 
:*Reverse speed limit.
 
  
;Regen
+
{| class="wikitable"
:The [[Sevcon]] controller manual refers to regen as braking, and has a number of recommendations and features disabled to help prevent wheel lockup for "on-highway applications".
+
|+ Onboard Charger Models
;Braking
+
! colspan="2"|
: The Sevcon can also apply reverse torque as braking or a reverse gear, and supports separate speed and torque limits while the motor is rotating in reverse, very important if used on a Zero since motorcycles are unstable when reversed so must operate within human walking speeds.
+
! colspan="3"|Charger
 
+
! colspan="3"|Input
;OEM Programming
+
! Output
: Zero programs the Sevcon controller for their needs, above and beyond DOT, NHTSA, and EU vehicle manufacturing standards.
+
! colspan="2"|
: Some of this is a bunch of settings and some of this seems to be a custom version of the firmware code.
+
|-
: The new IPM motor may have demanded further customization than previous models, where custom firmware code is particularly relevant.
+
! Platforms
: ''Settings'' can be changed and restored, but not ''code'' without some OEM-supported technical assistance.
+
! Years
 
+
! Manufacturer
===[[Sevcon Controller CAN Diagnostics|Controller CAN Diagnostics]]===
+
! #
{{:Sevcon Controller CAN Diagnostics}}
+
! Model
 
+
! Power
===Controller Configuration===
+
! @110V
The controller's configuration implements a number of Zero features:
+
! @220V
* Speed calculations.
+
! Current
* Distance calculations.
+
! Dimensions
* Over-voltage limits to protect the battery by cutting out regen or refusing to operate.
+
! IP Rating
* Under-voltage limits to protect the battery charge state.
+
! Photo
* Current limits to protect the battery.
+
|-
* Delay before regen toggles on or off.
+
| S and X || 2009-2012
* Driving modes like Eco/Custom/Sport which include speed and torque limits and speed ramping limits to prevent wheel lockup.
+
| [https://delta-q.com/ DeltaQ] || 1 || [https://delta-q.com/product/quiq-1000-industrial-battery-charger/ QuiQ 1000]
 
+
|1000W || 8A || 4A || 8A
;References
+
|10.9” ⨉ 9.7” ⨉ 4.3”
: [http://www.sevcon.com/products/low-voltage-controllers/gen4/ Sevcon Gen4 product page] (formerly at [http://www.sevcon.com/ac-controllers/gen4%E2%84%A2.aspx])
+
| IP66
: [http://www.sevcon.com/media/78433/gen4_size_2_4_6_may_2016.pdf Gen4 data sheet] (no longer available without request form with contact details)
+
|-
: [http://www.thunderstruck-ev.com/Manuals/Gen4_Product_Manual_V3.0.pdf Gen4 reference Manual]
+
| rowspan="2" | S
 
+
|2013
; Configuration
+
| [https://www.meanwell-web.com/en/ Mean Well]
: Some MBB settings direct the Sevcon controller; look to the MBB first.
+
| 2s2p || [https://www.meanwell-web.com/en/product-info/ac-dc-power-supply/led-driver/gt-185-w-led-driver/hlg-320h/product/HLG-320H-54A HLG320H-54A] @320W ([http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Mean-Well/HLG-320H-54A/ via Mouser])
: The MBB can also provide a dump of Sevcon diagnostics and logs.
+
| rowspan="2" | 1300W
: DVT software to maintain the Sevcon programming is available but recent versions require a license and the cabling is not cheap. The older unlicensed versions may have trouble maintaining newer programming by Zero.
+
| rowspan="2" | 11A
 +
| rowspan="2" | 7A
 +
| rowspan="2" | 11A
 +
| 8.87” ⨉ 14.17” ⨉ 1.724” (4 in a row)
 +
| rowspan="5" | IP65
 +
| [[File:charger-meanwell-zero-s-2013.jpg|200px|2013S onboard charger]]
 +
|-
 +
|2014-2017
 +
|[http://www.greenwattpower.com/ GreenWattPower] (Calex subsidiary) || 1 || [http://www.greenwattpower.com/1300evc.html EVC-116-1200]
 +
|14.76” ⨉ 9.76” ⨉ 1.73”
 +
| [[File:charger_calex.png|200px|Calex onboard charger]]
 +
|-
 +
| rowspan="2" | X
 +
|2013-2014
 +
| [https://www.meanwell-web.com/en/ Mean Well] || 2s1p || [https://www.meanwell-web.com/en/product-info/ac-dc-power-supply/led-driver/gt-185-w-led-driver/hlg-320h/product/HLG-320H-54A HLG320H-54A] @320W ([http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Mean-Well/HLG-320H-54A/ via Mouser])
 +
|650W
 +
| rowspan="2" | 5A
 +
| rowspan="2" | 3A
 +
| rowspan="2" | 5A
 +
| 8.866” ⨉ 3.543” ⨉ 1.724” ''ea''
 +
|-
 +
|2015-2017
 +
|[http://www.greenwattpower.com/ GreenWattPower] (Calex subsidiary) || 1 || [http://www.greenwattpower.com/720evc.html EVC-116-720]
 +
|720W
 +
|12.20” ⨉ 7.08” ⨉ 2.0”
 +
|}
 +
 
 +
===Calex Charger===
 +
The Calex / GreenWattPower EVC-116-1300 and EVC-116-720 are used on modern Zero models (2014 onwards except for the 2014FX) and are CANBus-controllable which eliminates the CCU board.
 +
:[[File:onboard-charger-rear-uncovered.jpg|thumb|Calex connections uncovered]]
 +
:[[File:onboard-charger-rear.jpg|thumb|Calex connections]]
  
; [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4297 Direct diagnostics]
+
;Design
: For those interested in better understanding your Zero's motor controller setup, you'll need some specific cables and software.
+
: The board is a solid-state switching power supply with a CAN interface.
:: These will allow you to browse the current controller configuration as well as make changes such as increasing regeneration rates, customising sport or eco modes etc.
+
: The aluminum enclosure is well-sealed with over two dozen fasteners.
: This is what you'll need:
+
: The enclosure is filled with a solid rubbery [[Potting|potting]] material.
:# An IXXAT CAN-USB compact adaptor v1.5 (v1.01.0087.10100) or v1.6
 
:#:approx USD300 but you may find it cheaper on eBay or borrow/rent it from another forum member or dealer.
 
:#: You cannot buy these anymore, you must get them off ebay or part of a [http://www.thunderstruck-ev.com/sevcon-gen4-pc-based-programming-kit.html Thunderstruck EV $900 kit].
 
:#: You cannot use a new version of the IXXAT CAN-USB either as it will not work with an unlicensed copy of the software. And to get a license you have to own a business.
 
:# A DB2 female to OBDII male cable with a specific pin mapping (not the most common one).
 
:#:[http://www.easysync-ltd.com/ Easysync] make a [http://www.easysync-ltd.com/product/577/obd-m-db9-f-es.html DB9 female to OBD male cable] that has the correct pin configuration - about USD25
 
:# Sevcon DVT Customer software
 
:#:It has to be version 1.03c or lower to use unlicensed (Google is your friend, as is Dropbox in this case).
 
:#:Good luck saving your DCF files with it.
 
:#:You need to write down your settings before making big changes.
 
:#:Even if you bought the new version and got a license you would have to use a NEW IXXAT USB-CAN as the old one isn't compatible.
 
:#:The Sevcon software will run on Windows XP, 7 and 8.
 
:#:There are manuals and getting started guides on the Internet (Google again) on how to use the DVT software including one at [https://www.thunderstruck-ev.com/images/DVT%20Tutorial.pdf Thunderstruck EV].
 
: {{Warning| Do not link any files as they have been removed multiple times in the past.}}
 
:* One of the dropbox links you will find will have at least 3 different versions.
 
:* If you install any new versions completely remove everything from the previous versions.
 
:* If you find the program wont start up and it isn't 1.02 then install a "merge" installation of TCL and it should work.
 
: {{Warning|You can brick your controller temporarily by making changes.}}
 
:: It would be nice to have a backup but these online versions of "free" sevcon software all have issues with saving.
 
:: I have tested 1.00 1.01 1.02 (which never ran) and 1.03c so far.
 
:: If you brick your device you will need someone to give you a DCF file to return your device to working order.
 
:: But good luck getting it from a form member who doesn't work for a dealer as stated it is next to impossible to export the file.
 
: Sevcon is very much against this use of their product and software, and have issued takedown notices for publicly available files.
 
: You will not get official support and people will be reluctant to post details publicly.
 
:: Get the 200 page DVT / SEVCON GEN 4 manual from the manufacture's webpage and read it a couple times.
 
:: Try contacting knowledgeable people privately.
 
: You really need to understand what you are doing when you start to make changes.
 
:: This isn't a toy you are going to be remotely piloting, it is a vehicle you are risking your life on!
 
: Zero has specific programming to customize the Sevcon controller.
 
:: So it is not clear whether customer customization is achievable beyond basic modification of settings or performing an alignment using DVT.
 
  
; Recovery
+
;Reliability
: [https://endless-sphere.com/forums/viewtopic.php?f=30&t=88205&p=1287062#p1287062 DoctorBass has documented a backdoor method of recovering a Sevcon controller if its firmware is in an unusable state]
+
: Certain model years (MY14 and MY15) have had onboard charger faults after 900-1200 miles and require replacement under warrantee.
: Using the IXXAT connection, issue the following command:
+
: MY16 onward (and MY13 which used Meanwell units) appear to have a lower defect rate.
can send "0x7FA 0x48 0x65 0x79 0x73 0x6c 0x69 0x70"
+
: This appears to be a third-party quality issue with Calex that was reportedly resolved by early 2016, but this is not proven perfectly yet.
: This byte sequence is also apparently available as "BD" (for "backdoor", presumably).
+
: 720W chargers used on X models appear to be more reliable than 1300W chargers used on S models.
  
===Controller Cover===
+
;Design Revision
The Sevcon Controller has a sheet installed over it for EMI protection to the rider that is probably also helpful at keeping dust and moisture off.
+
: In response to the 2014-2015 reliability difficulties, it seems that the internal board was mainly reworked for lower risk of overheating.
 +
: One observation is that the size of the board changed from about ⅓ of the volume of the enclosure to the full area of the enclosure.
 +
: Newer revisions seem to have a cube-shaped clip-on ferrite bead EMI filter on the AC input cable (per [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=9049.msg77958#msg77958 this EMF thread]).
  
;Mounting
+
;Repair
: The cover is anchored in front of the controller in a recessed area under the arms of the Y-shaped seat underframe.
+
: Because of the solid rubbery potting, repair of anything beyond the connectors is almost totally impractical, especially given the cost of replacement.
: The cover is anchored to the rear of the controller with a single screw.
+
: The board is designed for blind [[#Charger Replacement|replacement]].
  
====[[Controller Uncovering|Controller Cover Removal]]====
+
====Calex Charger Behavior====
{{:Controller Uncovering}}
+
: Per [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6330.msg48829#msg48829 CANBUS diagnostic reply], the Calex charger operates as a CC/CV mode charger.
 +
:* Constant current (CC) mode is the default operational mode.
 +
:*: The charger attempts to deliver a target amount of current to the battery.
 +
:*: This means that the charger's power input is proportional to the battery's voltage at that moment, which rises from low state to the high state of charge, so charging will be slower at low voltages (< 20% SoC).
 +
:* Maximum allowed battery voltage: 116.4V ''(Confirmed via charger self-report over CANBUS)''
 +
:*: When battery voltage reaches or exceeds this value, the charger enters a constant voltage (CV) mode.
 +
:*: Since the rate of charge dynamically adds voltage to the pack, the taper eases off this addition so there's a stable charge equilibrium at the end.
 +
:*: Tapering behavior is observed to reduce output current in increments of 1A and typically starts at 12A.
 +
:* Current taper cutoff: 10A ''(Confirmed via charger self-report over CANBUS)''
 +
:*: The charger will cut to 0 output rather than taper below this value.
 +
:* Maximum allowed current: 65.535 A ''(Confirmed via charger self-report over CANBUS)''
 +
:*: This is a meaningless binary value.
  
====[[Controller Cover Replacement]]====
+
;Overcharge Protection
{{:Controller Cover Replacement}}
+
: The charger is limited by the manufacturer to a range that matches Zero's battery safe range.
 +
: The charger is connected to external AC sources and is therefore a vulnerable component while plugged in.
 +
:: Per [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6707.msg54407#msg54407 Re: Change to Charging - Leaving Bike Plugged In]
 +
:* The charger is an isolated power supply with suppressors on the input.
 +
:* So, if a surge were big enough, the suppressors could fail short.
 +
:* Then the circuit breaker should fail after that.
 +
:* The BMS and the rest of the bike is completely isolated from the charger, so there's no current path to them.
 +
:: This is why some people on this forum report their charger is dead, but the bike is fine, and there wasn't any fire. Most of the time Zero, replaces the onboard charger for them.
 +
:; Worst-case scenario
 +
:* BMS unresponsive
 +
:* MBB unresponsive
 +
:* Contactor welded
 +
:* Charger outputs more than 117.6V
 +
:: In the event of all these holding (extremely unlikely), there is some risk of a fire.
 +
:: This is probably why Zero asks you to check on the bike every 72 hours to make sure the bike is still responding and the BMS is still alive.
  
=Electronic Systems=
+
===Meanwell Charger Behavior===
 +
These chargers do not interact over CANBus messaging, so just operate in a preset way in CC-CV mode, although the [[#Charging_Control_Unit|CCU]] also has some control over it to implement battery protections.
  
==Instrument Cluster==
+
;Clicking Sound
Until 2014, Zero used branded versions of generic Koso instrument clusters, mapping the fuel level indicator to battery state of charge.
+
: There is a known issue, per [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4176 Clicking sound when plugged-in], that the Meanwells sometimes make a repeated clicking sound.
 +
: It seems to happen generally in the cold.
 +
: This symptom does not seem to precede an equipment failure, and should go away once charging is complete.
  
===Koso XR-SR===
+
===Charger Operation===
For years 2008-2011
+
Mainly, the charger is the most routine bike maintenance and you just plug it in and can forget about it.
  
;References
+
;When to Charge
* [http://kosonorthamerica.com/shop/motorcycle-mx/xr-sr-multi-functions/ Koso XR-SR product page]
+
: Per Zero's recommendation, the battery state of charge is ideally kept between 30% and 70%.
* [http://www.kosonorthamerica.com/instructions/BB017B00.pdf instructions]
+
* Always plug in when the SoC is below 30%.
 +
* Leave it plugged in to reach 100% and improve cel balance if you are planning to ride the bike in the next few days.
 +
* You can unplug the bike when it reaches 70% if the bike will not be ridden sooner than a few days, or if your next ride will not require more charge.
 +
*: This keeps the battery in a healthier state and improves battery lifetime beyond the warranty.
  
===Koso RX-1N===
+
; What to Watch For
For years 2012-2013
+
: When plugging in, expect:
[[File:koso-rx-1n.png|thumb|Koso RX-1N (retail)]] [[File:2013-instrument-cluster-Koso-RX-1N-front.png|thumb|Zero's Koso RX-1N cluster (front)]][[File:2013-instrument-cluster-Koso-RX-1N-rear.png|thumb|Zero's Koso RX-1N cluster (rear)]]
+
* The contactor to close with a click or remain closed.
 +
* The dash charging indicator to begin blinking green.
 +
* After a few seconds, (2014+ models) the charge time indicator should display a number of hours and minutes until fully charged.
 +
*: This indicator helps predict when a desired SoC can be anticipated, with a little math.
  
;References
+
; Trouble Indications
* [http://kosonorthamerica.com/shop/motorcycle-mx/rx-1n/ Koso RX-1N]
+
* Spark at the plug when connecting.
* [http://www.kosonorthamerica.com/instructions/BA011B02.pdf Instructions]
+
* Heat from the plug.
 +
* No charging dash indicator.
 +
* Circuit breaker trips.
  
