Instrument Cluster

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Until 2014, Zero used branded versions of generic Koso instrument clusters, mapping the fuel level indicator to battery state of charge.


Koso XR-SR

The Koso XR-SR is a generic/whitelabel instrument gauge cluster, used on 2008-2011 model years.


Koso RX-1N

The Koso RX-1N is a generic/whitelabel instrument gauge cluster.

For years 2011-2013, Zero's models have a rebadged version as stock.
Koso RX-1N (retail)
Zero's Koso RX-1N cluster (front)
Zero's Koso RX-1N cluster (rear)
Zero's RX-1N shows battery level in 11 increments.
It's relatively effective to treat each increment as representing 9% of charge state, and do a little mental math to figure out that each increment could represent 6-12 miles (for say 2013), and work out the remaining range / speed tradeoff from that.
  • go slower to get closer to 12 miles of range per increment
  • go faster if you can afford to burn off the battery to reach your destination in time.
The Koso instructions linked below show how to operate it.
Speedometer Adjustment Quick How-To
  1. Turn on motorcycle.
  2. Press and hold the Select + Adjust buttons simultaneously for 3 seconds.
  3. Use the "adjust" button to increment the digit, and the "select" button to navigate to the next digit.
  • The stock setting (for 2013) is 1972 28-132 2P.
  • The previous setting (for 2012?) was 1972 25-128 2P.
Koso connectors are much simpler than Zero's connectors to its own custom dash.
Interchanging them would be a significant project.
2013 S/DS Koso Display connections


Zero 2014 Instrument Cluster

In 2014, Zero introduced their own LCD instrument cluster AKA "dash" for all models (S and X platforms).

Zero 2014 instrument cluster
2014 Zero instrument cluster
The new gauge changed the pin connector and relies on specific CANbus messaging, so there's no simple way to install one on an older model.
It offers an ergonomic advantage that the instrument cluster no longer obstructs access to the keyed ignition and steering lock.
The state of charge reading is now primarily numeric as a two-digit percentage, with a (effectively) continuous bar level reading next to it.
  • Disadvantage: no countable number of increments and also making the rider more aware of state of charge calculation nuances.
  • Advantage: It's more accurate, and the dash's other functionality (like range and efficiency readouts) easily compensates for remaining inaccuracies.
Zero's Official Owners Manual explains its capabilities pretty well.
Indications (left to right, descending)
Area Indicator Source Adjustment
Left Clock Internal
Powered by a non-replaceable battery
Time to Charge MBB Projected remaining time estimate in hours and minutes.
SoC MBB MBB settings
Fuel Gauge Pessimism
NOTE: The indicator skips 81,61,41,21, and 1.
Bluetooth Indicator After key-on or the first minutes of charging
Unless/until a mobile device pairs
See Unable to Connect and Pairing
Center Speed MBB settings
Sprocket Teeth Front
Sprocket Teeth Rear
Rear Wheel Circum
Odometer Stored in the unit's memory Unalterable
If stuck/frozen, the likely cause is that the MBB has misconfigured model information.
  • Have a dealer examine and correct it, which should propagate an updated reading to this indicator.
A MBB To toggle:
  1. Press SEL once so that this blinks.
  2. Press ADJ to cycle through:
    • Trip 1 odometer (resets after a full charge or manually). Units are mi or km.
    • Range estimate, based on a projection tuned by recent ride history. Units are mi or km.
    • Error cycling through the Error Codes
    • RPM motor rotational speed. Units are RPMs.
B To toggle:
  1. Press SEL twice so that this blinks.
  2. Press ADJ to cycle through:
    • Trip 2 odometer (resets only manually). Units are mi or km.
    • Trip AV average efficiency over Trip 1 as Energy/Distance = Power/Speed. Units are Wh/mi or Wh/km.
    • Temp motor temperature only. Units are °F or °C.
    • Trip AV average efficiency over vehicle lifetime as Energy/Distance = Power/Speed. Units are Wh/mi or Wh/km.
Right Drive Mode mode selector switch on right handlebar
Power Throttle
Bottom Left Turn Signal Indicator Left handlebar turn signal switch
System Warning Indicator Check System Warning Sequences
Temperature Warning Indicator Controller, Motor, or Battery Temperatures at Stage 1
Check Engine Indicator (2018+) Error Codes triggered permanent torque reduction
Drive Mode Enabled Green light is:
  • Solid when contactor shut and cutout disengaged
  • Blinking when precharging
  • Disabled/off by cutout or interlock
ABS Indicator Whether anti-lock braking is operational:
  • On just after startup before reaching 3mph when the ABS tone rings align fully
  • Off while riding unless ABS is engaged.
  • On while riding if ABS is engaged because of a difference between wheel rotational speeds.
Charging Indicator Green LED is:
  • Flashing when charging
  • Solid when full
  • Off when riding
High Beam Indicator Left handlebar headlamp switch
Right Turn Signal Indicator Left handlebar turn signal switch