;Features
+
; Reliability Tips
: The 2012-2013 RX-1N shows battery level in 11 increments.
+
: There is a growing consensus that the Calex charger's limited cooling capacity can lead to damage over time if it's operated repeatedly at the high end of its rated band.
: It's relatively effective to treat each increment as representing 9% of charge state, and do a little mental math to figure out that each increment could represent 6-12 miles (for say 2013), and work out the remaining range / speed tradeoff from that.
+
: To minimize risk of a charger fault or component burnout, avoid operating it while the battery is hot and still cooling, and address any heating or sparking at the plug.
:* go slower to get closer to 12 miles of range per increment
+
: Check the [[Common_Problems#Charging|Common Charging Problems]] section regarding the plug and cord.
:* go faster if you can afford to burn off the battery to reach your destination in time.
+
: Basic suggestions:
: The Koso instructions linked below show how to operate it.
+
:* After an intense ride in the heat with the battery temperature high, wait for a couple of hours until the temperature is lower.
 +
:* Keep the inlet covered when not in use.
 +
:* Use contact cleaner on the inlet periodically (once per month) or whenever the charging cord plug warms up significantly during charging.
 +
:* Minimize strain and load on the charging cord.
 +
:* Unplug the cord and cover the inlet when not in use.
  
; Speedometer Adjustment Quick How-To
+
;[[Common_Problems#GFCI_Faults|GFCI]]
* [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7755 Reference]
+
: Ground fault circuit isolation (GFCI or GFI) enabled outlets often trip when using the Zero onboard charger, relating to how AC phases are wired to a single or multiple outlets.
# Turn on motorcycle.
+
: If this happens regularly, it is reasonable to break off the grounding pin from your charging cord, or, better yet, get a [https://www.google.com/?ion=1&espv=2#q=three+prong+to+two+prong+adapter&tbm=shop cheater (three prong to two prong) "cheater" plug].
# Press and hold the Select + Adjust buttons simultaneously for 3 seconds.
 
# Use the "adjust" button to increment the digit, and the "select" button to navigate to the next digit.
 
:* The stock setting is ''1972 28-132 2P''.
 
:* The previous setting was ''1972 25-128 2P''.
 
  
;Connections
+
===Charger Power Cord===
: Koso connectors are much simpler than Zero's connectors to its own custom dash.
+
: The charging cord is a 10-ft 14AWG cord with a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NEMA_connector#NEMA_5 NEMA 5-15P] (US) to [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEC_60320#C13.2FC14_coupler IEC320 C13] output plug rated for 15A.
:: Interchanging them would be a significant project.
+
: Zero specifies that any extension cord be at least the above specification, and 15A continuous rating is important to look for.
: [[File:koso-display-connector.png|200px|2013 S/DS Koso Display connections]]
 
  
===Zero 2014 Instrument Cluster===
+
; Demand
{{:2014 Instrument Cluster}}
+
* The S-Platform onboard charger draws 11-12A at 120V AC (and half the amps at ~220V).
 +
* The X-Platform onboard charger draws 7A at 120V AC (and half the amps at ~220V).
  
==Charger==
+
;Tips
Zero motorcycles have a stock [[Wikipedia:SAE_J1772#Charging|Level 1 charger]] built in, accepting single-phase AC from common household outlets (100V to 240V).
+
* When in doubt, prefer a thicker gauge cord, a shorter length, and a sturdier plug.
 +
* Do not let a charge cord sit coiled up, particularly in a container; make sure that any heat produced is not confined near the cord for any reason.
 +
* Plugging into a 220V outlet will reduce the current to the onboard charger by half, so is one way to drastically minimize risk to any cords.
  
;Location
+
;Replacements
: [[File:2016-dsr-calex-1200-battery-underside.JPG|thumb|2016 DSR battery case bottom with charger removed]]
+
: See [[Common_Modifications#Spare_Onboard_Charger_Power_Cables|Spare Onboard Charger Power Cables]]
: Bolted onto the underside of frame under the battery pack.
 
: Protected by a metal belly pan on the DS/DSR/FX and very hard ABS plastic on the S/SR/FXS.
 
  
;Inlet
+
===Charger Connections===
:S Models - Located on the left side of the frame above the footpeg with a rubber boot attached.
+
: AC input is an IEC-60320 C13 inlet.
:X Models - Located in the front below the right "batwing".
+
: DC output is an [[Anderson_connector|Anderson]] [http://www.andersonpower.com/us/en/products/sbs/sbs-50.aspx SBS50-BRN], but it seems to be a narrower pin pitch with no center data pin set.
: The inlet is an [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEC_60320#C13.2FC14_coupler IEC 60320 C14 inlet] for a cord ending in a C13.
+
: CANbus signal interface is a JAE MX23A18NF1 connector (applies to the Calex, not the Mean Wells!)
: The bike comes with a tethered C13-shaped rubber dust cover for the inlet, P/N 45-04864.
+
{| class="wikitable"
:: It protects the inlet from dirt which would create resistance and heat in power connections, eventually damaging the inlet and/or the onboard charger.
+
|+ CAN signal pins per GWP data sheet
:: Press the dust cover in firmly after unplugging the cord to minimize wear on the inlet and charger.
 
:: It's very cheap to replace but seems proprietary so far.
 
 
 
;Connections
 
: Charger electrical connections face the rear towards the motor; cables run upward.
 
 
 
;Power
 
: The onboard charger for Zero motorcycles is rated to use 100V to 240V AC but is limited in capacity to the 110V power rating, so operates at half current at 220V.
 
: Efficiency should be a little bit higher at higher voltages because of the reduction in current.
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Onboard Charger Models
 
! colspan="2"|
 
! colspan="3"|Charger
 
! colspan="3"|Input
 
! Output
 
! colspan="2"|
 
 
|-
 
|-
! Platforms
+
!Pin
! Years
+
!Function
! Manufacturer
 
! #
 
! Model
 
! Power
 
! @110V
 
! @220V
 
! Current
 
! Dimensions
 
! IP Rating
 
! Photo
 
 
|-
 
|-
| S and X || 2009-2012
+
|4
| [https://delta-q.com/ DeltaQ] || 1 || [https://delta-q.com/product/quiq-1000-industrial-battery-charger/ QuiQ 1000]
+
|CAN ground
|1000W || 8A || 4A || 8A
 
|10.9” ⨉ 9.7” ⨉ 4.3”
 
| IP66
 
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="2" | S
+
|5
|2013
+
|CAN +5V power
| [https://www.meanwell-web.com/en/ Mean Well]
 
| 2s2p || [https://www.meanwell-web.com/en/product-info/ac-dc-power-supply/led-driver/gt-185-w-led-driver/hlg-320h/product/HLG-320H-54A HLG320H-54A] @320W ([http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Mean-Well/HLG-320H-54A/ via Mouser])
 
| rowspan="2" | 1300W
 
| rowspan="2" | 11A
 
| rowspan="2" | 7A
 
| rowspan="2" | 11A
 
| 8.87” ⨉ 14.17” ⨉ 1.724” (4 in a row)
 
| rowspan="5" | IP65
 
| [[File:charger-meanwell-zero-s-2013.jpg|200px|2013S onboard charger]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
|2014-2017
+
|6
|[http://www.greenwattpower.com/ GreenWattPower] (Calex subsidiary) || 1 || [http://www.greenwattpower.com/1300evc.html EVC-116-1200]
+
|CAN Dominant Low
|14.76” ⨉ 9.76” ⨉ 1.73”
 
| [[File:charger_calex.png|200px|Calex onboard charger]]
 
 
|-
 
|-
| rowspan="2" | X
+
|7
|2013-2014
+
|CAN Dominant High
| [https://www.meanwell-web.com/en/ Mean Well] || 2s1p || [https://www.meanwell-web.com/en/product-info/ac-dc-power-supply/led-driver/gt-185-w-led-driver/hlg-320h/product/HLG-320H-54A HLG320H-54A] @320W ([http://www.mouser.com/ProductDetail/Mean-Well/HLG-320H-54A/ via Mouser])
 
|650W
 
| rowspan="2" | 5A
 
| rowspan="2" | 3A
 
| rowspan="2" | 5A
 
| 8.866” ⨉ 3.543” ⨉ 1.724” ''ea''
 
 
|-
 
|-
|2015-2017
+
|10
|[http://www.greenwattpower.com/ GreenWattPower] (Calex subsidiary) || 1 || [http://www.greenwattpower.com/720evc.html EVC-116-720]
+
|ob_charger_attached_n [charger_attached]
|720W
+
|-
|12.20” ⨉ 7.08” ⨉ 2.0”
+
|11
 +
|ob_charger_attached_n [charger_attached]
 +
|-
 +
|12
 +
|charger_en_0 [charger_en_n]
 +
|-
 +
|13
 +
|ob_charger_ref_0 [charger_gnd_ref]
 
|}
 
|}
  
===Calex Charger===
+
;CANbus wiring
The Calex / GreenWattPower EVC-116-1300 and EVC-116-720 are used on modern Zero models (2014 onwards except for the 2014FX) and are CANBus-controllable which eliminates the CCU board.
+
:Adapted from an examination of the wiring on a 2014 SR: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6167 Onboard charger wiring for 2014 and 2015+] for the Calex.
:[[File:onboard-charger-rear-uncovered.jpg|thumb|Calex connections uncovered]]
+
:When the onboard charger is plugged in and powered on the onboard charger pushes:
:[[File:onboard-charger-rear.jpg|thumb|Calex connections]]
+
:* 5V and 48mA through the Charger attached Pin #11.
 +
:* 5V and 26mA through the Charger enabled Pin #12.
 +
:The 5V ground reference is Pin #13 which is battery negative.
 +
:With this knowledge, another onboard charger solution can be wired to function as follows:
 +
:# Run a separate circuit that when triggered pushes 5V ~50mA through pin#11 (attached charger) with the other end of the 5V circuit connected to the battery negative pin #13.
 +
:# When this is triggered, the bike shows the battery state of charge % and charge time remaining, closes the contactor and allows charging - through the accessory charging port, the onboard charger port or via the Sevcon battery terminals for high power charging.
 +
:# Upon completion of charging, the 5V can be switched off and the charge level and time remaining switch off and the contactor opens just as with the onboard charger.
 +
:# The bike can be keyed on and ridden away as normal.
 +
: Using this method there is no need to leave the bike on when charging via the accessory charging port or the controller battery-side cables, or if you are using the [[#Accessory_Charging_Port|accessory charging port]] without triggering the auxiliary pin on the accessory charging port's Anderson SBS75XBRN.
 +
:;NOTE
 +
:: For 2015 onwards, the charger install uses additional wiring which may have a different approach using CAN signals, so it may require a different approach.
  
;Design
+
===[[Calex Charger Replacement|Charger Replacement]]===
: The board is a solid-state switching power supply with a CAN interface.
+
{{:Calex Charger Replacement}}
: The aluminum enclosure is well-sealed with over two dozen fasteners.
 
: The enclosure is filled with a solid rubbery [[Potting|potting]] material.
 
  
;Reliability
+
==Main Bike Board==
: Certain model years (MY14 and MY15) have had onboard charger faults after 900-1200 miles and require replacement under warrantee.
+
[[File:2016 Zero MBB Front.png|thumb|2016 Zero MBB Front]]
: MY16 onward (and MY13 which used Meanwell units) appear to have a lower defect rate.
+
[[File:2016 Zero MBB Back.png|thumb|2016 Zero MBB Back]]
: This appears to be a third-party quality issue with Calex that was reportedly resolved by early 2016, but this is not proven perfectly yet.
+
The Main Bike Board (MBB) controls the overall system, implements safety interlocks, and directs the controller.
: 720W chargers used on X models appear to be more reliable than 1300W chargers used on S models.
+
: It is also the entry point for configuring these systems, performing diagnostics, and examining operational events.
 +
: When referring to "the firmware", or "the logs", people are referring to this board primarily, and possibly the BMS.
 +
: It is enclosed within a fully-potted plastic-like container with multi-pin connectors along the top side.
  
;Design Revision
+
; Location (S Platform)
: In response to the 2014-2015 reliability difficulties, it seems that the internal board was mainly reworked for lower risk of overheating.
+
: Below the front area of the seat under cable runs.
: One observation is that the size of the board changed from about ⅓ of the volume of the enclosure to the full area of the enclosure.
+
: It is located aft of (and above) the [[#DC.2FDC_12V_converter|DC-DC converter]] with a bracket sandwiched between them.
: Newer revisions seem to have a cube-shaped clip-on ferrite bead EMI filter on the AC input cable (per [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=9049.msg77958#msg77958 this EMF thread]).
+
[[File:2017-S-Frame - Board Mounting Plate Left Bracket.png|thumb|100px|Board Plate Mounting Bracket (Left)]]
 
+
[[File:2017-S-Frame - Board Mounting Plate Right Bracket.png|thumb|100px|Board Plate Mounting Bracket (Right)]]
;Repair
 
: Because of the solid rubbery potting, repair of anything beyond the connectors is almost totally impractical, especially given the cost of replacement.
 
: The board is designed for blind [[#Charger Replacement|replacement]].
 
 
 
====Calex Charger Behavior====
 
: Per [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6330.msg48829#msg48829 CANBUS diagnostic reply], the Calex charger operates as a CC/CV mode charger.
 
:* Constant current (CC) mode is the default operational mode.
 
:*: The charger attempts to deliver a target amount of current to the battery.
 
:*: This means that the charger's power input is proportional to the battery's voltage at that moment, which rises from low state to the high state of charge, so charging will be slower at low voltages (< 20% SoC).
 
:* Maximum allowed battery voltage: 116.4V ''(Confirmed via charger self-report over CANBUS)''
 
:*: When battery voltage reaches or exceeds this value, the charger enters a constant voltage (CV) mode.
 
:*: Since the rate of charge dynamically adds voltage to the pack, the taper eases off this addition so there's a stable charge equilibrium at the end.
 
:*: Tapering behavior is observed to reduce output current in increments of 1A and typically starts at 12A.
 
:* Current taper cutoff: 10A ''(Confirmed via charger self-report over CANBUS)''
 
:*: The charger will cut to 0 output rather than taper below this value.
 
:* Maximum allowed current: 65.535 A ''(Confirmed via charger self-report over CANBUS)''
 
:*: This is a meaningless binary value.
 
 
 
;Overcharge Protection
 
: The charger is limited by the manufacturer to a range that matches Zero's battery safe range.
 
: The charger is connected to external AC sources and is therefore a vulnerable component while plugged in.
 
:: Per [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6707.msg54407#msg54407 Re: Change to Charging - Leaving Bike Plugged In]
 
:* The charger is an isolated power supply with suppressors on the input.
 
:* So, if a surge were big enough, the suppressors could fail short.
 
:* Then the circuit breaker should fail after that.
 
:* The BMS and the rest of the bike is completely isolated from the charger, so there's no current path to them.
 
:: This is why some people on this forum report their charger is dead, but the bike is fine, and there wasn't any fire. Most of the time Zero, replaces the onboard charger for them.
 
:; Worst-case scenario
 
:* BMS unresponsive
 
:* MBB unresponsive
 
:* Contactor welded
 
:* Charger outputs more than 117.6V
 
:: In the event of all these holding (extremely unlikely), there is some risk of a fire.
 
:: This is probably why Zero asks you to check on the bike every 72 hours to make sure the bike is still responding and the BMS is still alive.
 
 
 
===Meanwell Charger Behavior===
 
These chargers do not interact over CANBus messaging, so just operate in a preset way in CC-CV mode, although the [[#Charging_Control_Unit|CCU]] also has some control over it to implement battery protections.
 
 
 
;Clicking Sound
 
: There is a known issue, per [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=4176 Clicking sound when plugged-in], that the Meanwells sometimes make a repeated clicking sound.
 
: It seems to happen generally in the cold.
 
: This symptom does not seem to precede an equipment failure, and should go away once charging is complete.
 
 
 
===Charger Operation===
 
Mainly, the charger is the most routine bike maintenance and you just plug it in and can forget about it.
 
 
 
;When to Charge
 
: Per Zero's recommendation, the battery state of charge is ideally kept between 30% and 70%.
 
* Always plug in when the SoC is below 30%.
 
* Leave it plugged in to reach 100% and improve cel balance if you are planning to ride the bike in the next few days.
 
* You can unplug the bike when it reaches 70% if the bike will not be ridden sooner than a few days, or if your next ride will not require more charge.
 
*: This keeps the battery in a healthier state and improves battery lifetime beyond the warranty.
 
 
 
; What to Watch For
 
: When plugging in, expect:
 
* The contactor to close with a click or remain closed.
 
* The dash charging indicator to begin blinking green.
 
* After a few seconds, (2014+ models) the charge time indicator should display a number of hours and minutes until fully charged.
 
*: This indicator helps predict when a desired SoC can be anticipated, with a little math.
 
 
 
; Trouble Indications
 
* Spark at the plug when connecting.
 
* Heat from the plug.
 
* No charging dash indicator.
 
* Circuit breaker trips.
 
 
 
; Reliability Tips
 
: There is a growing consensus that the Calex charger's limited cooling capacity can lead to damage over time if it's operated repeatedly at the high end of its rated band.
 
: To minimize risk of a charger fault or component burnout, avoid operating it while the battery is hot and still cooling, and address any heating or sparking at the plug.
 
: Check the [[Common_Problems#Charging|Common Charging Problems]] section regarding the plug and cord.
 
: Basic suggestions:
 
:* After an intense ride in the heat with the battery temperature high, wait for a couple of hours until the temperature is lower.
 
:* Keep the inlet covered when not in use.
 
:* Use contact cleaner on the inlet periodically (once per month) or whenever the charging cord plug warms up significantly during charging.
 
:* Minimize strain and load on the charging cord.
 
:* Unplug the cord and cover the inlet when not in use.
 
 
 
;[[Common_Problems#GFCI_Faults|GFCI]]
 
: Ground fault circuit isolation (GFCI or GFI) enabled outlets often trip when using the Zero onboard charger, relating to how AC phases are wired to a single or multiple outlets.
 
: If this happens regularly, it is reasonable to break off the grounding pin from your charging cord, or, better yet, get a [https://www.google.com/?ion=1&espv=2#q=three+prong+to+two+prong+adapter&tbm=shop cheater (three prong to two prong) "cheater" plug].
 
 
 
===Charger Power Cord===
 
: The charging cord is a 10-ft 14AWG cord with a [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/NEMA_connector#NEMA_5 NEMA 5-15P] (US) to [https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IEC_60320#C13.2FC14_coupler IEC320 C13] output plug rated for 15A.
 
: Zero specifies that any extension cord be at least the above specification, and 15A continuous rating is important to look for.
 
 
 
; Demand
 
* The S-Platform onboard charger draws 11-12A at 120V AC (and half the amps at ~220V).
 
* The X-Platform onboard charger draws 7A at 120V AC (and half the amps at ~220V).
 
 
 
;Tips
 
* When in doubt, prefer a thicker gauge cord, a shorter length, and a sturdier plug.
 
* Do not let a charge cord sit coiled up, particularly in a container; make sure that any heat produced is not confined near the cord for any reason.
 
* Plugging into a 220V outlet will reduce the current to the onboard charger by half, so is one way to drastically minimize risk to any cords.
 
 
 
;Replacements
 
: See [[Common_Modifications#Spare_Onboard_Charger_Power_Cables|Spare Onboard Charger Power Cables]]
 
 
 
===Charger Connections===
 
: AC input is an IEC-60320 C13 inlet.
 
: DC output is an [[Anderson_connector|Anderson]] [http://www.andersonpower.com/us/en/products/sbs/sbs-50.aspx SBS50-BRN], but it seems to be a narrower pin pitch with no center data pin set.
 
: CANbus signal interface is a JAE MX23A18NF1 connector (applies to the Calex, not the Mean Wells!)
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ CAN signal pins per GWP data sheet
 
|-
 
!Pin
 
!Function
 
|-
 
|4
 
|CAN ground
 
|-
 
|5
 
|CAN +5V power
 
|-
 
|6
 
|CAN Dominant Low
 
|-
 
|7
 
|CAN Dominant High
 
|-
 
|10
 
|ob_charger_attached_n [charger_attached]
 
|-
 
|11
 
|ob_charger_attached_n [charger_attached]
 
|-
 
|12
 
|charger_en_0 [charger_en_n]
 
|-
 
|13
 
|ob_charger_ref_0 [charger_gnd_ref]
 
|}
 
  
;CANbus wiring
+
; Location (X Platform)
:Adapted from an examination of the wiring on a 2014 SR: [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=6167 Onboard charger wiring for 2014 and 2015+] for the Calex.
+
: Below the front modular battery (or front half of a longbrick battery) in the triangular bay above the controller.
:When the onboard charger is plugged in and powered on the onboard charger pushes:
 
:* 5V and 48mA through the Charger attached Pin #11.
 
:* 5V and 26mA through the Charger enabled Pin #12.
 
:The 5V ground reference is Pin #13 which is battery negative.
 
:With this knowledge, another onboard charger solution can be wired to function as follows:
 
:# Run a separate circuit that when triggered pushes 5V ~50mA through pin#11 (attached charger) with the other end of the 5V circuit connected to the battery negative pin #13.
 
:# When this is triggered, the bike shows the battery state of charge % and charge time remaining, closes the contactor and allows charging - through the accessory charging port, the onboard charger port or via the Sevcon battery terminals for high power charging.
 
:# Upon completion of charging, the 5V can be switched off and the charge level and time remaining switch off and the contactor opens just as with the onboard charger.
 
:# The bike can be keyed on and ridden away as normal.
 
: Using this method there is no need to leave the bike on when charging via the accessory charging port or the controller battery-side cables, or if you are using the [[#Accessory_Charging_Port|accessory charging port]] without triggering the auxiliary pin on the accessory charging port's Anderson SBS75XBRN.
 
:;NOTE
 
:: For 2015 onwards, the charger install uses additional wiring which may have a different approach using CAN signals, so it may require a different approach.
 
  
===[[Calex Charger Replacement|Charger Replacement]]===
+
; Mounting (S Platform)
{{:Calex Charger Replacement}}
 
 
 
==Main Bike Board==
 
[[File:2016 Zero MBB Front.png|thumb|2016 Zero MBB Front]]
 
[[File:2016 Zero MBB Back.png|thumb|2016 Zero MBB Back]]
 
The Main Bike Board (MBB) controls the overall system, implements safety interlocks, and directs the controller.
 
: It is also the entry point for configuring these systems, performing diagnostics, and examining operational events.
 
: When referring to "the firmware", or "the logs", people are referring to this board primarily, and possibly the BMS.
 
: It is enclosed within a fully-potted plastic-like container with multi-pin connectors along the top side.
 
 
 
; Location
 
: Below the front area of the seat under cable runs.
 
: It is located aft of (and above) the [[#DC.2FDC_12V_converter|DC-DC converter]] with a bracket sandwiched between them.
 
[[File:2017-S-Frame - Board Mounting Plate Left Bracket.png|thumb|100px|Board Plate Mounting Bracket (Left)]]
 
[[File:2017-S-Frame - Board Mounting Plate Right Bracket.png|thumb|100px|Board Plate Mounting Bracket (Right)]]
 
 
 
; Mounting
 
 
: Two socket head bolts with washers fasten the enclosure to a vertical plate.
 
: Two socket head bolts with washers fasten the enclosure to a vertical plate.
 
: The bolts enter the plate in the forward direction but offer very limited clearance for manipulating them.
 
: The bolts enter the plate in the forward direction but offer very limited clearance for manipulating them.
Line 3,041: Line 2,825:
 
==Protections==
 
==Protections==
  
===Contactor===
+
===[[Main Contactor|Contactor]]===
The main [[wikipedia:Contactor|contactor]] is a high-capacity relay-operated switch separating the battery's positive side from the bike's propulsion systems.
+
{{:Main Contactor}}
: It mutually protects the battery and the bike's systems from damaging each other, particularly for rush currents or overcurrent conditions.
 
 
 
;Model
 
: Contactors for the 2013+ years are [http://www.gigavac.com/catalog/power-products/gx-series GIGAVAC GX-series contactors].
 
: The 2013 year contactor is not identified, and some reported an occasional failure mode where "contactor welded shut" could occur.
 
: 2014+ years feature the [http://www.gigavac.com/products/gx11 GX11], which appears to fail safe open by design (SPST-NO) and has had no significant reported issues.
 
 
 
;Location
 
: The 2013+ power pack contactor is housed within the "dog house", an enclosed area extending from the main power pack enclosure top face at the rear.
 
: For the [[Zero_Aftermarket#OEM_Power_Tank|Power Tank]] accessory and bricks and long bricks, each enclosure has one contactor operated by the BMS within.
 
 
 
;Behavior
 
: See [[#Charging_Control_Unit|Charging Control Unit]] and [[#Contactor_Limits|Contactor Limits]].
 
 
 
;Theory ([http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=7040 ref])
 
: A contactor is a large relay: it allows a fairly small voltage/current signal to switch a much larger voltage/current.
 
: It has two sides:
 
:# The drive/coil side (control).
 
:# The load (contact) side.
 
: On the drive/coil side, there's a "kickback" diode which handles the inductive spike caused when the drive to the coil ceases.
 
:: Without that diode, the energy represented in the magnetic field inside of the coil would have no place to go, so it would cause a voltage spike which can be damaging to components.
 
:: The kickback diode gives that energy somewhere to go, allowing it to ramp down fairly slowly without a big voltage spike.
 
: Depending on how the coil side of the contactor is wound, it has a certain current requirement to pull the contactor shut, say 12V @ 100mA, which will be provided by the driving circuitry.
 
:: There's not necessarily any relationship between the ''coil rating'' and ''contact rating'', except that bigger (higher-current rated) contacts might be heavier and require higher coil current to get the armature to move.
 
:: The kickback diode only needs to carry this amount of current, regardless of the contact side current.
 
:: If a 3A kickback diode is specified for that contactor, it will be adequate for any contact side current.
 
: The ''make/break'' current is the rating for the contact side of the contactor.
 
:: You won't actually want to make or break the contactor under the limiting conditions (you'll always want to both make and break the contactor at exactly 0 amps), but in an emergency, it's rated to do so without the contacts welding together -- and an emergency is what the contactor is there for.
 
: In automotive use, you often see the coil set up for 12V, drawing maybe 100mA (the current can vary widely though).
 
:: That small current pulls the contacts together, which switches on the high-current side.
 
 
 
====Contactor Limits====
 
Zero's effective contactor limit for the charging rate is 95% of 1[[C-Rate|C rate]].
 
 
 
The BMS will open the contactor for the following conditions:
 
;Inactivity
 
: If the motorcycle is keyed off and not otherwise set in charging mode, the contactors will open after a few seconds.
 
: If the motorcycle is keyed on and not otherwise set in charging mode, and then 30 minutes pass without control input.
 
:: Twisting the throttle is sufficient to reset this timer; otherwise restart charging once it happens.
 
;Voltage
 
: Voltage is too low or too high outside its safe operating range.
 
: If voltage is too high (117V):
 
:# Confirm with the Zero mobile application
 
:# Attempt to bring it back to normal range by discharging the battery:
 
:#* operating the motor (fastest but requires a closed contactor, and the Sevcon won't operate above 118V) or:
 
:#* turning on all available electrical loads.
 
: If voltage is too low, charge by any means necessary:
 
:: Prefer the onboard charger or an equivalent rate source through the charging port.
 
:: In an emergency, the regen feature can be used to charge the battery through the motor.
 
::: Drive the motor by spinning the rear axle with a suitable power source, with the bike in Custom Mode with regen set to 100%.
 
;Power
 
: Incoming power exceeds 1[[C-Rate|C rate]] continuously for a minute. A 1[[C-Rate|C rate]] charges the battery fully in 1 hour.
 
: For a battery with 13 kWh max capacity, this value will be 11.4 kWh nominal / 102V = 110A (say).
 
: If the charge rate is too high for the battery, downgrade the charge rate manually and restart.
 
: Field testing indicates that the short time setting for the contactor opening is 30 seconds, and that a 20 second period under that limit will reset it.
 
:: This may vary due to environmental conditions like ambient temperature.
 
;[[Battery Temperature Limits|Temperature]]
 
: If the battery temperature (not ambient) is outside safe operating bounds:
 
{{:Battery Temperature Limits}}
 
: The Zero battery will emit heat while its charging rate exceeds 4 kW, and it will cool if under that threshold.
 
: If temperature is out of safe range, do whatever is appropriate to bring the temperature back in range.
 
 
 
;Calculating Contactor Limit Per Bike
 
Per Zero's specs pages:
 
: Maximum capacity (kWh) = COUNT(cells) &times; (cell capacity rating (Ah)) &times; MAX(cell rating (V))
 
 
 
;Example
 
: A 2015 SR w/ Power Tank has 15.3kWh max, 13.5 kWh nominal, with a 102V nominal voltage, so is nominally rated at 133 Ah.
 
: 1C rate means that it can charge at up to 133A.
 
: At 10% actual SOC (3.4 volts per cell), 1C = 3.4 volts per cell &times; 28 cells in series &times; 133 A = 12.7 kW.
 
: At 95% SOC (4.1 volts per cell), 1C = 4.1 volts per cell &times; 28 cells in series &times; 133 A = 15.3 kW.
 
: These are DC power ratings; AC input power will read 10 to 20% higher (due to conversion losses).
 
 
 
;Contactor Limit Per [[Zero_Aftermarket#OEM_Power_Tank|Power Tank]] or module
 
: The current capacity will be proportional to the number of bricks vs 4 providing a scaling factor.
 
: Or, more directly, the Ah rating on the label indicates the 1C rate.
 
 
 
{| class="wikitable sortable"
 
|+ Charging Limits
 
!colspan="3"|
 
!colspan="2"|Capacity (kWh)
 
!colspan="2" class="unsortable"|Voltage
 
!Capacity
 
!Contactor Limit
 
|-
 
!Year
 
!Cell
 
!# Bricks
 
!Max
 
!Nominal
 
! class="unsortable"|Max
 
! class="unsortable"|Nominal
 
!(Ah or 1C amps)
 
!A (95% assumed)
 
|-
 
|2013
 
|rowspan="2"|25Ah
 
|rowspan="2"|4
 
|rowspan="2"|11.4
 
|rowspan="2"|10.0
 
|rowspan="6"|116.4
 
|rowspan="6"|102
 
|rowspan="2"|98
 
|rowspan="2"|93
 
|-
 
|2014
 
|-
 
|2015
 
|27Ah
 
|4
 
|12.5
 
|11.0
 
|108
 
|103
 
|-
 
|2016
 
|rowspan="2"|29Ah
 
|rowspan="2"|4
 
|rowspan="2"|13.0
 
|rowspan="2"|11.4
 
|rowspan="2"|112
 
|rowspan="2"|107
 
|-
 
|2017
 
|-
 
|2018
 
|32Ah
 
|4
 
|14.4
 
|12.6
 
|125?
 
|119?
 
|}
 
  
 
===Battery Fuse===
 
===Battery Fuse===
Line 3,546: Line 3,197:
 
The product made for Zero has not been identified so far, but has shown no failures, either.
 
The product made for Zero has not been identified so far, but has shown no failures, either.
  