This instrument cluster has two M6 (6mm diameter) threaded rods extending from the rear of the enclosure, captured against the plastic shoulder pieces to the headlamp assembly by two 10mm nylon locknuts.
Remove the display before removing the plastic shoulder pieces, and re-intall the plastic shoulder pieces before re-installing the instrument cluster.
Common Problems
  • Clock skew
    The internal clock is separate from the MBB clock so can drift over time, often faster by minutes per month or so.
  • Loss of indication
    When these have issues, it has mostly been due to moisture entering the (relatively well-sealed) housing.
    This can be disassembled for cleaning but would need re-potting with dielectric grease perhaps when re-assembling and need to be very clean and try inside.
  • Loss of Clock
    When the clock reads 00:00 and will not respond to adjustments, it is likely that its internal battery has failed.
    Confirm by observing the indications on startup. If "EEE" appears in the main speedometer readout, the battery is likely dead.
  • Moisture Ingress
    The instrument cluster's operation depends entirely on being perfectly sealed.
    Any gaps in its insulation can compromise it eventually.
See MBB Console Dash command

Instrument cluster enclosure front with fasteners
This instrument cluster is enclosed by a plastic housing, with the back half fastened into the front.
The enclosure is fastened by 6 black-finished Philips-head (PH1) machine screws at the rear.
The halves are joined with a rubbery gasket along the edge in a little baffle zone to impede ingress by moisture and dust.
Warning Warning: The seal here appears to be critical to the longevity of the instrument cluster's display and circuits.
Instrument cluster board uncovered
Within the enclosure, the board is fastened to the rear plastic half by 4 Philips-head (PH1) machine screws.
The board's front consists almost entirely of the LCD substrate with no protection - the protective acrylic screen is part of the front half of the plastic enclosure.
Warning Warning: Avoid touching the screen or letting dust fall on it. Clean gently with a lint-free cloth as necessary.
The LCD is connected to the circuitry on the rear of the board by pins along the top edge.
Instrument cluster board LCD drive pins
The Select and Adjust buttons trigger micro-buttons on the left side of the board, which have very small plastic extensions linking them to the rubbery buttons.
Warning Warning: Take care when uncovering these buttons not to lose the thin button extensions.
The rear of the board displays the circuitry driving the display.
On the right side of the rear of the board, the internal battery is held.
The battery is a 3V lithium CR2032 cell, which can be replaced with a carefully-chosen cell.
Instrument cluster board connectors
Two connectors at the rear of the board join the circuitry to the signaling interface with the rest of the bike (via CANBus).
The connectors are fastened with a simple clip.
The cable entering the rear of the enclosure is fastened to it by a simple plastic clip and a Philips-head (PH1) machine screw.
Removing the cable should first involve unclipping the board connectors before loosening the screw holding the cable clip.


Zero 2020 FST Instrument Cluster