===Horn===
+
===[[Horn]]===
The horn is a [http://www.leb.it/eng/k70_electromagnetic_disc_horn.html K70-H Electromagnetic Disc Horn], P/N 45-06774 for model years 2014-2019.
+
{{:Horn}}
 
 
{| class="wikitable"
 
|+ Specifications
 
|-
 
|-
 
! Current
 
| 1.5A @ 13V
 
|-
 
! Sound Level
 
| 109dB @ 2m
 
|-
 
! Pitch
 
| 430Hz
 
|-
 
! Weight
 
| 155g
 
|}
 
  
 
==Switchgear==
 
==Switchgear==
Line 3,689: Line 3,323:
 
:: While the bike is keyed on and contactor is closed, Blue measures a stable 5V, Red measures ~2.7V and varies (need to scope this), and black appears to be a signal ground/input (needs verification when I'm not tired).
 
:: While the bike is keyed on and contactor is closed, Blue measures a stable 5V, Red measures ~2.7V and varies (need to scope this), and black appears to be a signal ground/input (needs verification when I'm not tired).
 
: Some KTM riders with the Asahi Denso CE122 sensor have reported success using commercial bypass kits.
 
: Some KTM riders with the Asahi Denso CE122 sensor have reported success using commercial bypass kits.
 +
:* [http://electricmotorcycleforum.com/boards/index.php?topic=9276.msg81168#msg81168 Reportedly], a [https://slavensracing.com/shop/sidestand-switch-bypass-removal-kit-ktm-690-950-990/ KTM sidestand switch bypass kit] can work on a Zero without issues.
 +
:*: [https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tglAUxsl51M Instructional video]
 
:: One such user suggested these are merely a potted 2.2kOhm resistor between the Red and Black wires (link here).
 
:: One such user suggested these are merely a potted 2.2kOhm resistor between the Red and Black wires (link here).
 
:: Zero motorcycles can be far more sensitive to faults on signalling pins so this should not be attempted unless you absolutely know what you are doing, and are willing to risk having to replace your MBB.
 
:: Zero motorcycles can be far more sensitive to faults on signalling pins so this should not be attempted unless you absolutely know what you are doing, and are willing to risk having to replace your MBB.

Revision as of 18:55, 19 November 2019

Overview

This describes the Zero motorcycle platform and includes as many service tasks not described (or incompletely described) in the official Owner's Manuals as customers have identified.

Some information might be hearsay or not completely communicated, but attempts have been made to verify as much as possible.
As with anything in a wiki environment, whatever you undertake with this as a guide is your own responsibility.
Coverage
Unless otherwise stated, this manual refers to the shared S Platform and the 2013+ years in particular, as previous model years varied significantly and were produced in smaller numbers.
X Platform
Coverage is reasonable, but progress here would benefit from volunteers invested in these models.
Pre-2013 models
Maintenance coverage to keep their powertrains running (battery, controller, and motor).
FST Platform
The SRF Model bikes have only just started reaching customers in small numbers, and represents a very large shift in construction and powertrain details, so this may take some time.

Contents

Platforms

Zero motorcycles benefit from some commonality around the powertrain. The motor, controller, BMS and MBB are more or less shared across all models, along with handlebars and controls.

S Platform

The S (or SDS) Platform builds on a single evolving frame design around a full battery power pack (the Monolith), and consists of the S and DS and the high-performance variants SR and DSR.

Fleet variants
SP, DSP, SRP, DSRP - Law enforcement / patrol.


X Platform

The X (or XMX) platform builds on a single lighter-weight frame design around two bricks of batteries, and consists of the FX and FXS variants.

Fleet variants
FXP, FXSP - Law enforcement / patrol.
MMX - Military built-to-order
Older Variants
XU (2011,2012,2013): a low power street/training model.
X (2011,2012): an offroad (street homologation optional) model.
MX (2011,2012,2013): a motocross (tall suspension offroad, street homologation optional) model.


FST Platform

This is the platform listed for the SRF Model.


General Information

VIN

The VIN is inscribed on the front head tube of the frame per the official manual.

See the VIN guide to understand how the VIN describes your vehicle, as compiled across manual revisions.

Systems

This is a very simplified way of looking at the bike’s systems functions and general purposes, linking to relevant sections.

Mechanical Systems

Powertrain Systems

Energy Systems

Electrical Systems

General Maintenance

Mostly, refer to the official owners' manual for regular and general maintenance.

Lift

Some maintenance tasks are better performed with the wheels off the ground.

The armored pan under the battery that protects onboard charging units is strong enough and positioned well to use a center lift.
Recommendation
Center lift under S model belly pan
FXS from below.
Using a scissor lift center stand is an easy method to lift the bike.
Rage Powersports BW-1604A has been spotted at Zero HQ, but other manufacturers make very equivalent stands.
A center lift is easier than a rear stand to operate solo, and it is more compact than the rear stand although much heavier.
Location (S Platform)
Use a center lift under the battery compartment.
  • Orient the center stand so that it runs side-to-side to provide lateral stability.
  • Place it under the rear of the battery compartment to lift the bike's front and rear equally.
  • Place it under the front of the battery compartment to lift the bike's front and leave the rear tire in floor contact.
  • Strap the bike securely (through the center frame tube, say) to avoid toppling it.
Confirmed fits
Location (X Platform)
The FXS (at least) has three bolts sticking out from the pan under the bike.
  • Orient the center stand so that it runs side-to-side to provide lateral stability.
  • You can put a rubber pad on your lift to make it easier to use it over the bolts.
Confirmed fits
References


Front Stand

When To Use
A front stand is the easiest way to:
Spool Stands
  • The Zero does not offer axle attachment points for spools for a front stand.
Steering Head Pin Stands
  • 2014+ models(?) have a steering pin diameter of 5/8".
  • 2012-2013 Zero models have an 8mm diameter (from a 2013 Zero S report and some checking around), with no vendor match.
  • The DS/DSR/FX models' high front fender must be removed (or drilled through) to use a pin for the front steering head.
Confirmed fits
Pit Bull Zero Fitments
Years Platform Front Pin Rear Pin Rear Supports Restraint
2013 S & X None! (8mm ⌀) Pin Fitting Only - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-04736)
Top Supports (Pair), Standard Rear Stand
Top Supports (Pair), SS Rear Stand
Trailer Restraint System - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-04736)
2014 Pin #7, Front
2015+ Pin Fitting Only - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-08032) Trailer Restraint System - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-08032)


Rear Stand

Inexpensive Jack Stands and a 2x4
Swingarm attachment
The Zero does not offer swingarm attachment points for spools for a rear stand.
A rear stand can work if it cradles the underside of the swingarm snugly.
This can work but takes a little care to operate single-handedly.
Confirmed fits
Axle Attachment
Custom Fabrication
An axle stand can be fabricated, like this Home made rear axle stand on Zero FXS.
Pit Bull Zero Fitments
Years Platform Front Pin Rear Pin Rear Supports Restraint
2013 S & X None! (8mm ⌀) Pin Fitting Only - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-04736)
Top Supports (Pair), Standard Rear Stand
Top Supports (Pair), SS Rear Stand
Trailer Restraint System - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-04736)
2014 Pin #7, Front
2015+ Pin Fitting Only - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-08032) Trailer Restraint System - Zero Motorcycles (Axle: 23-08032)


Tools

See the separate Tool Kits article for a curated short list of tools with their purposes.

NOTE: integrate or meld notes below with that article.

Tools and parts to support your bike

A travel kit for a motorcycle is always a good idea, but Zero doesn't include a default set. They do sell a tool kit which covers many common tasks.

Tools for Everyday Riding

Consumables

Spare Parts for Everyday Riding
  • 12V fuses (10A, 15A typically).
  • Tire patch kit, suitable for tubed (pre-2015 DS or FX bikes) or tubeless tires (all others).
  • Cable ties and electrical tape for wiring.
Spare Parts for Travel
  • Belt
    ~$90, only available from Zero.
    Expect to eventually use it as replacement; avoids a delay waiting on delivery.
    Tools for belt replacement: 27mm socket with breaker bar, 10mm hex key...
  • Eaton JJN-100 fuse or size-matched 200V-rated fuses (30A will do in a pinch, being lower-spec)
    Fixes the accessory charging circuit which can be circumstantially blown without compromising the main boards.

Pre-Ride Checklist

Zero T-CLOCS Pre-Ride Checklist
Item What to Check Look For Check Off
Tires And Wheels Tires Condition Tread depth, wear, weathering, evenly seated, bulges, embedded objects. Front & Rear
Air Pressure Check When Cold; Adjust to Load
Wheels Spokes Bent/broken/missing. Check tension at top of wheel: "ring" is okay, "thud" means loose.
Cast Cracks or dents
Rims Out of round by more than 5mm. Spin the wheel against a stationary pointer
Bearings Grab the tire and flex it; no freeplay (click) between the hub and axle; no growl or squeak when spinning.
Seals Cracked or torn, no grease
Brakes Function Each brake alone can hold the bike stationary
Condition Worn pads or discs
Controls Handlebars Condition Bars are straight, turn freely, handgrips and bar ends are secure.
Brake Lever / Brake Pedal Condition Not broken/bent/cracked; adjusted properly.
Pivots Lubricated
Brake Hoses Condition No cuts/cracks/leaks/bulges/chafing/deterioration.
Routing No interference or pull at the steering head; no sharp angles; support clamps in place.
Throttle Operation Moves freely; snaps closed.
Lights & Electrics Headlamp/Running light Condition Turns on; no cracks; mounted securely; clean reflector.
Aim Just below horizontal and not skewed left or right.
Tail Lights Condition No cracks; clean and bright.
Operation Running light always on; brighter with front or rear brake pressed.
Switches Operation All switches function correctly: motor cut-out, hi/low beam, turn signal, hazard switch.
Turn signals Operation No cracks; flashes with left and right turn signal switch usage; resets per switch.
Mirrors Condition No cracks; clean, mount and swivel joints are tight
Aim Check/adjust while seated on the bike off the kickstand.
Wiring Condition No fraying or chafing; insulated.
Routing No pinching, interference, or pulling at the steering head or suspension; wire looms and ties in place; connectors tight and clean.
Oil & Fluids Hydraulic Fluid Level Check front and rear reservoirs
Cleanliness Check whether the fluid is very dark, foamed, or has water
Chassis Frame Condition No cracks at gussets or accessory mounts; no paint lifting
Steering-Head Bearings No detent or tight spots through full travel; raise front wheel and check for play by pulling/pushing forks.
Swingarm Bushings Raise the rear wheel and check for play by pulling/pushing swingarm.
Suspension Front Forks Smooth travel, equal air pressure/damping, anti-dive settings. Left & Right
Rear Shock Smooth travel, equal pre-load/air pressure/damping settings, linkage moves freely and is lubricated.
Belt Tension Check at tightest point
Alignment Check position on rear sprocket; spin the wheel to check changing position
Sprockets Teeth not hooked or chipped; clean and securely mounted
Fasteners Threaded Tight; none missing; check for corrosion
Clips and Pins None broken or missing
Stands Side Stand Condition No cracks; not bent; cutout switch equipped and working
Retention Springs into place; tension holds position up or down


Fastener Maintenance

Always check for loose or corroding bolts.

Torque
  • For torques, see Fastener Specifications, which gathers all the officially recommended torque and other settings for various fasteners.
Locking
  • Use blue Loctite threadlocker for non-conductive bolts.
Corrosion
TODO: recommend a corrosion inhibitor.

Frame/Bodywork

Frame

S Platform Frame

2010-2012 S Platform Frame
2013 S Platform Frame
2014-2016 S Platform Frame
2014S frame isometric
The 2013+ Zero frame for S/DS/SR/DSR bikes is made of anodized aluminum, weighs 23lbs, and is a combination of cast parts and welded square tubing of 1-inch outer width.
The frame slips onto the battery pack case over the top and attaches to it with four major bolts around the bottom. The charger is attached to the underside with a protective plate covering it (plastic for S/SR, aluminum for DS/DSR).
Attachment Points
The frame offers a number of rivet nut attachment points for the lower plastics.
The rivet nuts are sized to accept M5 bolts (a total depth of 20mm is available without marring the inside of the frame bar) with a 6mm shoulder to a depth of 5mm. (A longer shoulder and length are required for fastening a bracket beyond that.)
From 2015 onwards, the frame has extra attachment points made for the crash bars used for fleet/police models.
Two extra rivet nut holes on each side of the frame diagonal shoulder of the same size. They are 30mm apart (center to center).
The lower bash plate has similar modifications from that year - two rivet nut holes pre-made for M6 bolts and capped by threaded plastic inserts on each side for the lower mount. There is perhaps 10mm thread depth or allowance between the outer surface of the plate and the onboard charger enclosure.
On prior year models, the OEM or dealer would make these fittings.
Vertical Stanchions
Tail Horns
Neck and Shoulder
Battery Carrier Tray
Board Mounting Plate

Frame Tube

2018 SR Frame Tube Inner view

The frame has a tube running through the center of the bike where the tail horns meet the vertical stanchions and the main forward frame beams.

The tube functions as the anchor and hinge support for the rear shock.
For 2012-2014 models, this inner tube functions effectively as storage for the Charger Power Cord.
2015+ models have a brace in the center of the hole which reduces the diameter in that section.
The rough edges on this brace can abrade the power cord, so for these models, storing the cord there can wear it out over time.
Dimensions
Inner diameter (2015+) ~58mm
Center Brace minimum diameter (2015+) ~40mm
References
Re: Through-frame security aperture size?


Belly Pan

The Belly Pan AKA Skid Plate covers the onboard charger and is metallic on the DS/DSR and a very hard ABS plastic on the S/SR models.

DS Belly Pan / Skid Plate

Both variants are sturdy enough to support the bike on a centerlift.

Parts
S/SR: Hard plastic, part 24-07746.
DS/DSR: Aluminum alloy 5052-H32, part 26-08051 (was 20-05126).
Mounting
Fastened by 8 M5X16-8.8 button head bolts, 4 per side.
Forward corner bolts fasten into corner brackets (part 20-05307) that extend the lower frame square tubing.
Belly Pan Removal
Video Guide
How to Remove the Zero's Onboard Charger by NewZeroLand on YouTube from the beginning to 2 minutes in shows very clearly how to remove the pan from a Zero SR.
Tools
  • 3mm Allen key.
Steps
  1. (Optional) Place the bike upright on a front wheel stand if a vertical drop of the pan is suitable.
  2. Loosen each of the 8 bolts retaining the belly pan (4 per side), without removing.
  3. Remove each fastener in some suitable rotation so the pan isn't temporarily left dangling by one fastener.
    The pan is lightweight and can be manually suspended if convenient, or use a lift to catch the pan and lower it.
  4. Set the bolts aside with the pan for replacement later.


Y-Shaped Underseat Frame

2016 DSR underseat view

This frame piece spans the top of the frame between the part that sits behind the battery doghouse and the tail.

Functions
  • Support and anchor the seat by two pins extending from the forward center section.
  • Anchor the rear of the tank plastics.
  • Mount the 12V fuse panel on the left rear leg.
  • Protect underlying cabling from seat loading.
  • Removable (vs being frame-integrated or welded) for servicing everything above the motor.
Mounting
  • Forward: 2x 10mm hex nylon locknuts, with washers.
  • Rear: 2x M5 socket cap bolts, 20mm length with a 2mm shoulder, 1mm depth, 6mm outer diameter, with washers.
Removal
Tools
  • 10mm hex socket wrench with at least 20mm of depth.
  • 5mm Allen key.
Steps
  1. Remove the seat.
  2. Use the 10mm socket wrench to loosen the locknuts anchoring the forward end of the washers.
  3. Use the 5mm Allen key to loosen the bolts at each of the rear ends of the frame piece.
  4. Remove the locknuts and the bolts in a coordinated pattern to avoid putting it under asymmetrical loading.
    • Take care not to lose the washers in the frame piece or in the bike's cabling areas underneath as each bolt and nut comes off.
Installation
  1. Ensure the underlying cabling is placed in its original orientation to avoid strain.
  2. Press the frame piece's fastener holes onto the corresponding threaded bolts on the frame arch over the rear of the battery.
  3. Align the rear ends of the frame piece with the corresponding frame holes, and thread the bolts with washers gently into position (without tightening) to secure the frame piece.
  4. Thread (without tightening) the front locknuts with washers onto the forward bolts.
  5. Tighten the two forward nuts and rear bolts in a coordinated pattern to settle the frame piece into the right load-bearing orientation.
    • Take care while tightening not to strain any cables or wiring underneath the frame piece.



Board Mounting Plate

Front
Rear

A vertical plate aft of the battery supports both the main bike board and the DC-DC 12V converter.

The plate varies between pre-2015 model years and the following model years, likely because of the DC converter upgrade in 2015 from 300W to 500W to support ABS braking equipment power requirements.

Attachments
  • The Main Bike Board is mounted to the rear face of the plate for 2013-2014 models, and to the rear face of the upper edge of the plate on 2015+ models.
  • The DC-DC 12V converter is mounted to the forward face of the plate for 2013-2014 models, and to the lower rear face of the plate on 2015+ models.
  • The Accessory Charging Port is screwed to a flange at the bottom of the plate via two small M2.5 allen key bolts.
  • The rubber boot covering the Accessory Charging Port is attached to the flange via plastic push-rivet.
  • One cable run is zip-tied to a slot in the lower left corner of the plate, accessible under the frame arms forward of the onboard charging plug.
  • Another cable run is zip-tied a slot in the lower edge of the plate closer to the right side, accessible under the frame arms behind the battery.
Mounting
  • The bracket has side flanges that affix the plate to the left and right sides of the frame.
  • The top two corners of the flanges bend to the rear of the bike at a 45 degree angle, which mate to similarly-positioned flanges on the frame sides. The frame side flanges are above the plate flanges, which means when installing and removing the plate, the top must be angled towards the rear of the bike.
  • The bottom two corners of the flanges bend to the rear of the bike at a 90 degree angle. The bolts which affix these corners point upwards (cap head points down).
  • Fasteners
    • 4x M4 socket cap bolts, 12mm length, 0.75mm? depth, 5mm outer diameter, with washers.
    • 2x M2.5 socket cap bolts, 25mm length with a 6mm shoulder, 0.5mm? depth, 2.5mm outer diameter, with washers.
    • 2x M3 socket cap bolts, 10mm length, 0.75mm? depth, 4mm outer diameter, with washers.
Removal
Tools
  • 2.5mm, 3mm, 4mm Allen keys.
  • Low clearance (under 20mm) 3mm Allen key.
Steps
  1. Remove the seat.
  2. Remove the underseat Y-shaped frame piece.
  3. Detach the MBB by removing the two bolts holding it to the plate with a low-clearance 3mm Allen key.
    • The right side bolt will be extremely difficult to manipulate given the cables routed very close to it; consider displacing them.
  4. Push the MBB aside to the left without unplugging its connectors.
  5. Remove the two bolts attaching the upper left and right corners, facing 45 degrees up/forward, with a 2.5mm(?) Allen key.
  6. Remove the two bolts attaching the lower left and right corners.
    • Reach them from below the frame arms on each side of the bike, just forward of the stanchions.
    • Use a 2.5mm(?) Allen key (preferably a ratcheting socket).
    Lower edge cables
    Lower right bolt
    Lower right clip
    Lower right clip
  7. Snip the cable run zip tie on the lower left corner of the plate.
  8. Snip the cable run zip tie on the lower edge of the plate from the right side.
    • A long, narrow-bladed screwdriver can be suitable.
  9. Detach the Accessory Charging Port from the lower flange of the plate using a 2.5mm(?) Allen key on the two narrow bolts through the plug's body holes.
  10. Along the lower rear-facing edge bracket flange, push the cross-frame cable run off of the bracket.
    Board Plate Mounting Bracket (Left)
    Board Plate Mounting Bracket (Right)
  11. Pull the top edge of the plate to the rear of the bike so that the top mounting flange's corners clear the mating flanges on the frame.
  12. Gently pull the plate by the DC-DC converter up and aft, minding any cabling that can get snagged on the plate to avoid straining any wires.
    • It seems easiest to pull the left side of the plate up first, to avoid clearance issues around the hydraulic lines running along the right side towards the rear brake system.
Installation
  • (Still working on this; essentially reversing the removal but considering the various fitment dependencies ahead of time to avoid trouble).



X Platform Frame

2011-2012 X Platform Frame
2013 X Platform Frame
2014-2016 X Platform Frame
The 2013+ Zero frame for FX/FXS (and X/MX/XU) bikes is made of anodized aluminum, weighs 20lbs, and is a combination of cast parts and welded square tubing of 1-inch outer width.
The frame fits two power pack modules, one long brick module (2017), or one module and an empty space for carrying small cargo.
The FXP fleet model has a crash guard mount option like the SP/DSP models but is smaller and mounted lower.
Paint matching
All models have the same anodized aluminum with a black finish/paint.
Some paint repair suggestions on this thread are worth examining: FX frame touch up
Iterations by Year
Each year's frame from 2013 onward is incrementally improved and stronger than the prior year.
The 2014 frame changed up the way the side plastics bolt on and provides for the power tank via the carrier bracket.
The 2015 frame included pre-drilled holes for the crash guards for fleet/police models.
The 2016 frame seems to be a little more built-up and has additional members bracing the diagonals to the main beams behind the shoulder.
Common Frame Components
The Swingarm is at least superficially the same as on S Platform models for the same year/generation.
The Steering head tube seems to be the same as on S Platform models for the same year/generation.
Frontend geometry for FX may match DS/DSR, and FXS may match S/SR.

Tail Subassembly

On the S Platform models, there is a separate aluminum assembly supporting the tail plastics (and top rack accessory) that bolts into the "horns" at the aft end of the frame just after the Sevcon controller.

Zero S tail subframe with upper plastics removed

The X Platform tail is entirely of plastic; the top rack accessory connects in a different way (worth confirming to understand its dynamic loading limits).

Kickstand

The kickstand for S and X platforms is made from cast aluminum and swings outward from the left side.

There is a safety interlock Hall sensor switch at the pivot that prevents the motor from operating when the kickstand is down.

Kickstands
Years Model Length Part no
2013-2014? S/SR shorter than the DS/DSR 20-05660 03
DS/DSR 10.8" / 275mm 20-05661 03
FX 15.0" / 380mm 20-05662 03
FXS
2015+ FX 13.5" / 343mm
FXS 11.8" / 300mm

Both DS and FX kickstands are identical from the spring screw up to the pivot, and should interchange.

All the 2013+ kickstands uses the same pivot pin & spring.

References
Re: 2016 FXS Lowered Ride Height OEM Shock, Dual Use Tires, Drop Bars, Hand Guards,
Help needed: Kickstand "bent"
Mounting
3/8" E clip, Zero part no 90-0283700, also available generically.
Clevis pin custom, Zero part no 90-0279900.
Mounting bracket, custom
Maintenance
The official manual recommends keeping the pivot greased as necessary with a six-month check interval.
Replacement

This replaces the Kickstand.

See Kickstand Removal and Kickstand Install for now.


Install
Tools
  • Center lift or stand.
  • Large flat-blade screwdriver or specialized tool like drum brake spring pliers for spring removal and replacement.
  • E-clip tool (or needlenose pliers) for the 3/8" E-clip.
Steps
  1. (When replacing) Remove the allen bolt securing the springs to the old kickstand.
  2. (When replacing) Transfer the 2 bronze bushings from the old kickstand:
    1. Remove the 2 bronze bushings from the old kickstand.
    2. Clean and grease bushings.
    3. Insert bushings into new kickstand and replace chamfered bolt with springs.
      My chamfered bolt was not very tight and I assume it was being held in from the spring tension.
      I went to tighten it all the way in but that seemed to push the springs out too far.
      I put blue Loctite on it and threaded it about half way in.
      I will check this after a few rides to ensure it does not fall out!
  3. Place the new kickstand onto the pivot.
  4. Install the pin and spring
    Pin Before Spring
    1. Insert the pin.
    2. Raise the kickstand to its stowed/horizontal position.
      This minimizes the amount of force/extension to install the new spring.
    3. Install the spring over the kickstand hook with a suitable tool (see tools requirements).
    Spring before pin
    Have the pin and a tapered punch that fits nicely in the hole ready to go.
    1. Clean the pin and apply fresh grease to it.
    2. Hook the springs onto the frame, grip the kickstand with both hands, put your shoulder into the bike so it won’t tip.
    3. While pushing straight down on the kickstand, get it onto the frame and insert the tapered punch.
    4. Now raise the kickstand into the stowed/horizontal position.
    5. Remove punch.
      The hole will be almost aligned.
    6. Insert the pin as far as it will go, mine stopped at the frame.
    7. With the kickstand still in the up position, tap the bottom of the kickstand pivot area up towards the frame with a dead blow hammer while pushing the pin in.
      This should align the hole and allow the pin to go right in.
      Insert the pin and fasten it with a new 3/8" E-clip.
    Note: This is the most difficult and dangerous part of the job.
    Use eye protection while doing this and ensure your hands won't be damaged if the spring flies back while getting it over the hook.
    Focus on applying steady force with as much leverage as possible to extend the spring back along the swingarm.
    • One trick is to use a strong line looped through the hook as a pulley.
    • Another trick is to bend the spring enough back and forth to insert pennies between the coils, which holds it in an extended position.
      Then loop the spring over the hook and pull the pennies out with pliers.
  5. Check the operation of the kickstand a few times.
    Ensure that it operates smoothly.
    Ensure the kickstand sensor detects the position of the kickstand, by checking the interlock indication on the dash while the bike is keyed on.
  6. Put the kickstand down before letting the motorcycle off the lift to rest on it.


Removal
Tools
  • Center lift or stand.
  • Large flat-blade screwdriver or specialized tool like drum brake spring pliers for spring removal and replacement.
  • E-clip tool (or needlenose pliers) for the 3/8" E-clip.
Steps
  1. Place the motorcycle on a center lift or stand.
Spring Before Pin
  1. Pull the spring off of the kickstand hook with a large flat blade screwdriver or a specialized kickstand spring release tool.
    Raise the kickstand to the stowed/horizontal position, to reduce spring tension.
    Warning Warning: Be extremely careful working with the kickstand spring as it is under high tension.
    A specialized tool makes this easier.
  2. Remove the pivot pin.
  3. Remove the kickstand.
Pin Before Spring
  1. Remove the pivot pin.
    1. Pull the E-clip off of the inside of the pivot.
    2. Raise the kickstand to the stowed/horizontal position, to reduce spring tension.
    3. Go to the left side of bike.
    4. Wiggle the kickstand while tapping the pivot pin from underneath with for example a soft faced hammer.
    5. Continue to wiggle the kickstand while gripping the pin until it slides out.
      Often comes out by hand with a rag.
  2. Carefully slide kickstand away from frame and unhook springs from frame.
    The kickstand will still be under some tension from both springs, inner and outer.


Footpegs

Zero footpegs are cast aluminum pieces, mounted on identical hinges so are interchangeable across models.

Mounting
The mount bracket uses a custom clevis, secured with a retaining E-clip.
Repair
The footpegs' aluminum casting is relatively brittle, and the pegs tend to break rather than bend.
See Footpeg Replacement.
Reference
"The pegs are the exact same part used by the Buell XB models (except for the Ulysses), and as the passenger pegs on the 1125R models. They are "sacrificial lambs" to protect the rest of the frame."

Rider Footpegs

Sport Footpegs
Installed on S/SR/FXS models.
Constructed as a cylindrical smooth-surfaced cast aluminum piece with a corrugated upper surface for some grip.
They are spring-loaded.
There is a feeler stud measuring M6X16 with a DIN 1587 M6 18-8 cap/acorn nut.
Dual Sport Footpegs
Installed on DS/DSR/FX models.
Constructed as a mildly-cleated rough-finish cast aluminum piece with a wide flat surface mounted horizontally.
They are spring-loaded.
Because of their construction, these actually offer less legroom than the sport footpegs.
S and DS footpegs compared

Rider Footpeg Removal

footpeg retaining clip and tool
Tools
  • Snap Ring / E-Ring pliers (needlenose pliers are a common if less easy substitute).
  • (Optional) 7mm Allen key to remove the clevis bracket from the frame.
Steps
  1. Gently spread the gap in the retaining E-ring using the pliers until it slides over the end of the pin, and remove it.
    This clip is on the lower end of the footpeg retaining pin.
  2. Pull the retaining pin up and out.
    Hold and pull the pin spring and footpeg as the pin comes out.
  3. (Optional) Use the 7mm Allen key to remove the bolt through the clevis bracket that fastens it to the frame.
References
How to Remove Zero Footpegs + Relocation Ideas by NewZeroLand on Youtube


Passenger Footpegs

Passenger footpegs are identical to the sport footpegs, since passenger geometry requires reduced legroom and a forward foot angle on the rest.
They are not spring-loaded.

Passenger Footpeg Removal

footpeg retaining clip and tool
Tools
  • Snap Ring / E-Ring pliers (needlenose pliers are a common if less easy substitute).
  • 13mm hex side or socket wrench (for the bracket).
Steps
  1. Gently spread the gap in the retaining E-ring using the pliers until it slides over the end of the pin, and remove it.
    This clip is on the lower end of the footpeg retaining pin.
  2. Pull the retaining pin up and out.
    Hold and pull the pin spring and footpeg as the pin comes out.
  3. (Optional) Remove the bracket
    1. Loosen the upper bolts mounting the footpeg brackets to the frame.
      S-platform: Reaching these bolts from the rear is easiest since they are on the inside of the frame.
    2. Loosen the lower bolts mounting the footpeg brackets to the frame.
      S-platform: These face the motor and allow very low overhead.
      A side wrench is recommended, and a ratcheting version preferred.
    3. Remove the bolts and then the brackets.
References
How to Remove Zero Footpegs + Relocation Ideas by NewZeroLand on Youtube



Seat

S Platform Seat

Zero S Seat Pan

The S Platform seat is a proprietary design and fitment.

Seat retaining features
  • A metal bracket with holes for retaining bolts that mount through the frame from the outside.
    The bracket also serves to align the seat horizontally since the outer sides of the bracket must slide directly along the inside track of the frame.
    Zero S Seat BracketZero S Seat Bracket
    The bracket's part number is 20-0508307 and when separately ordered has been observed to have slotted holes to join to the seat for some adjustability.
  • In front and center, a pair of catches engages the frame's Y-shaped centerpiece under a pair of pins.
  • In front on the lowest outside edge, a pair of tabs point downwards that should slide inside the frame rails.
    Without some care, these easily wind up outside the frame, flexing the seat pan and scuffing the frame lightly with plastic debris.
Under The Seat
2016 DSR tail layout
  • The large controller dominates the space underneath the seat, on the lowest part of the tail structure.
    There's no room around the controller for anything but its cabling and a conduit for tail lighting.
  • In front, the 12V fuse block is the main item to access.
    There are cables between the battery and the controller; the MBB and DC-DC converter are beneath these cables.
  • Behind the controller is the tail wiring area which has a little room for a tire patch kit or some tools.
    Of course, storing tools for removing the seat there is counter-productive.
Dimensions
  • Seat
  • Seat Bolts
    M8 with 1.25mm thread, 50mm long with a round end for aligning the seat bracket with the frame.
    With the top rack installed, the diameter of the hole around the head is slightly under 15mm, with a maximum offset of about 12mm.
  • Seat Bracket Bolts to Seat Pan

X Platform Seat

The FX/FXS seat is closer to an offroad "plank" seat, allowing the rider to pick their position forward or back.

2013 and 2018 FX seats
2013 FX seat
2018 FX seat
Variants
  • 2010-2013 X seat
    This seat offers additional height and free movement front to back.
    "The 2013 seat is also known as the off-road seat. p/n 24-01596 - SEAT ROODIN RD-M1231-K BLACK. Taller riders tend to like it as well if their butts hit the bump of the contoured seat." per comment on Facebook
  • 2014-current X seat
    Has a cutout / dip.
    Tapers more at the back (pointy), and flows down the sides a bit more too. Basically it's more contoured to the bike.
  • Corbin made a low seat for 2010-2012 X platform models.

Harlan at Hollywood Electrics reports that the FX seat is an exact match for the 2005-2007 Honda CRF-450.

Seat Removal

This removes the seat, primarily written for the SDS Platform.

Notes
  • Unload any luggage racks before taking the seat off for an extended period of time to avoid stressing the racks.
    When luggage racks are installed, the seat bolts are load bearing (or at least damping).
  • An M8-1.25x55mm socket cap bolt with a 6mm Allen head can be used if the kit bolt is lost.
Tools
  • 2015+: T45 Torx wrench (for seat bolts).
  • 2013-2014 (with top or side racks): 5mm Allen key (for seat bolts).
Steps
  1. When luggage racks are installed Remove the top case and/or side cases to ensure the rack is unloaded.
  2. Remove the M8-1.25⨉50 seat bolts.
    Seat Fasteners
    Seat Fasteners with Top Rack Installed
  3. Pull the seat back a couple of inches and then upwards.


Seat Install

This installs the seat, primarily written for the S platform models.

Tools
  • 2015+: T45 Torx wrench (for seat bolts).
  • 2013-2014 (with top or side racks): 5mm Allen key (for seat bolts).
Steps
  1. When luggage racks are installed Remove the top case and/or side cases to ensure the rack is unloaded.
  2. Place the seat on the tail slightly to the rear of where it will sit.
    Ensure that the pan's horn-shaped catches will slip under the frame's Y-shaped centerpiece pins.
  3. Push the seat forward and down to sit in place.
  4. Visually align the holes of the seat bracket with the seat bolt holes.
    Align the seat's bracket with the frame holes to avoid wear.
    Align the seat's tabs between the frame rails to avoid stressing the seat pan and marring the frame.
    If the top rack is installed, too, check the alignment of that as well to avoid wear trying to thread the bolts.
  5. Insert the seat bolts, gently engaging while checking for cross-threading.
    Check for alignment again while the bolt head encounters the seat bracket.
    Many (perhaps most) owners find that pressing down and forward on the seat helps align the bolts.
    Seat Fasteners
    Seat Fasteners with Top Rack Installed
  6. Tighten the bolt head against the frame surface to hold it in place but do not over-tighten.
  7. When luggage racks are installed Re-install the top case and/or side cases.


Panel Material

Zero body panels are made from ABS plastic.

2013-2016
The plastics' color is molded-in, and so it fades over time with sun exposure. On the other hand, they're relatively inexpensive to replace from Zero; ask your dealer.
Some use Plexus plastic cleaner to keep them polished successfully.
POLYTROL Colour restorer could help with color restoration.
Retr0bright solution developed for restoring 1980's yellowed ABS personal computer chassis material may be of use, unconfirmed.
2017+
The plastics as of this model year are painted rather than molded-in.

Tank Plastics

2014 SP Tank Plastics (left)
2014 SP Tank Plastics (right)

The 2013+ S platform features a "tank" area cradled by the two front frame spars and covered by plastic bodywork.

As delivered, it offers a storage compartment, but can also accommodate systems accessories like the OEM Power Tank battery upgrade or chargers.
All of the bodywork for this area serve the same ergonomic functions of a traditional motorcycle's fuel tank, allowing grip for maneuvering.
Most of this section covers the S platform bodywork, since the X platform's plastics are considerably simpler.

The X platform features a minimal set of plastic bodywork ahead of the seat which covers 12V circuitry and other cabling.

Fasteners
Zero plastics all are fastened with blackened M5x15mm mushroom cap socket head bolts using a 3mm allen key wrench.
All have black plastic washers with 5mm inner diameter, 10mm outer diameter, roughly 1mm thick.
Removal
See Tank Plastics Removal
Construction
All variants of the tank plastics for have identical side pieces and a black centerpiece in soft plastic with a relatively rough finish.
The stock centerpiece for 2013-2016 models is a bin container with two drain holes for collected moisture, with a soft bin held together with a simple zipper that anchors via hook-and-loop patches at the bottom of the bin as well as a loop cord that hooks through the front helmet lock.
The bin delivered per model year is different and varies in quality. 2013 seemed to have better construction than 2014-2015 years, and 2016 is somewhere between.
As of 2017, the stock centerpiece is a locking storage container with a spring-loaded hinge at the front so it swings forward to open.
The Power Tank and Charge Tank have tank plastic options which can be bought separately or selected for color customization. Both use a relatively flat surface for the centerpiece, and the Charge Tank has a J1772-sized inlet hold with built in waterproof cover with a spring-loaded hinge.
2014 SP plastics - dewelding
Separating
The join between the centerpiece and side pieces of a Zero tank plastic assembly is made by plastic weld using a soldering iron into soft hollow plastic pins on the centerpiece that melt and flatten around a lock washer onto holes in the side pieces.
You can break these welds using a relatively careful use of a pair of pliers to basically grip hard and twist on them until they break.
It's a slightly frustrating process but pretty quick to achieve, in about an hour. A soldering iron or extremely narrowly-focused heat gun can help the process but try not to risk damaging the plastics from overheating.
The original join process can be repeated for the new centerpiece.
Also, this means that the plastic centerpiece you remove will not be re-joinable.
Repair
See Tank Plastics Repair for a way to re-join tank plastics that have been de-welded.

Tail Plastics

Note: The author documented the reassembly; removal was inferred. Confirmation would be helpful.

Tail Plastics Removal

This removes the S-Platform Tail Plastics from the bike.

Note: The author documented the reassembly; removal was inferred. Confirmation would be helpful.
Zero S tail subframe with upper plastics removed
Notes
You'll be disconnecting the rear lighting wiring and removing the tail subassembly, and then removing the tail plastics from that.
The lower plastics removal are particularly difficult, even for dealers!
Tools
  • 3mm, 4mm, 6mm Allen wrenches.
  • For the seat bolts: T45 Torx wrench (without top rack) or 5mm Allen wrench (with top rack).
  • Phillips screwdrivers.
  • Needle nose pliers.
Steps
  1. Remove the seat.
  2. Remove the black seat pan bolts and nylon washers with the 3mm Allen wrench
    These are located lower on the side, near the hollow frame tube.
    There are 5 pairs of bolts to remove (documented via reassembly analysis):
    ZeroTail01.jpg ZeroTail02b.jpg
  3. Use a Philips screwdriver to unscrew the bolt holding down the rear of the plastic controller cover.
  4. Cut the cable ties around the signal wires on the left side of the seat area behind the controller.
  5. Disconnect the turn signal wires and brake light / plate light wires.
    Take a photo to record their connections for correct re-assembly.
    ZeroTail16.jpg ZeroTail17b.jpg
  6. Remove the 4 bolts that hold tail frame with a 6mm Allen wrench.
    This detaches the tail frame.
  7. Remove the tail extension using a 4mm Allen wrench. Mind the turn signal wires that go through holes here; draw them through.
    ZeroTail15.jpg
  8. Remove the black tail enclosure plastics from the cosmetic plastics via the tabs.
    There's also two clips at the end on top of the taillight.
    ZeroTail14.jpg
  9. Use a Philips screwdriver to remove 5 screws holding the cosmetic plastics to the frame from underneath.
    ZeroTail04.jpg
  10. Use a 3mm Allen wrench to remove the two screws holding the cosmetic plastics to the top of the frame.
    ZeroTail03.jpg
Reassembly
  1. With the tail light off, bolt the top plastic to the metal frame.
    ZeroTail03.jpg
  2. Clamp the bottom tail plastic and screw in the 5 screws that hold both pieces together
    ZeroTail04.jpg
  3. Here is how the black tail plastic fit with the tail light.
    Notice the "zipper" down the middle.
    There's also a very small one on top of the tail light.
    On the outside are the tabs that clip into the cosmetic plastics.
    ZeroTail05.jpg ZeroTail06.jpg
  4. Loosely bolt the end of the black tail plastic to the frame.
    Note the small nut that's between two fins of the controller.
    It can easily be held with a pair of pliers.
    ZeroTail07.jpg
  5. Rotate the pieces up and temporarily (and loosely) attach them to the frame.
    ZeroTail08.jpg ZeroTail09.jpg
  6. Bolt the tail light:
    1. Remove the temporary bolts from the previous step.
    2. Push a driver down through the plastic (because of the angle of the taillight bolts).
    ZeroTail10.jpg ZeroTail11.jpg
  7. "Zip" the plastic back together.
    There's also a tab on top of the tail light that must be fitted properly.
    ZeroTail12b.jpg
    I added duck tape to seal the interior of the compartment to keep it cleaner.
    ZeroTail13b.jpg
  8. Snap the clips on the cosmetic plastic.
    NOTE: It's not the cosmetic piece that should move but the black piece
    I found it helped to have one hand inside and one hand outside to fit the pieces together.
    There's also two clips at the end on top of the taillight.
    ZeroTail14.jpg
  9. Loosely bolt the tail and fit the wires back through the small hole.
    ZeroTail15.jpg
  10. Add a new zap strap and tidy things up.
    ZeroTail16.jpg ZeroTail17b.jpg
    Note that before disconnecting the wires, I took a picture of the set up to be able to match the colours.
    In my case, red goes with green and white goes with grey (confirm locally). In the case of a 2018 SR, it was red/black to red and green/white to white.
  11. Fasten all the loose bolts.
    ZeroTail18.jpg
  12. (If applicable) Re-attach the top and side racks.
    ZeroTail19.jpg


Lower Plastics

Lower plastics for the S-Platform involve two side pieces to direct air towards the motor, and one in front to cover the battery.

There is some provision for guarding the battery compartment against an impact from the front wheel in the case of a collision.
2017 Zero S Lower Front Plastics
2012-2013
Relatively angular and have their own bolt mount pattern.
2014+
Lower plastics have a sculpted re-design to deliver more airflow to the motor for cooling.
2017+
Single longbrick models (ZF6.5 and ZF7.2) have lower plastics with a latch and swinging hinge to access the storage area behind the half-size battery compartment.

Lower Plastics Removal

This removes the lower side panel plastics from 2012+ S platform models.

Notes
2014+ plastics are depicted.
Tools
  • 3mm Allen key
Steps (2014)+
  1. Use the 3mm Allen key to remove the three M5 bolts holding each side panel: one at the top front corner, and one at each corner near the lower edge.
    Top Front Corner bolt
    Lower Rear bolt
    Lower Front bolt
  2. Remove each side panel.
    Removing the bolts
    Side panel removed
  3. Use the 3mm Allen key to remove the 2 bolts on each side holding the front panel on and remove it.
  4. (Optional) Use the 3mm Allen key to remove the 2 M5 bolts on each side (4 total) to remove the front plastics covering the battery.
Steps (2012-2013)
  1. Use the 3mm Allen wrench to remove the three M5 bolts holding each side panel.
  2. (Optional) Use the ball-point pen or similar non-scratching pointed tool to push the center pin to release the plastic rivets on the front panel and remove it.
References
Adapted from this forum post.


Steering

Ignition Lock

The ignition is mounted on the tripe clamp top in the center between the steering head and the dash.

The ignition wiring connects to a ZADI motorcycle lock with a steering lock feature and parking light enable (although the parking light enable is not connected on the Zero).

Key Blanks
Key blanks can typically be ordered from a dealer.
Key blanks appear to be available generically as JMA ZA9P1 FOR ZADI ZD23RCP.
In USA, calling them "Triumph" keys may help a locksmith find the right blank.
Maintenance

Occasional lock lubrication is recommended, and inspection of the wires for startup enable on the underside of the lock for reliability.

Troubleshooting
See the faulty ignition switch troubleshooting guide for issues with this.

Tank Lock

The lock for the tank bag (2013-2016) or tank compartment (2017+) and possibly a helmet is keyed the same as the ignition.

Mounting
The tank bag lock (2013-2016) is mounted to the frame by two (M5?) bolts under the steering head.
It's very difficult to access without taking much of the frontend apart (as it should be, for theft deterrence).
References
ZADI lock re-pin

Mirrors

2012-2014 Mirrors (side) on a DS
2015+ mirrors (side) on a DSR
Design
Pre-2015 Zeros use an angular mirror with a ball mount joint that allows rotating the mirrors 360 degrees.
Many riders turn the mirrors upside down for a little wider visibility around the shoulder/arms.
2015+ Zeros use a mirror stalk with an inboard ball mount with about 30 degrees of freedom from the stalk.
Mount
Zero mirrors are mounted from the handlebars with Yamaha/Ducati-style bolt fitting.
The bolt/thread specification is M10x1.25, left-hand-threaded on the right side and standard right-hand-threaded on the left side.
Maintenance
(pre-2015) Check that the set screw holding mirror position holds it firmly.
Use a corrosion inhibitor or thread-locker for the set screws and the mount threading since these are weather-exposed.

See Third-Party Mirrors for workable/tested replacements.

Handlebars

Both S and DS style handlebars are standard through bars that are 1 1/8" (28mm) through the middle section and 7/8" (22mm) in the outer section.

Handlebar Clamps

The handlebar clamps are 2" by 1 1/8" (28mm) for the entire line of models, clamped with M10 cap screw bolts (35mm length; possibly 50mm?).

Handlebar Switch Assemblies

The switch assemblies are fastened with TT20 (1/4 inch) tamper-resistant Torx bolts through the underside.

Handgrips

Handgrips have a Zero logo on them but otherwise are reasonably good stock grips for the 7/8" (22mm) handlebar width at the end of the bars.

Bar Ends

For 2014+ models, any bar end accessories that match the 14mm inner diameter will fit.

2014+ stock bar end plugs
The stock bar ends are round plastic bumpers held in by plastic threads, so can be removed with a little twisting and pulling.
2013 models
Bar ends are covered by the grip so are not easily changed without changing the grips.
Zero did offer heated grips for these models but dropped them after changing the bars in 2014.

Brake Lever

Zero motorcycles have a right-hand lever for the front brake, as is common for motorcycle designs.

Primary adjustment
The brake lever has a dial for adjusting the lever position relative to pad pressure and rider finger reach; set it however lets you operate it comfortably and safely.
Micro-Switch and Set Screw
A set screw on the inside of the lever adjusts how a micro-switch is depressed.
The micro-switch is what activates the rear brake light and the "braking regen" mode at the same time.
Any adjustment or replacement of the brake lever should be followed by recalibrating this set screw to get the desired effect.
Too much free play and the switch will activate when going over bumps and result in a slightly jerky ride.
There is some guidance on how to adjust this: Brake Lever Regens before Pad Contact.
It seems like there's small difference in how this set screw is secured in stock lever compared to replacement lever (2016 SR), even though they look identical. I wasn't able to adjust this screw on stock lever, however replacement lever adjusts with no issues. You will need 7/64 SAE hex key to adjust.
Use some light threadlock compound (Blue Loctite will do) to fix the set screw in the desired position if it seems to move too freely out of the desired range.
Adjustment
See Front Brake Lever Adjustment
Removal, Repair
See Front Brake Lever Replacement

Triple Clamp

The triple clamp tree attaches the fork tubes to the frame via the steering head bearing.

The design and fitment changed from MY 2013-2014 to MY 2015+, when the forks changed from FastAce to Showa.

Upper Assembly
This sits atop the steering head, joining the forks at the top, and supports the handlebars, ignition switch, dash, and headlamp.
Lower Assembly
This inserts upward through the steering head tube, joining the forks below the tube, and supports the headlamp bracket and the high fender for DS/DSR/FX models.

The upper assembly and lower assembly join around/through the steering head.

Steering Head

This is the tube in the head of the frame that mounts the fork steerer tube.

For 2014+ S and X-platform Zeros, the inner diameter of the steering head is 55mm for a steering tube size of 1in (25.4mm).

Steering head fastener stack (top to bottom)
  1. Steering Stem Thin Nut (M27⨉1.5mm, 8mm depth); apply a 41mm hex socket.
  2. Washer 41 - 27.5mm⌀, 2mm thickness (reportedly not present on 2018+ models)
  3. Steering Stem Lock Nut (M30⨉1.5mm)
  4. Bearing Lip Seal (55mm OD)
  5. Steering Head Bearing (facing up)
  6. Lower Triple Clamp Assembly Tube
  7. Steering Head Bearing (facing down)
  8. Bearing Lip Seal (55mm OD)

Steering Head Bearing

This is a tapered roller bearing in the frame's steering head tube.

Steering stickiness or wobble may indicate an inadequately greased steering head bearing or a worn bearing.

Platform Years Dimensions Stock Model Part # Description
S,X 2014-2018
ID: 30mm
OD: 55mm
Width: 17mm
Koyo SAC3055-1 ZM20-06068 Angular-contact caged ball bearings
Replacement
See Steering stem bearing replacement ('14-'17, all models) described for a 2014FX.
Reference
ZeroDS head bearing (2015)
DSR 17 steering head bearings
Steering stem bearing replacement ('14-'17, all models)

Front Fender

The S/SR front fender is a colored or painted panel like the tank plastics that hugs the tire. The DS/DSR/FX/FXS front fender is an ABS plastic dual sport high fender.

Sport Fender
The S/SR front fender is a colored or painted panel like the tank plastics that hugs the (17") front tire.
It bolts directly onto the FXS' lower forks around its tire even though the FXS comes with a dual sport fender.
TODO: confirm fasteners and bolt pattern.
Dual Sport Fender
The dual sport fender attaches to the underside of the front fork triple tree.
This fender also fits a S/SR model.
4 holes in a rectangular shape 58mm (2.3in) wide and 50mm (1.95in) front to back (center to center).
The bolts are M5x15mm button head socket screw for a 3mm Allen key.
A Honda or Yamaha dual sport fender should fit this pattern without modification.

Wheels

Wheel Maintenance

Check Tire Pressure

Maintain minimum pressure per the manual.

General guidelines
Higher tire pressures help stability and reduce rolling resistance with a passenger or a lot of luggage, but lower pressures help on rougher/gravel surfaces.
Official recommendations are for "cold" tires, which means when they haven't been ridden in a few hours.
As tires warm up from riding, pressure increases due to the interior air heating from friction and mechanical work on the tire by the road against the wheel.
Excessive tire pressure can make the tire too sensitive to sharp debris or potholes, and increases the risk of a puncture. 45psi is where this definitely becomes a concern; modulate depending on your riding, and definitely use much lower pressures for offroading.

Front Wheel

Front Wheel Removal

Video Instruction
Zero DS front wheel removal by Nigel Morris on YouTube:
Zero Motorcycles: Front Wheel Removal 2016 DSR by Eric Shattow on YouTube:
Tools
6mm Allen Wrench - Axle bolt (M17)
5mm Allen Wrench - Pinch
13mm Socket - Brake calipers
Steps
  1. Loosen both brake caliper bolts using the 13mm socket.
  2. Loosen both right pinch bolts using the 5mm allen wrench.
    Alternate slightly, turning each counter-clockwise.
  3. Loosen the axle bolt using the 6mm allen wrench.
  4. Loosen both left pinch bolts using the 5mm allen wrench.
    Alternate slightly, turning each counter-clockwise.
  5. Securely lift the front wheel.
  6. Remove both brake bolts using the 13mm socket, and lift and secure the brake caliper without stressing the brake lines.
  7. Continue to back off the pinch bolts, but do not remove, using the 5mm allen wrench.
  8. Remove the axle bolt and outer spacer using the 6mm allen wrench.
  9. Replace the axle bolt with the 6mm allen bolt, turning several turns inward, without the outer spacer.
  10. Push on the axle bolt while encouraging the left side of the axle out.
    Support the wheel to reduce binding!
  11. Remove the axle.
  12. Remove the wheel.


Front Axle

TODO measurements

Front Tire

See Stock Tires.

Front Bearings

The front bearings are the same size as the rear bearings (see table there for sizing), although the front has only two bearings instead of 3 for the rear.

TODO
Spacer specs

Front Bearing Replacement

Tools
  • 6mm Allen Wrench - Axle (M17)
  • 5mm Allen Wrench - Pinch
  • 13mm Socket - Brakes
  • Bearing Press Tool/Kit
Steps
  1. Remove the Front Wheel
  2. Remove the spacers, then the dust seals, from each side and clean.
  3. Press the bearings out from the opposite side.
    A socket extension works well, alternating around the perimeter.
  4. Clean the inner wheel.
  5. Press the new bearings in, aligning with the inner axle tube.
    A large socket works well to press only on the outer bearing.
  6. Replace the dust seals.
  7. Return the wheel to the bike.
  8. Aligning the axle with the spacers, press the axle back into the forks.
  9. Expand the brake calipers to prepare for remounting.
  10. Remount brake caliper with the 13mm socket to the correct torque.
  11. Return the outer spacer and make the axle bolt snug with the 6mm allen wrench.
  12. Alternate tightening each 5mm pinch bolt.
  13. Ensure proper wheel movement.
  14. Tighten left pinch bolts to the correct torque using the 5mm allen wrench.
  15. Tighten the 6mm Axle bolt to the correct torque.
  16. Tighten right pinch bolt to correct torque using the 5mm allen wrench.
  17. Ensure smooth movement.
  18. Pump the brakes to return to proper action.
  19. Lower the front wheel.
  20. Confirm torques.
  21. Test ride!
  22. Reconfirm torques.
  23. Paint the bolt heads to so that any loosening is detectable.

Rear Wheel

Rear Tire

See Stock Tires.

Rear Wheel Removal

Pulling out the axle and removing the rear wheel is straightforward; the complexity is in re-assembly: see Rear Wheel Install.

Items to note for re-assembly
Note how the caliper sits against the swingarm.
Note the order and arrangement of the spacers.
Video Guide
Zero Motorcycles: Rear Wheel Removal 2016 DSR by Eric Shattow
Tools
  • 27mm socket
  • Breaker bar
Instructions
  1. Place the motorcycle on a lift or rear stand so the wheel spins freely.
  2. Mark/photograph where the alignment marks reside on each side of the axle for re-alignment when re-installing the wheel.
    Rear Axle Nut Rear Axle Spacer
  3. Loosen the rear axle nut on the right side (27mm) with the breaker bar.
  4. Remove the rear axle nut.
  5. Pull the axle part-way out so that the wheel can be moved forward enough to loosen the belt.
  6. Pull the belt off of the rear sprocket and let it hang outside of the swingarm slightly to avoid interfering with the wheel.
  7. Pull the axle through the wheel from the left side.
    Pay attention to the brake caliper: it's attached via the axle, and when the axle is removed the caliper, etc, will come loose.
  8. Set aside the spacers with alignment marks, noting which goes on which side.
  9. Set aside the axle and axle nut.
  10. Pull the wheel out behind the swingarm.
    The license plate tail holder will likely require rolling the wheel out at an angle to clear it.


Rear Wheel Install

Re-installing the rear wheel requires somewhat careful fitment of the wheel, spacers, ABS sensor (2015+), and brake calipers within the swingarm.

Pay attention while removing the wheel to have this arrangement in mind to avoid confusion.
Any play in the caliper position or the wheel itself could have a dramatic and damaging effect on the motorcycle while riding.
Tools
  • 27mm socket
  • Torque wrench set to 75ft-lbs (102Nm)
  • (Optional) rubber mallet to nudge the axle
Instructions
  1. Ensure that the axle has grease applied if it is dry, to minimize friction and wear against it under load.
  2. Push the axle through the alignment bracket and left swingarm until flush on the inside of the left swingarm.
  3. Place the rear brake caliper holder onto the right swingarm.
  4. For 2015+ models, place the ABS rear wheel speed sensor on the inside of the rear brake caliper holder.
    Route the wire feeding the speed sensor around the caliper holder bracket and ensure that the sensor and wire will install without tension or excessive bending.
  5. Roll the wheel into position inside of the axle.
    Ensure the speed sensor on the right side mates with and covers the rear wheel bearing before it aligns with the rear brake caliper holder on the right side, as this "sandwiches" together.
    Ensure that the brake calipers are pushed to maximum expansion, then place them around the rear wheel brake disc on the right side.
  6. Push the axle through the wheel by hand or use a rubber mallet to gently nudge the axle through the wheel.
    You may need to give the wheel a wedge underneath to rest on to minimize any stress on the axle while aligning it fully.
  7. Align the right side of the wheel with the swingarm axle hole and brake caliper holder on the right side.
  8. Again, manually push or nudge with a rubber mallet the axle through the speed sensor, rear brake caliper holder, and right swingarm.
  9. Run the belt over the rear sprocket.
    Center the belt over the sprocket so it has about 1mm on either side.
  10. Ensure that all components are aligned correctly before attempting to tighten the axle or even before mating the left axle end with the swingarm (which tightens the belt).
  11. Place the axle nut onto the right side of the axle by hand.
  12. Note the alignment of the left and of the axle's rectangular tabs; hold it in a horizontally aligned position so that tightening the axle nut places it inline with the swingarm slot.
  13. Tighten the axle nut (27mm) with the torque wrench to 75ft-lbs.
    Ensure the alignment of the axle head on the left side is horizontal and pulls the belt under tension smoothly.
    Check belt tension per the belt adjustment procedure.


Rear Bearings

The rear wheel contains 3 bearings and dust shields.


Years Platform Kind Type Code Measurements Lifespan (guide)
2012-2014 S Unsealed 6904-2RS 20x37x9 ~20,000 miles
X 6204 20x47x14
2015-2020 S Sealed NSK 6204DU ~50,000 miles
X


References
Precision bearings & replacement.
Anyone know front wheel bearing size.
Ceramic bearings for a 2014SR, with success reported for at least as long as the original bearings. The author is going back to steel.
Per Terry Hershner
The 2012-2014 wheel bearings are 6904 bearings which are bicycle sized bearings.
They lasted me about 20,000 miles per set.
Best is to use a 2015 wheel on the 2014 which will work but requires modification of the spacers.
I did it on my 2012. It now has 2015 wheels.

Rear Bearings Replacement

Rayivers on Wheel bearing replacement ('14 FX, 6904 bearings)
Removal was pretty straightforward with a Motion Pro blind bearing removal kit.
Pullers like these are the only way I know of to remove wheel bearings without risk of damage to the hub or center spacer
They pull against the small chamfer on the inner-race I.D.

Rear Wheel - Left Side - Bearing Disassembly.jpg Rear Wheel - Right Side - Bearing Disassembly.jpg

Greg Hassler reports
"I use my brake caliper piston puller, 20mm size works great." https://www.klsupply.com/general-equipment/brake-caliper-pist-puller-set-35-6885.asp
Togo found this tool to work well for 6904-2RS on 2014 Zero SR
https://smile.amazon.com/Wheels-Manufacturing-Sealed-Bearing-Extractor/dp/B00NIPRNA4/
See Also


Suspension

Front Suspension

Zero's motorcycles all feature telescoping fork front suspension.

Front Suspension Specs

Front Suspension Specs
Fork Shock
Years Manufacturer Description Material Model Part# Travel Measurements Oil Material Part# Measurements
2009-2010 FastAce DS/X BDA53AR (discontinued)
2012-2013 38mm (from Zero website/manual) inverted forks with adjustable compression and rebound damping

6061-T6 Forged Aluminum (per this thread) Chrome-Moly inner tube; Alloy steel spring wire

S ALX07RC (discontinued) 22-05418-03
Right
22-04464-05
Left
22-04463-05
140mm Compression 12 clicks; Rebound 21 clicks

6061-T6 Forged Aluminum (per this thread)

BDA58RC (discontinued)
DS
Left 
22-06093-02?
Right
22-06094-02?

(APX05RC? or APX10AR? (discontinued))

7.00 in (178 mm) clarification?
Distance
900 mm
Travel
220 mm
BFA57RC (discontinued))
Rebound Adjustment
12 clicks
FX/MX/XU XU - ALX07RC AP18A0179-B002 22-02749-01
XU
51mm (manual)
130mm (website)
MX
82mm (manual)
240mm (website)
FX
240mm
2014 43 mm inverted forks with adjustable compression and rebound damping

6061-T6 Forged Aluminum (per this thread) Chrome-Moly inner tube; Alloy steel spring wire

S/SR 6.25 in (159 mm)

6061-T6 Forged Aluminum (per this thread)

BDA58RC (discontinued)
DS APX16RC - 22-06867-05
Right
22-06869-05
Left
22-06868-05
7.00 in (178 mm) Compression 11 clicks; Rebound 20 clicks BFA57RC (discontinued))
Rebound Adjustment
12 clicks
FX 230mm
2015-2020 Showa 41 mm inverted cartridge forks, with adjustable spring preload, compression and rebound damping
Outer Tube Finish
Natural Anodized (silver)
Slide Tube Finish
Nickel - Hard Chrome
Rebound (Tension) Finish
Black Anodized
Compression Finish
Black Anodized
S/SR 6.25 in (159 mm)
Free length
461.5mm.
Outer diameter
36.2mm.
Stock spring rate
7.4 N/mm
Type
SS-8
Level
117 mm
Body Finish
Natural Anodized (silver)
Rod Finish
Nickel - Hard Chrome
Rebound (Tension) Finish
Black Anodized
Compression Finish
Black Anodized
DS/DSR 7.00 in (178 mm)
FX
Left
22-05868-02
Right
22-05869-02
Free Length
789.1±2.0mm
Max Length
798mm
Min Length
580mm
Stroke
218mm
Spring Rate
5.4 N/mm
Rebound (Tension)
Max - 9 clicks
Compression
Max - 5 clicks
Preload
Min + 3.0 turns
Type
SS-8
Volume
442±2.5cm3
Level
103mm
22-05879-02
Spring Rate
73.6-82.4 N/mm
Free Length
320±2.0mm
Max Length
320.5mm
Min Length
246mm
Stroke
74.5
Rebound (Tension)
Max - 12 clicks
Compression
Max - 9 clicks
Preload
2nd Position
FXS


Fork Oil Change and Spring Replacement

Fork Oil Level Note
Measure from outer tube end to oil surface (Condition: spring, spring joint, spring collar, seat rubber, slider, fork bolt are removed and dust seal touches axle holder)
Reference
FastAce fork oil change / spring replacement+ part 2 by Ray Ivers
Tools
  • 7mm Allen wrench for riser bolts.
Steps
  1. Put the motorcycle on a stand.
  2. Remove the risers and handlebars using a 7mm Allen wrench.
  3. Loosen the fork caps, front axle, and brake caliper bolts while the front wheel is on the ground.
  4. Fork cap / spring removal...
  5. Oil change...
  6. Fork spring / cap replacement...
Notes
Torques
What Torque Bolt
Handlebar clamps 15 ft/lb M8
Handlebar risers 25 ft/lb M10
Triple clamps (all) 15 ft/lb M8
Fork caps 15 ft/lb M46
F caliper bolts 18 ft/lb M8
F axle end cap 15 ft/lb M8
F Axle clamps 9 ft/lb M6


Fork Cartridge Revalving

Fast Ace fork revalving by Ray Ivers

The procedure is described in great detail for FastAce (2013-2014) suspension but could be adapted for the newer Showa suspension.

Verify Fork Spring Rate

Reference
How to Verify Fork Spring Rate
Tools
  • A tip-tie long enough to wrap around the fork tube.
Steps
  1. Add a zip-tie to the the fork tube.
    • Make sure it is snug so it stays in the place it was last pushed too.
    • Once the zip-tie is on the fork tube, you push it up to rest it against the upper fork.
  2. Measure bike sag (unloaded)
    Lift the front fork off the ground and measure the gap (zip-tie to fork gap) created by the front weight of the bike.
  3. Measure rider sag (loaded)
    1. Now push zip-tie back up the fork, then sit on the bike and raise your feet so all of your weight is carried through the suspension.
    2. Then carefully dismount and put kickstand down.
    3. Measure the gap (zip-tie to fork) created by your weight.
    4. Add this gap measurement to the bike sag measurement, this is the total sag.
    This measurement should be around 25% of the working range of the front suspension.
    Now that is a guideline; it can be higher or lower than 25%.
    It depends on what is happening when you are loading up the suspension (upper end).
  4. Checking the upper end by using the zip-tie.
    After riding, check the location of the zip-tie: the gap from the fork to the zip-tie.
    Lets say the measurement is 5". Then you would know the total max travel used was 5" + bike sag measurement.
That total measurement should never equal the total suspension travel amount (6", I think based on your posting).
  • If it equal, then you are bottoming out. Increase the preload and see if this keeps you from bottoming out.
  • If you use max preload and are still bottoming out, you will need stronger springs.
  • If you find you are only using 75% to 80% of the max suspension travel, you can reduce the preload spacer length some or you can live with this.
  • If you are only using ~50% or less of the suspension travel, your springs are probably too stiff. You should swap springs to a lower rate spring.


Rear Shock

Rear Shock Mounting

The rear shock fastens to the Swingarm by an M10 bolt.

The upper mount reaches the frame centertube ahead of the controller heatsink area so is difficult to access.

Rear Shock Specifications

Rear Shock Specifications
Years Brand Model Description Media Specs Models Travel Length
2013-2014 FastAce BDA58RC Piggy-back reservoir shock with adjustable spring preload, compression and rebound damping
2013 S Rear Shock FastAce BDA58RC
Spring Rate
550 ~ 805 lbs/in
Spring
Length 142mm, Diameter 57mm
Bottom bushing width
11/16"
Top bushing width
~1.25"
S/SR 6.35 in (161 mm) 10.25-10.5 in (260mm)
DS 7.03 in (179 mm)
BFA57RC
Part 22-06105-03
  • 319mm / 12.56" eye-eye
  • 17.9mm / .705" eye width (top & bottom)
  • 31.95mm / 1.258" bushing width (top & bottom)
Resevoir
offset angle ('clocking angle'): 242° CW / 118° CCW from 12 o'clock
offset width (shock centerline to far LH side of reservoir): @ 90mm / 3.60"
Spring Rate
475-585 lbs/in.
Spring
181mm / 7.125" length (on shock, no load, min. preload)
FX
2015-2020 Showa 40 mm piston, piggy-back reservoir shock with adjustable spring preload, compression and rebound damping S/SR 6.35 in (161 mm)
DS/DSR 7.03 in (179 mm)


Rear Shock Substitions

Substitutions
Years Models Worked? Description
2013-2014 S/SR Yes JRI Double-Adjustable Shocks per 2014 SR shock absorber replacement by Doug S with Harlan's help.
Yes (with machining) Wotefusi [1] 260mm Central Air Shock Absorber Universal Fit - fits when mounted upside down. Need to cut/grind down the bushing.
Yes (with machining) TDPRO 260mm 10.2 [2] Almost fits; the area on top of the spring is just slightly too large. You can take a grinder and shave away some of the top to make it fit. [3]
NO The Yamaha R3 has the same length rear shock, but the spring is too wide.
NO Fastace Rear Shock BDA-51AR/58-AR has a weaker spring, and is rotated 90 degrees. [4]
Mixed results - new orders may have all the kinks worked out. IKON 3610-ZERO-S Shock Absorber [5] - The spring is too wide at the top, and to be installed, the sping must be compressed. When Installation is complete, the spring is always compressed by at least a couple centimeters.
Mixed results - Get dimensions from Wilber's dealer before ordering - theirs is ~279mm Wilbers Shock absorber Type 640 Road Part. No.: 640-1143-00 [6] Wilbers claims the shock fits "2011-2013 S M5" (which does not exist). The M5 designation is buried in the VIN of the 2014 S; and may or may not be relevant. This shock could be mislabeled for the DS. Make sure to get full dimensions before ordering.
Yes - DO NOT BUY ZXTDR Rear Shock Absorber Suspension Sensa-Trac Load Adjusting for Dirt Pit Bike Motorcycle 1200LBS. [7] This shock phyisically fits, but underperforms. It feels like you're riding on a trampoline. You get what you pay for.

Rear Shock Adjustment

Notes
The Official Manual section on Rear Shock Adjustment illustrates how to measure preload and check sag.
Compression
The official manual's description here is adequate and this can be done readily by hand on the right side of the bike at the top of the shock.
Rebound
The adjustment knob is at the bottom of the shock facing rear, as described in the manual, and can be worked by hand or with a wrench with a careful reach into that area.
Spring Preload
The official manual illustrates the collar and procedure for spring preload adjustment, but does not recommend a specific tool, and there are clearance issues in that area for tools.
The adjuster sleeve diameter is 58mm (2.3").
A Stockton spanner wrench was found to be suitable for the job if modified as follows (per 2017 DSR Showa rear shock spanner wrench):
  • Grind the nose of the wrench to fit the notches.
  • Bend the wrench a couple of degrees to clear the Sevcon motor controller fins.
Obviously, a better solution is still worth seeking.
A small suspension wrench / ER collet spanner size 30/32 can be use even with the lack of clearance
Suspension wrench around the collar


Final Drive

Swingarm

The swingarm is a dual-sided structure made in the same way as the frame. It's very sturdily constructed for its light weight.

Swingarm

The front pivots on the axis of the motor to minimize belt strain with suspension travel.

It has fitments for the rear axle including belt tension adjustment.

Mounting
The swingarm joins the frame at left and right pivot points.
The each side pivot has a stack of (from outside inward):
  • A rubber cover
  • A bolt with a 10mm hex drive.
  • The bearing (6204; 6204RS for 2015+ models)

Swingarm Tube

There is a hollow tube through the swingarm across the arms forming a join point for the rear shock to the frame tube.

Swingarm Tube with measurements
Its shape is flattened on the rear side, presumably to clear the largest-diameter potential tire.
It makes a reasonable storage tube if some padding or caps are used to secure the cargo there (like a charging cord).
Measurements
Inner diameter 75mm 2.91"
Horizontal width to flat side 68mm 2.68"
Swingarm greatest width below tube 295mm 11.61"
References
Re: Through-frame security aperture size?

Swingarm Bearings

The swingarm bearings are generally the same as the wheel bearings (6204; 6204RS for 2015+ models).

Swingarm Removal

Tools
  • Center lift or other lift that gets the rear wheel off the ground without contacting the swingarm.
  • 27mm socket or spanner.
  • 3mm Allen key.
  • 10mm Allen key socket
    Ensure at least 1" depth and a ⅜" drive sufficient to handle swingarm pivot bolt torques.
  • 15mm socket wrench (S models).
  • 13mm socket wrench (X models).
  • Torque wrench capable of setting 75ft-lbs and driving the 27mm socket and 10mm Allen key.
  • 2012-2013:
    • 2.5mm Allen key.
    • 24mm socket wrench.
Steps
NOTE: For roadside removal, particularly for an FX or FXS, setting the bike on its side should be possible for this work.
However, no effective procedure has been described for the process.
The following steps are suited to garage locations.
Bike on center lift
  1. Use a lift to raise the bike from the center.
    A sturdy wood crate may work in a pinch. Be safe.
    If the lift can be adjusted, lift the rear wheel just off the ground for ease of removal and replacement (lower than depicted but not in contact).
  2. Pull the wheel off (or slide it forward) by loosening the axle nut with a 27mm wrench.
  3. Pull off the rear tire fender by taking out the 4 hex bolts securing it with a 3mm Allen wrench.
    You can get away with removing only the left-side screws, to allow lifting the fender up enough to get the belt under.
    The right side fasteners also anchor the brake line to the rear calipers and a grounding strap, so mind them for re-attaching in the same way.
  4. Remove the brake pedal:
    This creates clearance for loosening the swingarm bolt above it (might be optional for pre-2015 models).
  5. Get the rear brake pedal out of the way of the right side swingarm pivot bolt.
    S platform: Use the 15mm hex socket to loosen or remove the bolt forming the pedal pivot.
    X platform:
    1. Remove the pin that attaches the brake pedal to the piston.
    2. Remove the two 13mm bolts that hold the grey piston bracket to the frame, and gently move the whole assembly to the left.
    Rear Brake Lever Bolt
  6. X platform: To access the left swingarm bolt, remove the lower left passenger peg bolt (13mm) and remove the grey cover piece.
  7. Remove the left and right swingarm bolts.
    2012-2013
    Remove the set screws from the swingarm bolts on both sides with a 2.5mm Allen wrench.
    The set screw is very difficult to find.
    It is located in one of the sides of the 24mm hex nut, perpendicular to the long axis of the 10mm allen bolts.
    It is actually on the edge of the nut.
    The best way to locate it is to use a small mirror and a strong flashlight.
    Then remove the bolts by holding the inside nut with a 24mm wrench, and a 10mm hex on the head.
    This was the hardest step, because there is not a lot of room to manipulate in the rear assembly - especially with a 24mm wrench!
    2014+
    Remove the left and right swing arm bolts with a 10mm Allen wrench.
    Swingarm Bolt
  8. Hang the swing arm with a strap on the tail section.
    The swingarm will pull back enough for the belt to fit through the frame.
    Pulling the Swingarm
    Swingarm Pulled
  9. Remove the belt.
  10. Disconnect the rear shock from the swingarm, then gently pull the swingarm from its suspended arrangement. Take car that the small spacers do not fall out and roll away, one on each side.
References
Swingarm Bolt Set Screw?


Rear Axle

The rear axle is hollow, threaded on the right side and capped on the left for swingarm fitment.

Axle measurements
Years Inner Diameter Outer Diameter Pitch
2013-2014
2015+ 11mm 20mm 1.25mm

Removal

This is part of Rear Wheel Removal.

Tools
  • 27mm socket
  • Breaker bar
Instructions
  1. Place the motorcycle on a lift or rear stand so the wheel spins freely.
  2. Mark/photograph where the alignment marks reside on each side of the axle for re-alignment when re-installing the wheel.
  3. Loosen the rear axle nut on the right side (27mm) with the breaker bar.
  4. Remove the rear axle nut.
  5. Pull the axle part-way out so that the wheel can be moved forward enough to loosen the belt.
  6. Pull the belt off of the rear sprocket and let it hang outside of the swingarm slightly to avoid interfering with the wheel.
  7. Pull the axle through the wheel from the left side.


Install

See Rear Wheel Install


Belt

Zero uses a belt for primary transmission of torque to the rear wheel. It's quiet and lightweight but is a proprietary design that can wear out. If you plan to put a lot of miles on a Zero or risk the belt often, buy a spare belt ahead of time and mind its maintenance.


Sprocket

Sprocket Specifications

Sprocket Specifications
Belt Front Rear
Width Pitch Years Models Teeth Depth Bore Other Teeth Depth Bore Other Ratio
14mm 8mm 2012-2016 SR 30 15mm 1" key measurements? 130 15mm 1" 4.33:1
FX/FXS 25 132 5.28:1
S/DS/DSR 28 130 4.64:1
2017-2018 S 13.0
17mm 11mm FX/FXS/DS/DSR/SR/S6.5 20 17mm spline measurements? 90 17mm 4.50:1
2019 S/DS/SR/DSR/FX/FXS
Reference
2013 DS chain drive
Re: Big belt Kits for pre-2017 bikes.


Sprocket Wear On Belt

Wear debris from the tire or the road can accumulate on sprocket teeth, putting pressure on the belt which can wear it out faster.

Recommendation
Keep the sprocket teeth clean to minimize wear on the belt.
A non-abrasive brush should be effective.

Front Sprocket Removal / Swap

Removing or replacing the front sprocket on S and X platforms.

Video Guide

Some guidance from Terry in this motor removal thread:

  • Basically, if you are doing this to try to get more acceleration by moving from a 28 tooth to a 25 tooth, Harlan recommends trading in the DS on a 2015+ SR or 2016 DSR if you need the off road capabilities. You will get much much more acceleration and not hurt your top end performance.
  • On the drive belt side, the upper rear 5mm bolt takes extreme care to remove. It is tapered to locate the motor. There is a very strong chance of stripping the head and have to drill it out. Make sure to have a machine shop close by just in case.
  • On the other hand, removal of the motor may not be necessary.
  • The other 7 bolts, 3 on the sprocket side and 4 on the rear brake side are the only thing simple and straight forward.
    You will need a special 3" or longer 6mm allen head socket for sticking in the hole through the frame at the front of the motor.
    1. Remove the rear brake pedal and assembly to get the heel guard out of the way of the top right rear motor bolt.
      Be careful not to strip these bolts either.
      They have Loctite; use a torch.
      And make sure your local hardware store has these replacement bolts handy in case you have to drill them out.
      The rear brake pedal needs to move anyway to get the right swingarm bolt out.
  • Also the sprocket bolt itself, as well as removing and installing the new sprocket on the shaft can be very difficult. Some of the best professionals have had trouble.
    Loctite has been used on everything and you will need a torch to remove them.
    Even so, you will need a strap wrench with an old belt as the strap to hold the sprocket and a high power impact wrench.
  • Even with all that right, you have a chance of stripping or breaking the bolt. The sprocket is pressed pretty tight.
  • Be very careful not to permanently damage the motor bearings by prying between the motor itself and the sprocket to try to remove it, and also by tapping with a hammer to try to fit the new one on. You will be tempted to do both, but you need to find another way.
    A gear puller would be much better.
  • There are other things to watch for:
    • Mark your phase leads and pay special attention to the routing.
    • Don't over-tighten the motor jack nuts and bolts until you have the swingarm back in place as it can pull the frame together slightly making it impossible to get the swingarm in place.
    • Make sure you unplug the 8 way motor encoder harness and it doesn't get yanked and pull a wire.
    • The top shock mounting bolt is a 15 and 17 mm and can be done with ratchet wrenches 1/32 of a turn at a time, or without ratchet wrenches if you are known to have extreme patience. It can take a while. The 2014 is a little easier and is (seems to be a) dual 17mm bolt and nut.
    • The swingarm bolts are 10mm allen head and can be extremely hard to relocate even when working with someone else, a rubber hammer, and a flashlight. Those who have replaced their own belt before can vouch for this.
  • Again, I doubt too many on this forum have done this, and those who did I'll bet agree with me that it makes more sense after they did it and perhaps had their bike out of commission to work through the things that didn't go right, and would agree to just upgrade to the SR or DSR first vs trying to change the front sprocket.
  • Also the 25 tooth sprocket will break belts easier as less teeth are engaged than the 28 tooth, which can make it more likely to sheer teeth in the event of a wheelspin, and it bends the belt at a sharper radius which can possibly fatigue the carbon strands more. The SR actually uses a 30 tooth front sprocket which is even nicer to the belt than the 28 tooth.


Brakes

Zero motorcycles so far have had single-disc brakes for front and rear systems.

It is only a question of tim